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About GATE 2021
Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) is conducted annually to provide the required qualification for M.Tech admissions into government and private institutes. GATE scores are also taken into consideration during PSU recruitments. Jointly conducted by the seven IITs (Bombay, Delhi, Guwahati, Kharagpur, Madras, Roorkee and Kanpur) and Indian Institute of Science (IISc) Bangalore, GATE is a national level entrance examination and around 8.5 lakh candidates register for the same every year.
IIT Bombay will be conducting GATE 2021 tentatively in the first and second week of February. Candidates will be able to access the application form tentatively from the last week of August to the final week of September 2020. During the application process, the candidates will have to submit all of the required details. GATE 2021 will be held as a computer based test for 25 papers and two sessions (morning and afternoon) will be held for each day of the examination. After the entrance examination, the answer key will be released by the authorities. GATE 2021 result will be available tentatively in the second week of March. The score card will be valid for three years after the date of release. There will be no common counselling for GATE 2021. For IIT admissions, the candidates will have to register through COAP. Meanwhile, for NIT admissions, the candidates will have to apply through CCMT. Various PSUs will also open their recruitment process for GATE qualified candidates.
GATE 2021 Highlights
Full Exam Name  Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering 
Short Exam Name  GATE 
Conducting Body  Indian Institute of Technology Delhi 
Frequency of Conduct  Once a year 
Exam Level  National Level Exam 
Languages  English 
Mode of Application  Online 
Application Fee (General)  1500 Rs [Online] 
Mode of Exam  Online 
Mode of Counselling  Online 
Participating Colleges  1008 
Exam Duration  3 Hours 
Download all details about GATE 2021
Download BrochureGATE 2021 Important Dates
Stay upto date with Exam Notification and News
Upcoming Dates and Events
09 Jul, 2020 (Tentative)
Advertisement  Mode: Online
31 Aug, 2020  28 Sep, 2020 (Tentative)
Application  Mode: Online
03 Jan, 2021 (Tentative)
Admit Card  Mode: Online
06 Feb, 2021  07 Feb, 2021
Exam  Mode: Online
13 Feb, 2021  14 Feb, 2021 (Tentative)
Exam  Mode: Online
13 Mar, 2021 (Tentative)
Result  Mode: Online
19 Mar, 2021 (Tentative)
Score Card  Mode: Online
APPLICATIONS OPEN NOW
Apply to UPES M.Tech Admissions 2020
There are some important parameters that the candidates are expected to meet to be eligible for GATE 2021. These eligibility criteria are set up by the authorities and the candidates are advised to check them before filling out the application form. Various factors such as age, academics, nationality and more are involved in the eligibility criteria of GATE 2021.
Age Limit: There is no age limit for GATE 2021.
Nationality: Candidates should be of Indian nationality. However, candidates from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Singapore and United Arab Emirate (UAE) will also be eligible to apply.
Academic Qualification: No minimum pass percentage has been specified by the authorities for GATE 2021. However, the candidates must meet the criteria related to the qualifying exam as explained below.
Qualifying Exam Details
Qualifying Degree  Qualifying Degree / Examination  Description  Year of Qualification not later than 
B.E./ B.Tech./ B.Pharm.  Candidate must be a Bachelor in Engineering/Technology (4 years after 10+2 or 3 years after B.Sc./ Diploma in Engineering / Technology)  Qualified or is in final year  2021 
B.Arch.  Candidate must have completed Bachelor of Architecture (5 years course)  Qualified or is in final year  2021 
B.Sc. (Research)/ B.S.
 Candidate need to have completed Bachelor of Science degree (PostDiploma/ 4 years after 10+2)  Qualified or is in final year  2021 
Pharm.D. (after 10+2)  Candidate must have completed 6 years programme having internship or residency training during sixth year as part of it  Qualified or is in 4th /5th or 6th year  2023 
M.Sc./ M.A./ MCA or equivalent
 Candidates need to have Masters in Science, Mathematics, Statistics, Computer Applications, or equivalent  Qualified or is in final year  2021 
Int. M.E./ M.Tech. (PostB.Sc.)
 Candidates should have done PostBSc Integrated Master’s degree in Engineering or Technology (4 years programme)  Qualified or is currently in 2nd/3rd /4th year  2023 
Int. M.E./ M.Tech. or Dual Degree (after Diploma or 10+2)  Candidates should have completed Integrated Master’s degree programme or Dual Degree in Engineering or Technology (5 years programme)  Qualified or is currently in 4th / 5th year  2022 
Int. M.Sc./ Int. B.S.M.S.  Candidates applying must have completed Integrated M.Sc. or 5 years integrated B.S.M.S. program  Qualified or is in final year  2021 
Professional Society Examinations* (equivalent to B.E/ B.Tech/ B.Arch.)  Candidates need to have completed B.E./ B.Tech./ B.Arch. Equivalent examinations of Professional Societies, recognized by MHRD/UPSC/AICTE (e.g., AMIE by Institution of professional courses EngineersIndia, AMICE by the Institute of Civil EngineersIndia)  Completed Section A or equivalent professional course  NA 
*Candidates who possess certification from any of the professional societies must ensure that those examinations conducted by the societies are approved by MHRD/ AICTE as equivalent to B.E./ B.Tech./ B.Arch.
Know your college admission chances for IITs/NITs & PSUs based on your Rank/Score
Predict NowMode of Application : Online
Mode of Payment : Net Banking  Credit Card  Debit Card
Candidates will be able to access the application form of GATE 2021 tentatively from the last week of August 2020. The registration for GATE 2021 will be open through GATE Online Application Process (GOAPS). To participate in the entrance examination, the candidates will have to register, fill out the required personal, contact and academic details, upload scanned documents and also pay the required application fee.The last date to submit the GATE 2021 application form will be tentatively in the last week of September 2020.
How to fill GATE 2021 Application Form
Step 1  Registration: Candidates will have to visit the GOAPS portal and register using their name, country of residence, email address and mobile number. A password also has to be generated for future login. An enrollment number will be generated on successful registration.
Step 2  Filling of Application Form: Next, the candidates will have to provide their valid personal, academic and communication details. The preferred GATE paper along with two exam centres (one from their zone and the other from another zone) also has to be selected by the candidates.
Step 3  Uploading of Documents: After the details are filled, the candidates will have to upload their photograph, signature and category certificate (if applicable) as per the specifications mentioned by the authorities.
Step 4  Fee Payment: Finally, the candidates will have to pay the required application fee of GATE 2021 in online mode (net banking/credit card/debit card).
Previous Year’s GATE ZoneWise Registrations
Name of IITs  Registration Numbers 
IIT Bombay  1,73,965 
IISc Bangalore  1,31,287 
IIT Delhi  1,30,522 
IIT Madras  1,18,951 
IIT Kharagpur  1,14,794 
IIT Kanpur  73,618 
IIT Roorkee  62,340 
IIT Guwahati  52,553 
Total  8,58,030 
Application Fees
Category  Quota  Mode  Gender  Amount 

SC, General, OBC, ST  PWD  Online  Female, Transgender, Male  ₹ 750 
General, OBC  Online  Transgender, Male  ₹ 1500  
ST, SC  Online  Transgender, Male  ₹ 750  
ST, OBC, SC, General  Online  Female  ₹ 750 
GATE Ebooks and Sample Papers
GATE  A Complete Guide
GATE Computer Science & Information TechnologyCS & IT Solved Paper 2010
GATE Computer Science & Information TechnologyCS & IT Solved Paper 2012
GATE Computer Science & Information TechnologyCS & IT Solved Paper 2013
PSU Recruitment through GATE  Preparation Guidelines and PSU Details
GATE Aerospace Engineering Syllabus
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Vector algebra 
Matrix algebra 
Systems of linear equations 
Rank of a matrix 
Eigen values and Eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Functions of single variable 
Limits 
Continuity and differentiability 
Mean value theorem 
Chain rule 
Partial derivatives 
Maxima and minima 
Gradient 
Gradient, divergence and curl 
Directional derivatives 
Integration 
Line 
Line, surface & volume integrals 
Theorems of stokes 
Gauss and Green 
Differential equations 

First order linear and nonlinear differential equations 
Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients 
Partial differential equations and separation of variables methods 
Fourier series 

Laplace transforms 

Numerical methods for linear and nonlinear algebraic equations 

Numerical integration and differentiation 

Flight mechanics
Atmosphere 

Properties 
Standard atmosphere 
Classification of aircraft 
Airplane (fixed wing aircraft) configuration and various parts 
Airplane performance 

Pressure altitude 
Equivalent, calibrated, indicated air speeds 
Primary flight instruments 
Altimeter, ASI, VSI, turnbank indicator 
Drag polar 
Takeoff and landing 
Steady climb & descent, absolute and service ceiling 
Cruise, cruise climb, endurance or loiter 
Load factor 
Turning flight 
VN diagram 
Winds: Head, tail & cross winds 
Static stability 

Angle of attack 
Sideslip 
Roll, pitch and yaw controls 
Longitudinal stick fixed & free stability 
Horizontal tail position and size 
Directional stability 
Vertical tail position and size 
Dihedral stability 
Wing dihedral 
Sweep & position 
Hinge moments 
Stick forces 
Dynamic stability 

Euler angles 
Equations of motion 
Aerodynamic forces and moments 
Stability & control derivatives 
Decoupling of longitudinal and lateraldirectional dynamics 
Longitudinal modes 
Lateraldirectional modes 
Space dynamics
Central force motion, determination of trajectory and orbital period in simple cases 

Orbit transfer 

Inplane and outofplane 

Aerodynamics
Basic fluid mechanics 

Conservation laws: Mass, momentum (integral and differential form) 
Potential flow theory: Sources, sinks, doublets, line vortex and their superposition, viscosity and Reynolds number 
Airfoils and wings 

Airfoil nomenclature 
Aerodynamic coefficients 
Lift, drag and moment 
Kutta Joukowski theorem 
Thin airfoil theory 
Kutta condition 
Starting vortex 
Finite wing theory 
Induced drag 
Prandtl lifting line theory 
Critical and drag divergence Mach number 
Compressible flows 

Basic concepts of compressibility 
Conservation equations 
One dimensional compressible flows 
Fanno flow 
Rayleigh flow 
Isentropic flows 
Normal and oblique shocks 
PrandtlMeyer flow 
Flow through nozzles and diffusers 
Elementary ideas of viscous flows including boundary layers 

Wind tunnel testing 

Measurement and visualization techniques 

Structures
Strength of materials 

States of stress and strain 
Stress and strain transformation 
Mohr's circle 
Principal stresses 
Threedimensional Hooke's law 
Plane stress and strain 
Failure theories, Mohr’s circle(stress), deflection of beams 
Strain energy 
Castigliano's principles 
Analysis of statically determinate and indeterminate trusses and beams 
Elastic flexural buckling of columns 
Flight vehicle structures 

Characteristics of aircraft structures and materials 
Torsion, bending and flexural shear of thinwalled sections 
Loads on aircraft 
Structural dynamics 

Free and forced vibrations of undamped and damped SDOF systems 
Free vibrations of undamped 2DOF systems 
Vibration of beams 

Theory of elasticity: Equilibrium and compatibility equations, Airy’s stress function 

Propulsion
Thermodynamics 

Boundary layers and heat transfer and combustion thermochemistry 

Thermodynamics of aircraft engines 

Thrust 
Efficiency and engine performance of turbojet 
Turboprop 
Turbo shaft 
Turbofan and ramjet engines 
Thrust augmentation of turbojets and turbofan engines 
Aerothermodynamics of nonrotating propulsion components such as intakes 
Combustor and nozzle 
Axial compressors 

Angular momentum 
Work and compression 
Characteristic performance of a single axial compressor stage 
Efficiency of the compressor and degree of reaction 
Axial turbines 

Axial turbine stage efficiency 
Centrifugal compressor 

Centrifugal compressor stage dynamics 
Inducer 
Impeller and diffuser 
Rocket propulsion 

Thrust equation and specific impulse 
Vehicle acceleration 
Drag 
Gravity losses 
Multistaging of rockets 
Classification of chemical rockets 
Performance of solid and liquid propellant rockets 
GATE Agricultural Engineering Syllabus
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrices and determinants 
Systems of linear equations 
Eigen values and Eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Limit 
Continuity and differentiability 
Partial derivatives 
Maxima and minima 
Sequences and series 
Tests for convergence 
Fourier series 
Taylor series 
Vector calculus 

Gradient 
Gradient, divergence and curl 
Line 
Line, surface & volume integrals 
Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems 
Differential equations 

Linear and nonlinear first order ordinary differential equations 
Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients 
Cauchy's and Euler's equations 
Laplace transforms 
Partial differential equations  Laplace, heat and wave equations 
Probability and Statistics 

Mean 
Median 
Mean, median, mode & standard deviation 
Random variables 
Poisson, normal & binomial distributions 
Correlation and regression analysis 
Tests of significance 
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) 
Numerical methods 

Solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations 
Numerical integration  trapezoidal and Simpson's rule 
Numerical solutions of ODE 
Farm machinery
Machine design 

Design and selection of machine elements – Gears, pulleys, chains and sprockets and belts 
Overload safety devices used in farm machinery 
Measurement of force, torque, speed 
Displacement and acceleration on machine elements 
Farm machinery 

Soil tillage 
Forces acting on a tillage tool 
Hitch systems and hitching of tillage implements 
Functional requirements 
Principles of working 
Construction and operation of manual 
Animal and power operated equipment for tillage, sowing, planting, fertilizer application, intercultivation, spraying, mowing, chaff cutting, harvesting, threshing and transport 
Testing of agricultural machinery and equipment 
Calculation of performance parameters  Field capacity, efficiency, application rate and losses 
Cost analysis of implements and tractors 
Farm power
Sources of power 

Sources of power on the farm  human, animal, mechanical, electrical, wind, solar and biomass 
Biofuels 
Farm power 

Thermodynamic principles of I.C. engines 
I.C. engine cycles 
Engine components 
Fuels and combustion 
Lubricants and their properties 
I.C. engine systems – Fuel, cooling, lubrication, ignition, electrical, intake and exhaust 
Selection, operation, maintenance and repair of I.C. engines 
Power efficiencies and measurement 
Calculation of power 
Torque 
Fuel consumption 
Heat load and power losses 
Tractors and power tillers 

Type, selection, maintenance and repair of tractors and powertillers 
Tractor clutches and brakes 
Power transmission systems – Gear trains, differential 
Final drives and power takeoff transmission system 
Mechanics of tractor chassis 
Traction theory 
Three point hitches free link and restrained link operations 
Mechanical steering and hydraulic control systems used in tractors 
Tractor tests and performance 
Human engineering and safety in design of tractor and agricultural implements 
Soil and water conservation engineering
Fluid mechanics 

Ideal and real fluids, properties of fluids 
Hydrostatic pressure and its measurement 
Hydrostatic forces on plane and curved surface 
Continuity equation 
Bernoulli's theorem 
Laminar and turbulent flow in pipes 
Darcy Weisbach and HazenWilliams equations 
Moody's diagram 
Flow through orifices and notches 
Flow in open channels 
Soil mechanics 

Engineering properties of soils 
Fundamental definitions and relationships 
Index properties of soils 
Permeability and seepage analysis 
Shear strength 
Mohr's circle of stress 
Active and passive earth pressures 
Stability of slopes 
Hydrology 

Hydrological cycle and components 
Meteorological parameters, their measurement and analysis of precipitation data 
Runoff estimation 
Hydrograph analysis 
Unit hydrograph theory and application 
Stream flow measurement 
Flood routing 
Hydrological reservoir and channel routing 
Surveying and levelling 

Measurement of distance and area 
Instruments for surveying and levelling 
Chain surveying 
Methods of traversing 
Measurement of angles and bearings 
Plane table surveying 
Types of levelling 
Theodolite traversing 
Contouring 
Computation of areas and volume 
Soil and water erosion 

Mechanics of soil erosion 
Soil erosion types 
Wind and water erosion 
Factors affecting erosion 
Soil loss estimation 
Biological and engineering measures to control erosion 
Terraces and bunds 
Vegetative waterways 
Gully control structures, drop, drop inlet and chute spillways 
Earthen dams 
Watershed management 

Watershed characterization 
Land use capability classification 
Rainwater harvesting structures 
Check dams and farm ponds 
Irrigation and drainage engineering
Soilwaterplant relationship 

Water requirement of crops 
Consumptive use and evapotranspiration 
Measurement of infiltration 
Soil moisture and irrigation water infiltration 
Irrigation water conveyance and application methods 

Design of irrigation channels and underground pipelines 
Irrigation scheduling 
Surface, sprinkler and micro irrigation methods, design and evaluation of irrigation methods 
Irrigation efficiencies 
Agricultural drainage 

Drainage coefficient 
Planning, design and layout of surface and subsurface drainage systems 
Leaching requirement and salinity control 
Irrigation and drainage water quality and reuse 
Groundwater hydrology 

Groundwater occurrence 
Darcy's law 
Steady flow in confined and unconfined aquifers 
Evaluation of aquifer properties 
Groundwater recharge 
Wells and pumps 

Types of wells, steady flow through wells 
Classification of pumps 
Pump characteristics 
Pump selection and installation 
Agricultural processing engineering
Drying 

Psychrometry – properties of airvapours mixture 
Concentration and drying of liquid foods – evaporators, tray, drum and spray dryers 
Hydrothermal treatment 
Drying and milling of cereals 
Pulses and oilseeds 
Size reduction and conveying 

Mechanics and energy requirement in size reduction of granular solids 
Particle size analysis for comminuted solids 
Size separation by screening 
Fluidization of granular solids Pneumatic, bucket, screw and belt conveying 
Cleaning and grading 
Effectiveness of grain cleaners 
Centrifugal separation of solids, liquids and gases 
Processing and byproduct utilization 

Processing of seeds, spices, fruits and vegetables 
Byproduct utilization from processing industries 
Storage systems 

Controlled and modified atmosphere storage 
Perishable food storage 
Godowns 
Bins and grain silos 
Dairy and food engineering
Heat and mass transfer 

Steady state heat transfer in conduction 
Convection and radiation 
Transient heat transfer in simple geometry 
Working principles of heat exchangers 
Diffusive and convective mass transfer 
Simultaneous heat and mass transfer in agricultural processing operations 
Material and energy balances in food processing systems 
Water activity 
Sorption and desorption isotherms 
Preservation of food 

Kinetics of microbial death – pasteurization and sterilization of milk and other liquid foods 
Preservation of food by cooling and freezing 
Refrigeration and cold storage basics and applications 
GATE Architecture and Planning Syllabus
Architecture and design
Visual composition in 2D and 3D 

Principles of art and architecture 

Organization of space 

Architectural graphics 

Computer Graphics – concepts of CAD, BIM, 3D modeling and architectural rendition 

Programming languages and automation 

Anthropometrics 

Planning and design considerations for different building types 

Site planning 

Horizontal and vertical circulation 

Barrier free design 

Building codes 

National building code 

Elements, construction, architectural styles and examples of different periods of Indian and western history of architecture 

Oriental, vernacular and traditional architecture 

Architectural developments since Industrial Revolution 

Influence of modern art on architecture 

Art nouveau 

Eclecticism 

International styles 

Post modernism 

Deconstruction in architecture 

Works of renowned national and international architects 

Building materials, construction and management
Behavioural characteristics and applications of different building materials viz. mud, timber, bamboo, brick, concrete, steel, glass, FRP, AAC, different polymers, composites 

Building construction techniques 

Methods and details 

Building systems and prefabrication of building elements 

Principles of modular coordination 

Estimation 

Specification 

Valuation 

Professional practice 

Construction planning and equipments 

Project management techniques e.g. PERT, CPM etc. 

Building and structures
Principles of strength of materials 

Design of structural elements in wood, steel and RCC 

Elastic and limit state design 

Structural systems in RCC and steel 

Form and structure 

Principles of prestressing 

High rise and long span structures 

Gravity and lateral load resisting systems 

Principles and design of disaster resistant structures 

Environmental planning and design
Ecosystem natural and manmade ecosystem 

Ecological principles 

Concepts of environmental impact analysis 

Environmental considerations in planning and design 

Thermal comfort 

Ventilation and air movement 

Principles of lighting and illumination 

Climate responsive design 

Solar architecture 

Principles of architectural acoustics 

Concepts and rating green building 

ECBC 

Building performance simulation and evaluation 

Environmental pollution types 

Environmental pollution causes 

Controls and abatement strategies 

Urban design
Concepts and theories of urban design 

Public perception 

Townscape 

Public realm 

Urban design interventions for sustainable development and transportation 

Historical and modern examples of urban design 

Public spaces 

Character, spatial qualities and sense of place 

Elements of urban built environment  Urban form, spaces, structure, pattern, fabric, texture, grain etc. 

Principles, tools and techniques of urban design 

Urban renewal and conservation 

Site planning 

Landscape design 

Development controls and FAR 

Development controls densities and building byelaws 

Urban planning and housing
Planning process 

Master plan 

City development plan 

Structure plan 

Zonal plan 

Action area plan 

Town planning scheme 

Regional plan 

Salient concepts, theories and principles of urban planning 

Sustainable urban development 

Emerging concepts of cities 

Ecocity 

Smart city 

Transit oriented development (TOD) 

SEZ 

SRZ 

Housing 

Concepts 

Principles and examples of neighbourhood 

Housing typologies 

Slums 

Affordable housing 

Housing for special areas and needs 

Residential densities 

Standards for housing and community facilities 

National housing policies 

Programs and schemes 

Planning techniques and management
Physical tools and techniques of surveys 

Topographical tools and techniques of surveys 

Land use and socio economic surveys 

Methods of nonspatial and spatial data analysis 

Graphic presentation of spatial data 

Application of G.I.S and remote sensing techniques in urban and regional planning 

Decision support system and land information system 

Urban economics 

Law of demand and supply of land and its use in planning 

Social, economical and environmental cost benefit analysis 

Techniques of financial appraisal 

Management of infrastructure projects 

Development guidelines such as URDPFI 

Planning, legislation and implementation 

Land acquisition act 

PPP planning legislation and implementation 

Local selfgovernance 

Services, infrastructure and transportation
Building services 

Water supply 

Sewerage and drainage systems 

Sanitary fittings and fixtures 

Plumbing systems 

Principles of internal and external drainage system 

Principles of electrification of buildings 

Intelligent buildings 

Elevators and escalators and standards and uses 

Airconditioning systems 

Firefighting systems 

Building safety and security systems 

Urban infrastructure  Transportation, water supply, sewerage, drainage, solid waste management, electricity and communications 

Process and principles of transportation planning and traffic engineering 

Road capacity 

Traffic survey methods 

Traffic flow characteristics 

Traffic analyses and design considerations 

Travel demand forecasting 

Landuse and transportation and urban form interrelationships 

Design of roads 

Intersections 

Grade separators and parking areas 

Hierarchy of roads and level of service 

Traffic, transport management and control in urban areas 

Mass transportation planning 

Para transits and other modes of transportation 

Pedestrian and slow moving traffic planning 

Intelligent transportation systems 

Principles of water supply and sanitation systems 

Water treatment 

Water supply and distribution system 

Water harvesting systems 

Principles, planning and design of storm water drainage system 

Sewage disposal methods 

Methods of solid waste management and collection 

Methods of solid waste management and transportation and disposal 

Recycling and reuse of solid waste 

Power supply and communication systems 

Network, design and guidelines 

GATE Biotechnology Syllabus
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrices and determinants 
Systems of linear equations 
Linear algebra and Eigen values and Eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Calculus: Limits, continuity and differentiability 
Partial derivatives, maxima and minima, sequences and series, test for convergence, Fourier series 
Differential equations 

Differential equations for linear and nonlinear first order ODEs 
Differential equations higher order ODEs with constant coefficients 
Differential equations Cauchy's and Euler's equations 
Differential equations and Laplace transforms 
Differential equations and PDE Laplace 
Differential equations heat and wave equations 
Probability and Statistics 

Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, probability and statistics 
Random variables for probability and statistics 
Poisson probability and statistics 
Probability and statistics normal and binomial distributions 
Probability and statistics correlation and regression analysis 
Numerical methods 

Numerical methods solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations 
Numerical methods integration of trapezoidal and Simpson's rule 
Numerical methods single and multistep methods for differential equations 
General biotechnology
Biochemistry 

Biomoleculesstructure and functions 
Biological membranes 
Structure 
Action potential and transport processes 
Classification and enzymes 
Kinetics and mechanism of action and enzymes 
Basic concepts and designs of metabolism in carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleic acids 
Photosynthesis 
Respiration and electron transport chain 
Bioenergetics 
Microbiology 

Structure and classification viruses 
Microbial classification and diversity in bacterial, algal and fungal 
Methods in microbiology 
Microbial growth and nutrition 
Aerobic and anaerobic respiration 
Nitrogen fixation 
Microbial diseases and host and pathogen interaction 
Cell biology 

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure 
Cell cycle and cell growth control 
Cell communication 
Cell signalling and signal transduction 
Molecular biology and genetics 

Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes 
Mutations and mutagenesis 
Nucleic acid replication 
Transcription 
Translation and their regulatory mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes 
Mendelian inheritance 
Gene interaction 
Complementation 
Linkage 
Recombination and chromosome mapping 
Extra chromosomal inheritance 
Plasmids of microbial genetics 
Transformation of microbial genetics 
Transduction of microbial genetics 
Conjugation of microbial genetics 
Horizontal gene transfer and transposable elements 
RNA interference 
DNA damage and repair 
Chromosomal variation 
Molecular basis of genetic diseases 
Analytical techniques 

Principles of microscopylight, electron, fluorescent and confocal 
Centrifugation high speed and ultra 
Principles of spectroscopy  UV, visible, CD, IR, FTIR, Raman, MS, NMR 
Principles of chromatography Ion exchange, gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction, affinity, GC,HPLC, FPLC 
Electrophoresis 
Microarray 
Immunology 

History of immunology 
Innate, humoral and cell mediated immunity 
Antigen 
Antibody structure and function 
Molecular basis of antibody diversity 
Synthesis of antibody and secretion 
Antigen, antibody reaction 
Complement 
Primary and secondary lymphoid organ 
B and T cells and macrophages 
Major histocompatibility complex 
Antigen processing and presentation 
Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody 
Regulation of immune response 
Immune tolerance 
Hypersensitivity 
Autoimmunity 
Graft versus host reaction 
Bioinformatics 

Major bioinformatic resources and search tools 
Sequence and structure databases 
Sequence analysis (biomolecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices, sequence alignment, phylogeny) 
Data mining and analytical tools for genomic and proteomic studies 
Molecular dynamics and simulations (basic concepts including force fields, proteinprotein, proteinnucleic acid, proteinligand interaction) 
Recombinant DNA technology 

Restriction and modification enzymes 
Vectors 
Plasmid 
Bacteriophage and other viral vectors 
Cosmids 
Ti plasmid 
Yeast artificial chromosome 
Mammalian and plant expression vectors 
CDNA and genomic DNA library 
Gene isolation 
Cloning and expression 
Transposons and gene targeting 
DNA labelling 
DNA Sequencing 
Polymerase chain reactions 
DNA fingerprinting 
Southern and northern blotting 
Insitu hybridization 
RAPD 
RFLP 
Sitedirected mutagenesis 
Gene transfer technologies 
Gene therapy 
Plant and animal biotechnology 

Totipotency 
Regeneration of plants 
Plant growth regulators and elicitors 
Tissue culture and cell suspension culture system 
Tissue culture and methodology 
Tissue culture and kinetics of growth 
Tissue culture and nutrient optimization 
Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures 
Hairy root culture 
Transgenic plants 
Plant products of industrial importance 
Animal cell culture 
Media composition and growth conditions 
Animal cell and tissue preservation 
Anchorage and nonanchorage dependent cell culture 
Kinetics of cell growth 
Micro and macrocarrier culture 
Hybridoma technology 
Stem cell technology 
Animal cloning 
Transgenic animals 
Bioprocess engineering and process biotechnology 

Chemical engineering principles applied to biological system 
Principle of reactor design 
Ideal and nonideal multiphase bioreactors 
Mass and heat transfer 
Rheology of fermentation fluids 
Aeration and agitation 
Media formulation and optimization 
Kinetics of microbial growth 
Substrate utilization and product formation 
Sterilization of air and media 
Batch 
Fedbatch and continuous processes 
Various types of microbial and enzyme reactors 
Instrumentation control and optimization 
Unit operations in solidliquid separation and liquidliquid extraction 
Process scaleup 
Economics and feasibility analysis 
Engineering principle of bioprocessing upstream production and downstream 
Bioprocess design and development from lab to industrial scale 
Microbial, animal and plant cell culture platforms 
Production of biomass and primary/secondary metabolites 
Biofuels 
Bioplastics 
Industrial enzymes 
Antibiotics 
Large scale production and purification of recombinant proteins 
Industrial application of chromatographic and membrane based bio separation methods 
Immobilization of biocatalysts for bioconversion processes 
Bioremediationaerobic and anaerobic processes for stabilization of solid / liquid wastes 
GATE Civil Engineering Syllabus
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrix algebra 
Systems of linear equations 
Eigen values and Eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Functions of single variable 
Limit 
Continuity and differentiability 
Mean value theorems 
Local maxima and minima 
Taylor and Maclaurin series 
Evaluation of definite and indefinite integrals 
Application of definite integral to obtain area and volume 
Partial derivatives 
Total derivative 
Gradient 
Gradient, divergence and curl 
Vector identities 
Directional derivatives 
Line 
Line, surface & volume integrals 
Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems 
Ordinary differential equation (ODE) 

First order linear and nonlinear equations 
Higher order linear equations with constant coefficients 
EulerCauchy equations 
Laplace transform and its application in solving linear odes 
Initial and boundary value problems 
Partial differential equation (PDE) 

Fourier series 
Separation of variables 
Solutions of one dimensional diffusion equation 
First and second order onedimensional wave equation and twodimensional Laplace equation 
Probability and Statistics 

Definitions of probability and sampling theorems 
Conditional probability 
Discrete random variables 
Poisson and binomial distributions 
Continuous random variables 
Normal and exponential distributions 
Descriptive statistics of mean, median, mode and standard deviation 
Hypothesis testing 
Numerical methods 

Accuracy and precision 
Error analysis 
Numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations 
Least square approximation 
Newton's and Lagrange polynomials 
Numerical differentiation 
Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson's rule 
Single and multistep methods for first order differential equations 
Structural engineering
Engineering mechanics 

System of forces 
Freebody diagrams 
Equilibrium equations 
Internal forces in structures 
Friction and its applications 
Kinematics of point mass and rigid body 
Centre of mass 
Euler's equations of motion 
Impulsemomentum 
Energy methods 
Principles of virtual work 
Solid mechanics 

Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams 
Simple stress and strain relationships 
Theories of failures 
Simple bending theory 
Flexural and shear stresses 
Shear centre 
Uniform torsion 
Buckling of column 
Combined and direct bending stresses 
Structural analysis 

Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods 
Method of superposition 
Analysis of trusses 
Arches 
Beams 
Cables and frames 
Displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods 
Influence lines 
Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis 
Construction materials and management 

Construction materials: Structural steel  composition, material properties and behaviour 
Concrete : Constituents, mix design, shortterm and longterm properties 
Bricks and mortar 
Timber 
Bitumen 
Construction management 
Types of construction projects 
Tendering and construction contracts 
Rate analysis and standard specifications 
Cost estimation 
Project planning and network analysis  PERT and CPM 
Concrete structures 

Working stress 
Limit state and ultimate load design concepts 
Design of beams 
Slabs 
Columns 
Bond and development length 
Prestressed concrete 
Analysis of beam sections at transfer and service loads 
Steel structures 

Working stress and limit state design concepts 
Design of tension and compression members 
Beams and beam of columns, column bases 
Connections  Simple and eccentric, beamcolumn connections, plate girders and trusses 
Plastic analysis of beams and frames 
Geotechnical engineering
Soil mechanics 

Origin of soils 
Soil structure and fabric 
Threephase system and phase relationships 
Three index properties 
Unified and Indian standard soil classification system 
Permeability  one dimensional flow, Darcy's law 
Seepage through soils  Twodimensional flow, flow nets, uplift pressure, piping 
Principle of effective stress 
Capillarity 
Seepage force and quicksand condition 
Compaction in laboratory and field conditions 
One dimensional consolidation 
One time rate of consolidation 
Mohr's circle 
Stress paths 
Effective and total shear strength parameters 
Characteristics of clays and sand 
Foundation engineering 

Subsurface investigations: Scope, drilling bore holes, sampling, plate load test, standard penetration and cone penetration tests 
Earth pressure theories  Rankine and Coulomb 
Stability of slopes  Finite and infinite slopes, method of slices and bishop's method 
Stress distribution in soils  Boussinesq's and Westergaard's theories, pressure bulbs 
Shallow foundations  Terzaghi's and Meyerhof's bearing capacity theories, effect of water table 
Combined footing and raft foundation 
Contact pressure 
Settlement analysis in sands and clays 
Deep foundations  Types of piles, dynamic and static formulae, load capacity of piles in sands and clays, pile load test, negative skin friction 
Water resources engineering
Fluid mechanics 

Properties of fluids 
Fluid statics 
Continuity 
Momentum 
Energy and corresponding equations 
Potential flow 
Applications of momentum and energy equations 
Laminar and turbulent flow 
Flow in pipes 
Pipe networks 
Concept of boundary layer and its growth 
Hydraulics 

Forces on immersed bodies 
Flow measurement in channels and pipes 
Dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude 
Kinematics of flow 
Velocity triangles 
Basics of hydraulic machines 
Specific speed of pumps and turbines 
Channel hydraulics  Energydepth relationships, specific energy, critical flow, slope profile, hydraulic jump, uniform flow and gradually varied flow 
Hydrology 

Hydrologic cycle 
Precipitation 
Evaporation 
Evapotranspiration 
Watershed 
Infiltration 
Unit hydrographs 
Hydrograph analysis 
Flood estimation and routing 
Reservoir capacity 
Reservoir and channel routing 
Surface runoff models 
Ground water hydrology  steady state well hydraulics and aquifers 
Application of Darcy's law 
Irrigation 

Duty, delta, estimation of evapotranspiration 
Crop water requirements 
Design of lined and unlined canals 
Head works 
Gravity dams and spillways 
Design of weirs on permeable foundation 
Types of irrigation systems 
Irrigation methods 
Water logging and drainage 
Canal regulatory works 
Crossdrainage structures 
Outlets and escapes 
Environmental engineering
Water and waste water 

Quality standards 
Basic unit processes and operations for water treatment 
Drinking water standards 
Water requirements 
Basic unit operations and unit processes for surface water treatment 
Distribution of water 
Sewage and sewerage treatment 
Quantity and characteristics of waste water 
Primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of waste water 
Effluent discharge standards 
Domestic waste water treatment 
Quantity of characteristics of domestic waste water 
Primary and secondary treatment 
Unit operations and unit processes of domestic waste water 
Sludge disposal 
Air pollution 

Types of pollutants 
Their sources and impacts 
Air pollution meteorology 
Air pollution control 
Air quality standards and limits 
Municipal solid wastes 

Characteristics 
Generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes 
Engineered systems for solid waste management reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal 
Noise pollution 

Impacts of noise 
Permissible limits of noise pollution 
Measurement of noise and control of noise pollution 
Transportation engineering
Transportation infrastructure 

Highway alignment and engineering surveys 
Geometric design of highways and horizontal and vertical alignments, crosssectional elements 
Geometric design of railway track 
Airport runway length 
Taxiway and exit taxiway design 
Highway pavements 

Highway materials  desirable properties and quality control tests 
Design of bituminous paving mixes 
Design factors for flexible and rigid pavements 
Design of flexible pavement using IRC: 372012 
Design of rigid pavements using IRC: 582011 
Distresses in concrete pavements 
Traffic engineering 

Traffic studies on flow, speed 
Traffic studies on travel time  delay and study 
PCU 
Peak hour factor 
Parking study 
Accident study and analysis 
Statistical analysis of traffic data 
Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of traffic flow 
Fundamental relationships 
Control devices 
Signal design by Webster's method 
Types of intersections and channelization 
Highway capacity and level of service of rural highways and urban roads 
Geomatics engineering
Principles of surveying 

Errors and their adjustment 
Maps  scale 
Coordinate system 
Distance and angle measurement  levelling and trigonometric levelling 
Traversing and triangulation survey 
Total station 
Horizontal and vertical curves 
Photogrammetry 

Photogrammetry  scale, flying height 
Remote sensing  Baics, platform and sensors, visual image interpretation 
Remote sensing of platform and sensors 
Remote sensing and visual image interpretation 
GIS and GPS 

Basics of geographical information system (GIS) and geographical positioning system (GPS) 
GATE Chemical Engineering Syllabus
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrix algebra 
Systems of linear equations 
Eigen values and Eigen vectors 
Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, eigen values and eigenvectors 
Calculus 

Functions of single variable 
Limit 
Continuity and differentiability 
Taylor series 
Mean value theorems 
Evaluation of definite and improper integrals 
Partial derivatives 
Total derivative 
Maxima and minima 
Gradient 
Gradient, divergence and curl 
Vector identities 
Directional derivatives 
Line 
Line, surface & volume integrals 
Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems 
Functions of single variable, limit, continuity and differentiability 
Taylor series, mean value theorems, evaluation of definite and improper integrals 
Partial derivatives, total derivative, maxima and minima 
Gradient, divergence and curl, vector identities, directional derivatives 
Line, surface and volume integrals, stokes, gauss and green’s theorems 
Differential equations 

First order equations linear and nonlinear 
Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients 
Cauchy's and Euler's equations 
Initial and boundary value problems 
Laplace transforms 
Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation 
First order equations (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients 
Cauchy’s and euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems 
Laplace transforms, solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and laplace equation 
Complex variables 

Complex number 
Polar form of complex number 
Triangle inequality 
Complex number, polar form of complex number, triangle inequality 
Probability and Statistics 

Definitions of probability and sampling theorems 
Conditional probability 
Mean 
Median 
Mean, median, mode & standard deviation 
Random variables 
Poisson, normal & binomial distributions 
Linear regression analysis 
Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode and standard deviation 
Random variables, poisson, normal and binomial distributions, linear regression analysis 
Numerical methods 

Numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations 
Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson's rule 
Single and multistep methods for numerical solution of differential equations 
Integration by trapezoidal and simpson’s rule 
Chemical engineering
Process calculations and thermodynamics 

Steady and unsteady state mass and energy balances including multiphase 
Multicomponent 
Reacting and nonreacting systems 
Use of tie components 
Recycle 
Bypass and purge calculations 
Gibb's phase rule and degree of freedom analysis 
First and second laws of thermodynamics 
Applications of first law to close and open systems 
Second law and entropy 
Thermodynamic properties of pure substances 
Equation of state and residual properties 
Properties of mixtures 
Partial molar properties 
Fugacity 
Excess properties and activity coefficients 
Phase equilibria 
Predicting VLE of systems 
Chemical reaction equilibrium 
Fluid mechanics and mechanical operations 

Fluid statics 
Newtonian and nonNewtonian fluids 
Shellbalances including differential form of Bernoulli equation and energy balance 
Macroscopic friction factors 
Dimensional analysis and similitude 
Flow through pipeline systems 
Flow meters , pumps and compressors 
Elementary boundary layer theory 
Flow past immersed bodies including packed and fluidized beds 
Turbulent flow 
Fluctuating velocity 
Universal velocity profile and pressure drop 
Particle size and shape 
Particle size distribution 
Size reduction and classification of solid particles 
Free and hindered settling 
Centrifuge and cyclones 
Thickening and classification 
Filtration 
Agitation and mixing 
Conveying of solids 
Heat transfer 

Steady and unsteady heat conduction 
Convection and radiation 
Thermal boundary layer and heat transfer coefficients 
Boiling, condensation and evaporation 
Types of heat exchangers and evaporators and their process calculations 
Design of double pipe 
Shell and tube heat exchangers 
Single and multiple effect evaporators 
Mass transfer 

Fick's laws 
Molecular diffusion in fluids 
Mass transfer coefficients 
Film, penetration and surface renewal theories 
Momentum, heat and mass transfer analogies 
Stagewise and continuous contacting and stage efficiencies 
HTU & NTU concepts 
Design and operation of equipment for distillation 
Absorption 
Leaching 
Liquidliquid extraction 
Drying 
Humidification 
Dehumidification and adsorption 
Chemical reaction engineering 

Theories of reaction rates 
Kinetics of homogeneous reactions 
Interpretation of kinetic data 
Single and multiple reactions in ideal reactors 
Nonideal reactors 
Residence time distribution 
Single parameter model 
Nonisothermal reactors 
Kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions 
Diffusion effects in catalysis 
Instrumentation and process control 

Measurement of process variables 
Sensors, transducers and their dynamics 
Process modelling and linearization 
Transfer functions and dynamic responses of various systems 
Systems with inverse response 
Process reaction curve 
Controller modes (P, PI, and PID) 
Control valves 
Analysis of closed loop systems including stability 
Frequency response 
Controller tuning 
Cascade and feed forward control 
Plant design and economics 

Principles of process economics and cost estimation including depreciation and total annualized cost 
Cost indices 
Rate of return 
Payback period 
Discounted cash flow 
Optimization in process design and sizing of chemical engineering equipment such as compressors 
Heat exchangers 
Multistage contactors 
Chemical technology 

Inorganic chemical industries (sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, chloralkali industry) 
Fertilizers (ammonia, urea, SSP and TSP) 
Natural products industries (pulp and paper, sugar, oil, and fats) 
Petroleum refining and petrochemicals 
Polymerization industries (polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC and polyester synthetic fibres) 
Process calculations and thermodynamics
Steady and unsteady state mass and energy balances including multiphase 

Multicomponent 

Reacting and nonreacting systems 

Use of tie components 

Recycle 

Bypass and purge calculations 

Gibb’s phase rule and degree of freedom analysis 

First and second laws of thermodynamics 

Applications of first law to close and open systems 

Second law and entropy 

Thermodynamic properties of pure substances 

Equation of state and residual properties 

Properties of mixtures 

Partial molar properties 

Fugacity 

Excess properties and activity coefficients 

Phase equilibria 

Predicting VLE of systems 

Chemical reaction equilibrium 

Multicomponent, reacting and nonreacting systems 

Recycle, bypass and purge calculations 

Equation of state and residual properties, properties of mixtures 

Partial molar properties, fugacity, excess properties and activity coefficients 

Fluid mechanics and mechanical operations
Fluid statics 

Newtonian and nonNewtonian fluids 

Shellbalances including differential form of Bernoulli equation and energy balance 

Macroscopic friction factors 

Dimensional analysis and similitude 

Flow through pipeline systems 

Flow meters 

Pumps and compressors 

Elementary boundary layer theory 

Flow past immersed bodies including packed and fluidized beds 

Turbulent flow 

Fluctuating velocity 

Universal velocity profile and pressure drop 

Particle size and shape 

Particle size distribution 

Size reduction and classification of solid particles 

Free and hindered settling 

Centrifuge and cyclones 

Thickening and classification 

Filtration 

Agitation and mixing 

Conveying of solids 

Fluid statics, newtonian and nonnewtonian fluids 

Macroscopic friction factors, dimensional analysis and similitude, flow through pipeline systems 

Flow meters, pumps and compressors, elementary boundary layer theory, flow past immersed bodies including packed and fluidized beds 

Fluctuating velocity, universal velocity profile and pressure drop 

Particle size and shape, particle size distribution, size reduction and classification of solid particles 

Thickening and classification, filtration, agitation and mixing 

Heat transfer
Steady and unsteady heat conduction 

Convection and radiation 

Thermal boundary layer and heat transfer coefficients 

Boiling 

Condensation and evaporation 

Types of heat exchangers and evaporators and their process calculations 

Design of double pipe 

Shell and tube heat exchangers 

Single and multiple effect evaporators 

Steady and unsteady heat conduction, convection and radiation 

Thermal boundary layer and heat transfer coefficients, boiling, condensation and evaporation 

Design of double pipe, shell and tube heat exchangers, and single and multiple effect evaporators 

Mass transfer
Fick’s laws 

Molecular diffusion in fluids 

Mass transfer coefficients 

Film 

Penetration and surface renewal theories 

Momentum 

Heat and mass transfer analogies 

Stagewise and continuous contacting and stage efficiencies 

HTU & NTU concepts 

Design and operation of equipment for distillation 

Absorption 

Leaching 

Liquidliquid extraction 

Drying 

Humidification 

Dehumidification and adsorption 

Fick’s laws, molecular diffusion in fluids, mass transfer coefficients, film, penetration and surface renewal theories 

Momentum, heat and mass transfer analogies 

Design and operation of equipment for distillation, absorption, leaching, liquidliquid extraction, drying, humidification, dehumidification and adsorption 

Chemical reaction engineering
Theories of reaction rates 

Kinetics of homogeneous reactions 

Interpretation of kinetic data 

Single and multiple reactions in ideal reactors 

Nonideal reactors 

Residence time distribution 

Single parameter model 

Nonisothermal reactors 

Kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions 

Diffusion effects in catalysis 

Kinetics of homogeneous reactions, interpretation of kinetic data, single and multiple reactions in ideal reactors, nonideal reactors 

Residence time distribution, single parameter model 

Instrumentation and process control
Measurement of process variables 

Sensors 

Transducers and their dynamics 

Process modelling and linearization 

Transfer functions and dynamic responses of various systems 

Systems with inverse response 

Process reaction curve 

Controller modes (P, PI, and PID) 

Control valves 

Analysis of closed loop systems including stability 

Frequency response 

Controller tuning 

Cascade and feed forward control 

Sensors, transducers and their dynamics, process modeling and linearization, transfer functions and dynamic responses of various systems 

Systems with inverse response, process reaction curve, controller modes (P, PI, and PID) 

Analysis of closed loop systems including stability, frequency response, controller tuning, cascade and feed forward control 

Plant design and economics
Principles of process economics and cost estimation including depreciation and total annualized cost 

Cost indices 

Rate of return 

Payback period 

Discounted cash flow 

Optimization in process design and sizing of chemical engineering equipment such as compressors 

Heat exchangers 

Multistage contactors 

Cost indices, rate of return, payback period, discounted cash flow 

Optimization in process design and sizing of chemical engineering equipments such as compressors, heat exchangers, multistage contactors 

Chemical technology
Inorganic chemical industries (sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, chloralkali industry) 

Fertilizers (ammonia, urea, SSP and TSP) 

Natural products industries (pulp and paper, sugar, oil, and fats) 

Petroleum refining and petrochemicals 

Polymerization industries (polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC and polyester synthetic fibers) 

Inorganic chemical industries (sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, chloralkali industry), fertilizers (Ammonia, Urea, SSP and TSP) 

GATE Computer Science and Information Technology Syllabus
Engineering mathematics
Discrete mathematics 

Propositional and first order logic 
Sets 
Relations 
Functions 
Partial orders and lattices 
Groups 
Graphs: Connectivity, matching, coloring 
Combinatorics: Counting, recurrence relations, generating functions 
Linear algebra 

Matrices 
Determinants 
System of linear equations 
Eigen values and Eigen vectors 
LU decomposition 
Calculus 

Limits 
Continuity and differentiability 
Maxima and minima 
Mean value theorem 
Integration 
Probability 

Random variables 
Uniform, exponential, normal, poisson and binomial distributions. 
Mean 
Median 
Mean, median, mode & standard deviation 
Conditional probability and Bayes theorem 
Computer science and information technology
Digital logic 

Boolean algebra 
Combinational and sequential circuits 
Minimization 
Number representations and computer arithmetic of fixed and floating point 
Computer organization and architecture 

Machine instructions and addressing modes 
ALU 
Data‐path and control unit 
Instruction pipelining 
Memory hierarchy 
Cache, main memory and secondary storage 
I/O interface in interrupt and DMA mode 
Programming and data structures 

Programming in c, recursion 
Arrays 
Stacks 
Queues 
Linked lists 
Trees 
Binary search trees 
Binary heaps 
Graphs 
Algorithms 

Searching 
Sorting 
Hashing 
Asymptotic worst case time and space complexity 
Algorithm design techniques and greedy 
Dynamic programming and divide and conquer 
Graph search 
Minimum spanning trees 
Shortest paths 
Theory of computation 

Regular expressions and finite automata 
Contextfree grammar and pushdown automata 
Regular and contextfree languages 
Pumping lemma 
Turing machines and undecidability 
Compiler design 

Lexical analysis 
Parsing 
Syntaxdirected translation 
Runtime environments 
Intermediate code generation 
Operating system 

Processes 
Threads 
Inter‐process communication 
Concurrency and synchronization 
Deadlock 
CPU scheduling 
Memory management and virtual memory 
File systems 
Databases 

ER‐model 
Relational model: Relational algebra, tuple calculus, SQL 
Integrity constraints, normal forms 
File organization 
Indexing of b and b+ trees 
Transactions and concurrency control 
Computer networks 

Concept of layering 
Lan technologies in Ethernet 
Flow and error control techniques 
Switching 
IPV4/ IPV6 
Routers and routing algorithms in distance vector, link state 
TCP/UDP and sockets 
Congestion control 
Application layer protocols in DNS, SMTP, pop, ftp, http 
Basics of wifi 
Network security: Authentication, basics of public key and private key cryptography, digital signatures and certificates, firewalls 
GATE Chemistry Syllabus
Physical chemistry
Structure 

Postulates of quantum mechanics 
Time dependent and time independent Schrödinger equations 
Born interpretation 
Particle in a box 
Harmonic oscillator 
Rigid rotor 
Hydrogen atom 
Atomic orbitals 
Multielectron atoms 
Orbital approximation 
Variation and first order perturbation techniques 
Chemical bonding 
Valence bond theory and LCAOMO theory 
Hybrid orbitals 
Applications of LCAOMO theory to h2+, h2 and other homonuclear diatomic molecules 
Hetero nuclear diatomic molecules like HF, CO, NO, and to simple delocalized π– electron systems 
Huckel approximation and its application to annular π – electron systems 
Symmetry elements and operations 
Point groups and character tables 
Origin of selection rules for rotational, vibrational, electronic and Raman spectroscopy of diatomic and polyatomic molecules 
Einstein coefficients 
Relationship of transition moment integral with molar extinction coefficient and oscillator strength 
Basic principles of nuclear magnetic resonance: nuclear g factor 
Chemical shift 
Nuclear coupling 
Equilibrium 

Laws of thermodynamics 
Standard states 
Thermochemistry 
Thermodynamic functions and their relationships: GibbsHelmholtz and Maxwell relations, van't Hoff equation 
Criteria of spontaneity and equilibrium 
Absolute entropy 
Partial molar quantities 
Thermodynamics of mixing 
Chemical potential 
Fugacity 
Activity and activity coefficients 
Chemical equilibria 
Dependence of equilibrium constant on temperature and pressure 
Nonideal solutions 
Ionic mobility and conductivity 
DebyeHuckel limiting law 
Debye Huckel Onsager equation 
Potentiometric and conductometric titrations 
Phase rule 
ClausiusClapeyron equation 
Phase diagram of one component systems CO2, H2O, S 
Two component systems: liquidvapour, liquidliquid and solidliquid systems 
Fractional distillation 
Azeotropes and eutectics 
Statistical thermodynamics 
Microcanonical and canonical ensembles 
Boltzmann distribution 
Partition functions and thermodynamic properties 
Kinetics 

Transition state theory of Eyring equation, thermodynamic aspects 
Potential energy surfaces and classical trajectories 
Elementary 
Parallel 
Opposing and consecutive reactions 
Steady state approximation 
Mechanisms of complex reactions 
Unimolecular reactions 
Kinetics of polymerization and enzyme catalysis 
Fast reaction kinetics of relaxation and flow methods 
Kinetics of photochemical and photophysical processes 
Surfaces and interfaces 

Physisorption and Chemisorption 
Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms 
Surface catalysis and LangmuirHinshelwood mechanism 
Surface tension 
Viscosity 
Selfassembly 
Physical chemistry of colloids 
Micelles and macromolecules 
Inorganic chemistry
Main group elements 

Hydrides 
Halides (excluding fluoride) 
Oxides 
Oxoacids 
Nitrides 
Sulfides – shapes and reactivity 
Structure and bonding of boranes 
Carboranes 
Silicones 
Silicates 
Boron nitride 
Borazines and phosphazenes 
Allotropes of carbon 
Chemistry of noble gases 
Pseudohalogens 
Interhalogen compounds 
Acidbase concepts 
Transition elements 

Coordination chemistry – structure and isomerism 
Theories of bonding in VBT, CFT, and MOT 
Energy level diagrams in various crystal fields, CFSE, applications of CFT, JahnTeller distortion 
Electronic spectra of transition metal complexes: Spectroscopic term symbols, selection rules, Orgel diagrams, chargetransfer spectra 
Magnetic properties of transition metal complexes 
Reaction mechanisms: Kinetic and thermodynamic stability, substitution and redox reactions 
Lanthanides and actinides 

Recovery 
Periodic properties 
Spectra and magnetic properties 
Organometallics 

18electron rule 
Metalalkyl, metalcarbonyl, metalolefin and metal carbene complexes and metallocenes 
Fluxionality in organometallic complexes 
Types of organometallic reactions 
Homogeneous catalysis: Hydrogenation, hydroformylation, acetic acid synthesis, metathesis and olefin oxidation 
Heterogeneous catalysis 
Fischer 
Tropsch reaction 
Ziegler 
Natta polymerization 
Radioactivity 

Decay processes 
Halflife of radioactive elements 
Fission and fusion processes 
Bioinorganic chemistry 

Ion Na+ and K+ transport 
Oxygen binding 
Transport and utilization 
Electron transfer reactions 
Nitrogen fixation 
Metallo enzymes containing magnesium 
Molybdenum 
Iron 
Cobalt 
Copper and zinc 
Solids 

Crystal systems and lattices 
Miller planes 
Crystal packing 
Crystal defects 
Bragg's law 
Ionic crystals 
Structures of ax, ax2, abx3 type compounds 
Spinels 
Band theory 
Metals and semiconductors 
Instrumental methods of analysis 

UVvisible spectrophotometry 
NMR and ESR spectroscopy 
Mass spectrometry 
Chromatography including GC and HPLC 
Electroanalytical methods  Polarography, cyclic voltammetry, ionselective electrodes 
Thermo analytical methods 
Organic chemistry
Stereochemistry 

Chirality of organic molecules with or without chiral centres and determination of their absolute configurations 
Relative stereochemistry in compounds having more than one stereogenic centre 
Homotopic 
Enantiotopic and diastereotopic atoms, groups and faces 
Stereoselective and stereospecific synthesis 
Conformational analysis of acyclic and cyclic compounds 
Geometrical isomerism 
Configurational and conformational effects 
Neighbouring group participation on reactivity and selectivity/specificity 
Reaction mechanisms 

Basic mechanistic concepts – kinetic versus thermodynamic control 
Hammond's postulate and CurtinHammett principle 
Methods of determining reaction mechanisms through identification of products 
Intermediates and isotopic labelling 
Nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution reactions (both aromatic and aliphatic) 
Addition reactions to carboncarbon and carbonheteroatom (N,O) multiple bonds 
Elimination reactions 
Reactive intermediates  Carbocations, carbanions, carbenes, nitrenes, arynes and free radicals 
Molecular rearrangements involving electron deficient atoms 
Organic synthesis 

Synthesis, reactions, mechanisms and selectivity involving the following classes of compounds – alkenes, alkynes, arenes, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, nitriles, halides, nitro compounds, amines and amides 
Uses of Mg, Li, Cu, B, Zn and Si based reagents in organic synthesis 
Carboncarbon bond formation through coupling reactions  Heck, Suzuki, Stille and Sonogashira 
Concepts of multistep synthesis: retrosynthetic analysis, strategic disconnections, synthons and synthetic equivalents 
Umpolung reactivity – formyl and acyl anion equivalents 
Selectivity in organic synthesis, chemo, regio and stereoselectivity 
Protection and deprotection of functional groups 
Concepts of asymmetric synthesis – resolution including enzymatic 
Desymmetrization and use of chiral auxiliaries 
Carboncarbon bond forming reactions through enolates (including boron enolates) 
Enamines and silyl enol ethers 
Michael addition reaction 
Stereoselective addition to c=o groups in cram and FelkinAnh models models 
Pericyclic reactions and photochemistry 

Electrocyclic 
Cycloaddition and sigmatropic reactions 
Orbital correlations  FMO and PMO treatments 
Photochemistry of alkenes 
Arenes and carbonyl compounds 
Photooxidation and photoreduction 
Diπmethane rearrangement 
Barton reaction 
Heterocyclic compounds 

Structure 
Preparation 
Properties and reactions of furan 
Pyrrole 
Thiophene 
Pyridine 
Indole 
Quinoline and Isoquinoline 
Biomolecules 

Structure 
Properties and reactions of mono and disaccharides 
Physicochemical properties of amino acids 
Chemical synthesis of peptides 
Structural features of proteins 
Nucleic acids 
Steroids 
Terpenoids 
Carotenoids 
Alkaloids 
Spectroscopy 

Applications of UVvisible, IR, NMR and mass spectrometry in the structural determination of organic molecules 
GATE Electronics and Communication Engineering Syllabus
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Vector space 
Basis 
Linear dependence and independence 
Matrix algebra 
Eigen values and Eigen vectors 
Rank, solution of linear equations – existence and uniqueness 
Calculus 

Mean value theorems 
Theorems of integral calculus 
Evaluation of definite and improper integrals 
Partial derivatives 
Maxima and minima 
Multiple integrals 
Line 
Line, surface & volume integrals 
Taylor series 
Differential equations 

First order equations (linear and nonlinear) 
Higher order linear differential equations 
Cauchy's and Euler's equations 
Methods of solution using variation of parameters 
Complementary function and particular integral 
Partial differential equations 
Variable separable method 
Initial and boundary value problems 
Vector analysis 

Vectors in plane and space 
Vector operations 
Gradient 
Gradient, divergence and curl 
Gauss, Green and Stokes theorem 
Complex analysis 

Analytic functions 
Cauchy's integral theorem 
Cauchy's integral formula 
Taylor's & Laurent's series 
Residue theorem. 
Numerical methods 

Solution of nonlinear equations 
Single and multistep methods for differential equations 
Convergence criteria 
Probability and Statistics 

Mean, median, mode and standard deviation 
Combinatorial probability 
Probability distribution functions  binomial, Poisson, exponential and normal 
Joint and conditional probability 
Correlation and regression analysis 
Networks, signals and systems
Network solution methods 

Nodal and mesh analysis 
Network theorems  Thevenin and Norton's, superposition 
Maximum power transfer of network theorems 
Wye‐delta transformation 
Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors 
Time domain analysis of simple linear circuits 
Solution of network equations using Laplace transform 
Frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits 
Linear 2‐port network parameters of driving point and transfer functions 
State equations for networks 
Continuoustime signals 

Fourier series and Fourier transform representations 
Sampling theorem and applications 
Discretetime signals and Fourier transform (DTFT), DFT, FFT, Ztransform 
Discretetime and interpolation of discretetime signals 
LTI systems: Definition and properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay, digital filter design techniques 
Electronic devices
Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic silicon 

Carrier transport of diffusion current, drift current, mobility and resistivity 

Generation and recombination of carriers 

Poisson and continuity equations 

PN junction 

Zener diode 

BJT 

MOS capacitor 

MOSFET 

LED 

Photo diode and solar cell 

Integrated circuit fabrication process: Oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography 

Twintub CMOS process 

Analog circuits
Small signal equivalent circuits of diodes 

BJTS and MOSFETs 

Simple diode circuits and clipping 

Simple diode circuits of clamping and rectifiers 

Singlestage BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: biasing, bias stability, midfrequency small signal analysis and frequency response 

BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: multistage, differential, feedback, power and operational 

Simple opamp circuits 

Active filters 

Sinusoidal oscillators and criterion for oscillation 

Singletransistor and op amp configurations of sinusoidal oscillators 

Function generators 

Waveshaping circuits and 555 timers 

Voltage reference circuits 

Power supplies for ripple removal and regulation 

Digital circuits
Number systems 

Combinatorial circuits of Boolean algebra 

Minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map 

Logic gates and their static CMOS implementations 

Arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders and PLAs 

Sequential circuits: latches and flip‐flops, counters, shift‐registers and finite state machines 

Data converters: sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs 

Semiconductor memories: ROM, SRAM, DRAM 

Bit microprocessor (8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing 

Control systems
Basic control system components 

Feedback principle 

Transfer function 

Block diagram representation 

Signal flow graph 

Transient and steadystate analysis of LTI systems 

Frequency response 

RouthHurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria 

Bode and rootlocus plots 

Lag, lead and laglead compensation 

State variable model and solution of state equation of LTI systems 

Communications
Random processes: autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems 

Analog communications: amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation 

Spectra of AM and FM 

Super heterodyne receivers of angle modulation 

Circuits for analog communications 

Information theory of entropy 

Mutual information and channel capacity theorem 

Digital communications of PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes, amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying (ASK, PSK, FSK), QAM, MAP and ML decoding 

Matched filter receiver, calculation of bandwidth, SNR and BER for digital modulation, fundamentals of error correction 

Hamming codes 

Timing and frequency synchronization 

Intersymbol interference and its mitigation 

Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA 

Electromagnetics
Electrostatics 

Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms and their interpretation 

Boundary conditions, wave equation and poynting vector 

Plane waves and properties of reflection and refraction 

Polarization, phase and group velocity 

Plane waves and properties of propagation through various media, skin depth 

Transmission lines: equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, Sparameters, Smith chart 

Waveguides: modes, boundary conditions, cutoff frequencies, dispersion relations 

Antennas: antenna types, radiation pattern, gain and directivity, return loss, antenna arrays 

Basics of radar 

Light propagation in optical fibers 

GATE Electrical Engineering Syllabus
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrix algebra 
Systems of linear equations 
Eigen values 
Eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Mean value theorems 
Theorems of integral calculus 
Evaluation of definite and improper integrals 
Partial derivatives 
Maxima and minima 
Multiple integrals 
Fourier series 
Vector identities 
Directional derivatives 
Line integral 
Surface integral 
Volume integral 
Stoke's theorem 
Gauss's theorem 
Green's theorem, Stokes' theorem, and Gauss divergence theorem 
Differential equations 

First order equations of linear and nonlinear 
Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients 
Method of variation of parameters 
Cauchy's equation 
Euler's equation 
Initial and boundary value problems 
Partial differential equations 
Method of separation of variables 
Complex variables 

Analytic functions 
Cauchy's integral theorem 
Cauchy's integral formula 
Taylor series 
Laurent series 
Residue theorem 
Solution integrals 
Probability and Statistics 

Sampling theorems 
Conditional probability 
Mean, mode, median and standard deviation 
Random variables 
Discrete and continuous distributions 
Poisson distribution 
Normal distribution 
Binomial distribution 
Correlation analysis 
Regression analysis 
Numerical methods 

Solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations 
Single and multi‐step methods for differential equations 
Transform theory 

Fourier transform 
Laplace transform 
Z‐transform 
Electrical engineering
Electric circuits 

Network graph 
KCL 
KVL 
Node and mesh analysis 
Transient response of DC and AC networks 
Sinusoidal steady‐state analysis 
Resonance 
Passive filters 
Ideal current and voltage sources 
Thevenin's theorem 
Norton's theorem 
Superposition theorem 
Maximum power transfer theorem 
Two‐port networks 
Three phase circuits 
Power and power factor in AC circuits 
Electromagnetic fields 

Coulomb's law 
Electric field intensity 
Electric flux density 
Gauss's law 
Divergence 
Electric field and potential due to point 
Plane, line and spherical charge distributions 
Effect of dielectric medium 
Capacitance of simple configurations 
Biot‐Savart's law 
Ampere's law 
Curl 
Faraday's law 
Lorentz force 
Inductance 
Magnetomotive force 
Magnetic circuits 
Self and mutual inductance of simple configurations 
Signals and systems 

Representation of continuous and discrete‐time signals 
Shifting and scaling operations 
Linear time invariant and causal systems 
Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signals 
Sampling theorem 
Applications of Fourier transform, Laplace transform and ztransform 
Electrical machines 

Single phase transformer: equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, open circuit and short circuit tests 
Regulation & efficiency 
Three phase transformers: connections, parallel operation 
Auto‐transformer 
Electromechanical energy conversion principles 
DC machines: separately excited, series and shunt 
Motoring and generating mode of operation and their characteristics 
Starting and speed control of DC motors 
Three phase induction motors: principle of operation, types, performance 
Torquespeed characteristics of induction 
Noload and blocked rotor tests 
Equivalent circuit, starting and speed control 
Operating principle of single phase induction motors 
Synchronous machines: cylindrical and salient pole machines 
Performance, regulation and parallel operation of generators 
Starting of synchronous motor, characteristics 
Types of losses and efficiency calculations of electric machines 
Power systems 

Power generation concepts 
Ac and DC transmission concepts 
Models and performance of transmission lines and cables 
Series and shunt compensation 
Electric field distribution and insulators 
Distribution systems 
Per‐unit quantities 
Bus admittance matrix 
GaussSeidel and NewtonRaphson load flow methods 
Voltage and frequency control 
Power factor correction 
Symmetrical components 
Symmetrical and unsymmetrical fault analysis 
Principles of over‐current 
Differential and distance protection 
Circuit breakers 
System stability concepts 
Equal area criterion 
Control systems 

Mathematical modelling and representation of systems 
Feedback principle 
Transfer function 
Block diagrams and signal flow graphs 
Transient and steady‐state analysis of linear time invariant systems 
RouthHurwitz and Nyquist criteria 
Bode plots 
Root loci 
Stability analysis 
Lag, lead and lead‐lag compensators 
P, PI and PID controllers 
State space model 
State transition matrix 
Electrical and electronic measurements 

Bridges and potentiometers 
Measurement of voltage 
Current 
Power 
Energy and power factor 
Instrument transformers 
Digital voltmeters and multimeters 
Time, phase and frequency measurement 
Oscilloscopes 
Error analysis 
Analog and digital electronics 

Characteristics of diodes, BJT, MOSFET 
Simple diode circuits: clipping, clamping, rectifiers 
Amplifiers and biasing 
Equivalent circuit and frequency response of amplifiers 
Oscillators and feedback amplifiers 
Operational amplifiers and characteristics and applications 
Simple active filters 
VCOs and timers 
Combinational and sequential logic circuits 
Multiplexer 
Demultiplexer 
Schmitt trigger 
Sample and hold circuits 
A/D and D/A converters 
8085 microprocessor and architecture 
Power electronics 

Characteristics of semiconductor power devices: diode, thyristor, TRIAC, GTO, MOSFET, IGBT 
DC to DC conversion: buck, boost and buckboost converters 
Single and three phase configuration of uncontrolled rectifiers 
Line commutated thyristor based converters 
Bidirectional AC to DC voltage source converters 
Issues of line current harmonics 
Power factor 
Distortion factor of AC to DC converters 
Single phase and three phase inverters 
Sinusoidal pulse width modulation 
GATE Geology and Geophysics Syllabus
Common section
Earth and planetary system  size, shape, internal structure and composition of the earth 

Concept of isostasy 

Elements of seismology  body and surface waves, propagation of body waves in the earth’s interior 

Gravitational field of the earth 

Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism 

Continental drift 

Plate tectonics  relationship with earthquakes, volcanism and mountain building 

Continental and oceanic crust  composition, structure and thickness 

Weathering and soil formation 

Landforms created by river, wind, glacier, ocean and volcanoes 

Basic structural geology  stress, strain and material response 

Brittle and ductile deformation 

Nomenclature and classification of folds and faults 

Crystallography – basic crystal symmetry and concept of point groups 

Mineralogy – silicate crystal structure and determinative mineralogy of common rock forming minerals 

Petrology – mineralogy 

Classification of common igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks 

Geological time scale and geochronology and absolute time 

Stratigraphic principles 

Major stratigraphic divisions of India 

Geological and geographical distribution of mineral, coal and petroleum resources of India 

Introduction to remote sensing 

Engineering properties of rocks and soils 

Ground water geology 

Principles and applications of gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic 

Seismic and radiometric methods of prospecting for oil 

Mineral and ground water 

Introductory well logging 

Geology
Geomorphic processes and agents 

Development and evolution of landforms 

Slope and drainage 

Processes in deep oceanic and nearshore regions 

Quantitative and applied geomorphology 

Mechanism of rock deformation 

Primary and secondary structures 

Geometry and genesis of folds, faults, joints and unconformities 

Cleavage, schistosity and lineation 

Methods of projection 

Tectonites and their significance 

Shear zones 

Superposed folding 

Basementcover relationship 

Crystallography  symmetry, forms and twinning 

Crystal chemistry 

Optical mineralogy 

Classification of minerals 

Diagnostic physical and optical properties of rock  forming minerals 

Cosmic abundance of elements 

Meteorites 

Geochemical evolution of the earth 

Geochemical cycles 

Distribution of major, minor and trace elements in crust and mantle 

Elements of geochemical thermodynamics 

Isotope geochemistry 

Geochemistry of waters including solution equilibria and waterrock interaction 

Igneous rocks  classification, forms and textures 

Magmatic differentiation 

Binary and ternary phase diagrams 

Major and trace elements as monitors of partial melting and magma evolutionary processes 

Sedimentary rocks – texture and structure 

Sedimentary processes and environments 

Sedimentary facies 

Provenance and basin analysis 

Metamorphic rocks – structures and textures 

Physicochemical conditions of metamorphism and concept of metamorphic facies, grade and baric types 

Metamorphism of pelitic, mafic and impure carbonate rocks 

Role of fluids in metamorphism 

Metamorphic PTt paths and their tectonic significance 

Association of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks with tectonic setting 

Igneous and metamorphic provinces and important sedimentary basins of India 

Morphology 

Classification and geological significance of important invertebrates, vertebrates, plant fossils and microfossils 

Principles of stratigraphy and concepts of correlation  lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy 

Indian stratigraphy – Precambrian and Phanerozoic 

Overview of Himalayan geology 

Oremineralogy and optical properties of ore minerals 

Ore forming processes visàvis orerock association (magmatic, hydrothermal, sedimentary, supergene and metamorphogenic ores) 

Fluid inclusions as an ore genetic tool 

Coal and petroleum geology 

Marine mineral resources 

Prospecting and exploration of economic mineral deposits  sampling, ore reserve estimation, geostatistics, mining methods 

Ore dressing and mineral economics 

Origin and distribution of mineral, fossil and nuclear fuel deposits in India 

Engineering properties of rocks and soils 

Rocks as construction materials 

Role of geology in the construction of engineering structures including dams, tunnels and excavation sites 

Natural hazards 

Ground water geology – exploration 

Well hydraulics and water quality 

Basic principles of remote sensing – energy sources and radiation principles 

Atmospheric absorption 

Interaction of energy with earth’s surface 

Aerialphoto interpretation 

Multispectral remote sensing in visible 

Infrared 

Thermal IR and microwave regions 

Digital processing of satellite images 

GIS – basic concepts, raster and vector mode operations 

Geophysics
The earth as a planet 

Different motions of the earth 

Gravity field of the earth 

Clairaut’s theorem 

Size and shape of earth 

Geomagnetic field 

Paleomagnetism 

Geothermics and heat flow 

Seismology and interior of the earth 

Variation of density, velocity, pressure, temperature, electrical and magnetic properties of the earth 

Earthquakescauses and measurements 

Magnitude and intensity 

Focal mechanisms 

Earthquake quantification 

Source characteristics 

Seismotectonics and seismic hazards 

Digital seismographs 

Scalar and vector potential fields 

Laplace, Maxwell and Helmholtz equations for solution of different types of boundary value problems in Cartesian 

Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates 

Green’s theorem 

Image theory 

Integral equations in potential theory 

Eikonal equation and ray theory 

Absolute and relative gravity measurements 

Gravimeters, Land, airborne, shipborne and borehole gravity surveys 

Various corrections for gravity data reduction – free air 

Bouguer and isostatic anomalies 

Density estimates of rocks 

Regional and residual gravity separation 

Principle of equivalent stratum 

Data enhancement techniques 

Upward and downward continuation 

Derivative maps 

Wavelength filtering 

Preparation and analysis of gravity maps 

Gravity anomalies and their interpretation 

Anomalies due to geometrical and irregular shaped bodies, depth rules 

Calculation of mass 

Elements of earth’s magnetic field 

Units of measurement 

Magnetic susceptibility of rocks and measurements 

Magnetometers 

Airborne and marine magnetic surveys 

Various corrections applied to magnetic data 

IGRF 

Reduction to pole transformation 

Poisson’s relation of gravity and magnetic potential field 

Preparation of magnetic maps 

Magnetic anomaliesgeometrical shaped bodies 

Depth estimates 

Image processing concepts in processing of magnetic anomaly maps 

Interpretation of processed magnetic anomaly data 

Applications of gravity and magnetic methods for mineral and oil exploration 

Conduction of electricity through rocks 

Electrical conductivities of metals, nonmetals 

Rock forming minerals and different rocks 

Concepts of D.C. resistivity measurement 

Various electrode configurations for resistivity sounding and profiling 

Application of filter theory 

Typecurves over multilayered structures 

DarZarrouk parameters 

Reduction of layers 

Coefficient of anisotropy 

Interpretation of resistivity field data 

Equivalence and suppression 

Selfpotential and its origin 

Field measurement 

Induced polarization 

Time and frequency domain IP measurements 

Interpretation and applications of IP 

Groundwater exploration 

Mineral exploration 

Environmental and engineering applications 

Basic concept of EM induction in the earth 

Skindepth 

Elliptic polarization 

In phase and quadrature components 

Various EM methods 

Measurements in different sourcereceiver configurations 

Earth’s natural electromagnetic field 

Tellurics 

Magnetotellurics 

Geomagnetic depth sounding principles 

Electromagnetic profiling 

Time domain EM method 

EM scale modelling, processing of EM data and interpretation 

Geological applications including groundwater 

Mineral and hydrocarbon exploration 

Seismic methods of prospecting 

Elastic properties of earth materials 

Reflection 

Refraction and CDP surveys 

Land and marine seismic sources 

Generation and propagation of elastic waves 

Velocity – depth models 

Geophones 

Hydrophones 

Recording instruments (DFS) 

Digital formats 

Field layouts 

Seismic noises and noise profile analysis 

Optimum geophone grouping 

Noise cancellation by shot and geophone arrays 

2D and 3D seismic data acquisition 

Processing and interpretation 

CDP stacking charts 

Binning 

Filtering 

Dipmove out 

Static and dynamic corrections 

Digital seismic data processing 

Seismic deconvolution and migration methods 

Attribute analysis 

Bright and dim spots 

Seismic stratigraphy 

High resolution seismics 

VSP, AVO 

Reservoir geophysics 

Geophysical signal processing 

Sampling theorem 

Aliasing 

Nyquist frequency 

Fourier series 

Periodic waveform 

Fourier and Hilbert transform 

Ztransform and wavelet transform 

Power spectrum 

Delta function 

Auto correlation 

Cross correlation 

Convolution 

Deconvolution 

Principles of digital filters, windows, poles and zeros 

Principles and techniques of geophysical welllogging 

SP, resistivity, induction, gamma ray, neutron, density, sonic, temperature, dip meter, caliper, nuclear magnetic, cement bond logging 

Micrologs 

Quantitative evaluation of formations from well logs 

Well hydraulics and application of geophysical methods for groundwater study 

Application of bore hole geophysics in ground water 

Mineral and oil exploration 

Radioactive methods of prospecting and assaying of mineral (radioactive and nonradioactive) deposits 

Halflife 

Decay constant 

Radioactive equilibrium, GM counter 

Scintillation detector 

Semiconductor devices 

Application of radiometric for exploration, 

Assaying and radioactive waste disposal 

Basic concepts of forward and inverse problems 

Illposedness of inverse problems 

Condition number 

Nonuniqueness and stability of solutions 

L1, L2 and LP norms 

Overdetermined, Underdetermined and mixed determined inverse problems 

Quasilinear and nonlinear methods including Tikhonov’s regularization method 

Singular value decomposition 

BackusGilbert method 

Simulated annealing 

Genetic algorithms and artificial neural network 

GATE Instrumentation Engineering Syllabus
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrix algebra 
Systems of linear equations 
Eigen values and Eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Mean value theorems 
Theorems of integral calculus 
Partial derivatives 
Maxima and minima 
Multiple integrals 
Fourier series 
Vector identities 
Line, surface & volume integrals 
Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems 
Differential equations 

First order equation of linear and nonlinear 
Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients 
Method of variation of parameters 
Cauchy's and Euler's equations 
Initial and boundary value problems 
Solution of partial differential equations and variable separable method 
Analysis of complex variables 

Analytic functions 
Cauchy's integral theorem and integral formula 
Taylor's and Laurent's series 
Residue theorem 
Solution of integrals 
Probability and Statistics 

Sampling theorems 
Conditional probability 
Mean, median, mode & standard deviation 
Random variables 
Discrete and continuous of Poisson and binomial distributions 
Numerical methods 

Matrix inversion 
Solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations 
Iterative methods for solving differential equations 
Numerical integration 
Regression and correlation analysis 
Instrumentation engineering
Electrical circuits 

Voltage and current sources: independent, dependent, ideal and practical 
VI relationships of resistor 
Inductor, mutual inductor and capacitor 
Transient analysis of RLC circuits with DC excitation 
Kirchhoff's laws 
Mesh and nodal analysis 
Superposition 
Thevenin 
Norton 
Maximum power transfer and reciprocity theorems 
Peak, average and RMS values of AC quantities 
Apparent, active and reactive powers 
Phasor analysis 
Impedance and admittance 
Series and parallel resonance 
Locus diagrams 
Realization of basic filters with R, L and C elements 
Oneport and twoport networks 
Driving point impedance and admittance 
Open and short circuit parameters 
Signals and systems 

Periodic, aperiodic and impulse signals 
Laplace, Fourier and ztransforms 
Transfer function 
Frequency response of first and second order linear time invariant systems 
Impulse response of systems 
Convolution 
Correlation 
Discrete time system: Impulse response, frequency response and pulse transfer function 
DFT and FFT 
Basics of IIR and FIR filters 
Control systems 

Feedback principles 
Signal flow graphs 
Transient Response 
Steadystateerrors 
Bode plot 
Phase and gain margins 
Routh and Nyquist criteria 
Root loci 
Design of lead 
Lag and leadlag compensators 
Statespace representation of systems 
Timedelay systems 
Mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system components 
Synchro pair 
Servo and stepper motors 
Servo valves 
Onoff, P, PI, PID, cascade, feedforward, and ratio controllers 
Analog electronics 

Characteristics and applications of diode 
Zener diode 
BJT and MOSFET 
Small signal analysis of transistor circuits 
Feedback amplifiers 
Characteristics of operational amplifiers 
Applications of Op Amps: difference amplifier, adder, subtractor, integrator, differentiator, instrumentation amplifier, precision rectifier, active filters and other circuits 
Oscillators 
Signal generators 
Voltage controlled oscillators and phase locked loop 
Digital electronics 

Combinational logic circuits 
Minimization of Boolean functions 
IC families of TTL and CMOS 
Arithmetic circuits 
Comparators 
Schmitt trigger 
Multivibrators 
Sequential circuits 
Flip flops 
Shift registers 
Timers and counters 
Sampleandhold circuit 
Multiplexer 
Analogtodigital converter (successive approximation, integrating, flash and sigmadelta) 
Digitaltoanalog converter (weighted R, R2R ladder and current steering logic) 
Characteristics of ADC and DAC in resolution, quantization, significant bits, conversion/settling time 
Basics of number systems 
8bit microprocessor and microcontroller: applications, memory and inputoutput interfacing 
Basics of data acquisition systems 
Measurements 

S.I Units 
Systematic and random errors in measurement 
Expression of uncertainty  accuracy and precision index 
Propagation of errors 
MI, PMMC and dynamometer type instruments 
Dc potentiometer 
Bridges for measurement of R, L and C, Qmeter 
Measurement of voltage 
Current and power in single and three phase circuits 
AC and DC current probes 
True RMS meters 
Voltage and current scaling 
Instrument transformers 
Timer/counter 
Time, phase and frequency measurements 
Digital voltmeter and digital multimeter 
Oscilloscope 
Shielding and grounding 
Sensors and industrial instrumentation 

Resistive, capacitive, inductive, piezoelectric 
Hall effect sensors and associated signal conditioning circuits 
Transducers for industrial instrumentation 
Displacement (linear and angular) 
Velocity, acceleration, force, torque, vibration, shock, pressure (including low pressure) 
Flow (differential pressure, variable area, electromagnetic, ultrasonic, turbine and open channel flow meters) 
Temperature (thermocouple, bolometer, RTD (3/4 wire), thermistor, pyrometer and semiconductor) 
Liquid level, pH, conductivity and viscosity measurement 
Communication and optical instrumentation 

Amplitude & frequency modulation and demodulation 
Shannon's sampling theorem 
Pulse code modulation 
Frequency and time division multiplexing 
Amplitude, phase, frequency, pulse shift keying for digital modulation 
Optical sources and detectors: LED, laser, photodiode, light dependent resistor and their characteristics 
Interferometer and applications in metrology 
Basics of fibre optic sensing 
GATE Mathematics Syllabus
Mathematics
Calculus 

Finite, countable and uncountable sets 
Real number system as a complete ordered field 
Archimedean property 
Sequences and series 
Convergence 
Limits 
Continuity 
Limits, continuity and uniform continuity 
Differentiability 
Mean value theorems 
Riemann integration 
Improper integrals 
Functions of two or three variables 
Directional derivatives 
Partial derivatives 
Total derivative of maxima and minima 
Saddle point 
Method of Lagrange's multipliers 
Double and triple integrals and their applications 
Line integrals and surface integrals 
Green's theorem, Stokes theorem and Gauss divergence theorem 
Linear algebra 

Finite dimensional vector spaces over real or complex fields 
Linear transformations and their matrix representations 
Rank and nullity 
Systems of linear equations 
Eigen values and Eigen vectors 
Minimal polynomial 
CayleyHamilton theorem 
Diagonalization 
Jordan canonical form 
Symmetric 
Skewsymmetric 
Hermitian, skew Hermitian 
SkewHermitian 
Orthogonal and unitary matrices 
Finite dimensional inner product spaces 
GramSchmidt orthonormalization process 
Definite forms 
Real analysis 

Metric spaces 
Connectedness 
Compactness 
Completeness 
Sequences and series of functions 
Uniform convergence 
Weierstrass approximation theorem 
Power series 
Functions of several variables: Differentiation, contraction mapping principle 
Inverse and implicit function theorems 
Lebesgue measure 
Measurable functions 
Lebesgue integral 
Fatou's lemma 
Monotone convergence theorem 
Dominated convergence theorem 
Complex analysis 

Analytic functions 
Harmonic functions 
Complex integration and Cauchy's integral theorem and formula 
Liouville's theorem 
Maximum modulus principle 
Morera's theorem 
Zeros and singularities 
Power series 
Radius of convergence 
Taylor's theorem and Laurent's theorem 
Residue theorem and applications for evaluating real integrals 
Rouche's theorem 
Argument principle 
Schwarz lemma 
Conformal mappings 
Bilinear transformations 
Ordinary differential equations 

First order ordinary differential equations 
Existence and uniqueness theorems for initial value problems 
Linear ordinary differential equations of higher order with constant coefficients 
Second order linear ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients 
CauchyEuler equation 
Method of Laplace transforms for solving ordinary differential equations 
Series solutions in power series and Frobenius method 
Legendre and Bessel functions and their orthogonal properties 
Systems of linear first order ordinary differential equations 
Algebra 

Groups 
Subgroups 
Normal subgroups 
Quotient groups 
Homomorphisms 
Automorphisms 
Cyclic groups 
Permutation groups 
Sylow's theorems and their applications 
Rings, ideals, prime and maximal ideals 
Quotient rings, unique factorization domains 
Principle ideal domains and Euclidean domains 
Polynomial rings and irreducibility criteria 
Finite fields and extensions fields 
Functional analysis 

Normed linear spaces 
Banach spaces 
HahnBanach theorem 
Open mapping and closed graph theorems 
Principle of uniform boundedness 
Innerproduct spaces 
Hilbert spaces 
Orthonormal bases 
Riesz representation theorem 
Numerical analysis 

Numerical solutions of algebraic and transcendental equations: bisection, secant method, NewtonRaphson method, fixed point iteration 
Interpolation: Error of polynomial interpolation, Lagrange and Newton interpolations 
Numerical differentiation 
Numerical integration: Trapezoidal and Simpson's rules 
Numerical solution of a system of linear equations and direct methods (Gauss elimination and LU decomposition) 
Iterative methods (Jacobi and GaussSeidel) 
Numerical solution of initial value problems of ODEs: Euler's method, RungeKutta methods of order 2 
Partial differential equations 

Linear and quasilinear first order partial differential equations 
Method of characteristics 
Second order linear equations in two variables and their classification 
Cauchy problems 
Dirichlet and Neumann problems 
Solutions of Laplace and wave equations in two dimensional Cartesian coordinates 
Interior and exterior Dirichlet problems in polar coordinates 
Separation of variables method for solving wave and diffusion equations in one space variable 
Fourier series and Fourier transform and Laplace transform methods of solutions for the equations mentioned above 
Topology 

Basic concepts of topology 
Bases 
Subbases 
Subspace topology 
Order topology 
Product topology 
Metric topology 
Connectedness 
Compactness 
Countability and separation axioms 
Urysohn's lemma 
Linear programming 

Linear programming problem and its formulation 
Convex sets and their properties 
Graphical method 
Basic feasible solution 
Simplex method 
Two phase methods 
Infeasible and unbounded LPP's 
Alternate optima 
Dual problem and duality theorems 
Balanced and unbalanced transportation problems 
Vogel's approximation method for solving transportation problems 
Hungarian method for solving assignment problems 
GATE Mechanical Engineering Syllabus
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrix algebra 
Systems of linear equations 
Eigen values and Eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Functions of single variable 
Limit 
Continuity and differentiability 
Mean value theorems 
Indeterminate forms 
Evaluation of definite and improper integrals 
Double and triple integrals 
Partial derivatives 
Total derivative 
Taylor series in one and two variables 
Maxima and minima 
Fourier series 
Gradient, divergence and curl, vector identities 
Directional derivatives 
Line, surface & volume integrals 
Applications of gauss, stokes and green's theorems 
Differential equations 

First order equations of linear and nonlinear 
Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients 
EulerCauchy equation 
Initial and boundary value problems 
Laplace transforms 
Solutions of heat, wave and Laplace's equations 
Complex variables 

Analytic functions 
CauchyRiemann equations 
Cauchy's integral theorem and integral formula 
Taylor and Laurent series 
Probability and Statistics 

Definitions of probability 
Sampling theorems 
Conditional probability 
Mean, median, mode & standard deviation 
Random variables 
Poisson, binomial and normal distributions 
Numerical methods 

Numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations 
Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson's rules 
Single and multistep methods for differential equations 
Applied mechanics and design
Engineering mechanics 

Freebody diagrams and equilibrium 
Trusses and frames 
Virtual work 
Kinematics and dynamics of particles and of rigid bodies in plane motion 
Impulse and momentum (linear and angular) and energy formulations 
Collisions 
Mechanics of materials 

Stress and strain 
Elastic constants 
Poisson's Ratio 
Mohr's circle for plane stress and plane strain 
Thin cylinders 
Shear force and bending moment diagrams 
Bending and shear stresses 
Deflection of beams 
Torsion of circular shafts 
Euler's theory of columns 
Energy methods 
Thermal stresses 
Strain gauges and rosettes 
Testing of materials with universal testing machine 
Testing of hardness and impact strength 
Theory of machines 

Displacement 
Velocity and acceleration analysis of plane mechanisms 
Dynamic analysis of linkages 
Cams 
Gears and gear trains 
Flywheels and governors 
Balancing of reciprocating and rotating masses 
Gyroscope 
Vibrations 

Free and forced vibration of single degree of freedom systems 
Effect of damping 
Vibration isolation 
Resonance 
Critical speeds of shafts 
Machine design 

Design for static and dynamic loading 
Failure theories, Mohr’s circle(stress), deflection of beams 
Fatigue strength and the SN diagram 
Principles of the design of machine elements such as bolted, riveted and welded joints 
Shafts 
Gears 
Rolling and sliding contact bearings 
Brakes and clutches 
Springs 
Fluid mechanics and thermal sciences
Fluid mechanics 

Fluid properties 
Fluid statics 
Manometry 
Buoyancy 
Forces on submerged bodies 
Stability of floating bodies 
Controlvolume analysis of mass 
Momentum and energy 
Fluid acceleration 
Differential equations of continuity and momentum 
Bernoulli's equation 
Dimensional analysis 
Viscous flow of incompressible fluids 
Boundary layer 
Elementary turbulent flow 
Flow through pipes 
Head losses in pipes, bends and fittings 
Heattransfer 

Modes of heat transfer 
One dimensional heat conduction 
Resistance concept and electrical analogy 
Heat transfer through fins 
Unsteady heat conduction 
Lumped parameter system 
Heisler's charts 
Thermal boundary layer 
Dimensionless parameters in free and forced convective heat transfer 
Heat transfer correlations for flow over flat plates and through pipes 
Effect of turbulence 
Heat exchanger performance 
LMTD and NTU methods 
Radiative heat transfer 
StefanBoltzmann law 
Wien's displacement law 
Black and grey surfaces 
View factors 
Radiation network analysis 
Thermodynamics 

Thermodynamic systems and processes 
Properties of pure substances 
Behaviour of ideal and real gases 
Zeroth and first laws of thermodynamics 
Calculation of work and heat in various processes 
Second law of thermodynamics 
Thermodynamic property charts and tables 
Availability and irreversibility 
Thermodynamic relations 
Applications 

Air and gas compressors of power engineering 
Vapour and gas power cycles 
Concepts of regeneration and reheat 
I.C. Engines: Airstandard Otto, diesel and dual cycles 
Refrigeration and airconditioning of vapour and gas refrigeration and heat pump cycles 
Properties of moist air 
Psychrometric chart 
Basic psychrometric processes 
Turbomachinery: Impulse and reaction principles, velocity diagrams, Peltonwheel, Francis and Kaplan turbines 
Materials, manufacturing and industrial engineering
Engineering materials 

Structure and properties of engineering materials 
Phase diagrams 
Heat treatment 
Stressstrain diagrams for engineering materials 
Casting, forming and joining processes 

Different types of castings 
Design of patterns 
Moulds and cores 
Solidification and cooling 
Riser and gating design 
Plastic deformation and yield criteria 
Fundamentals of hot and cold working processes 
Load estimation for bulk in forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing and sheet in shearing, deep drawing, bending) metal forming processes 
Principles of powder metallurgy 
Principles of welding 
Brazing 
Soldering and adhesive bonding 
Machining and machine tool operations 

Mechanics of machining 
Basic machine tools 
Single and multipoint cutting tools 
Tool geometry and materials 
Tool life and wear 
Economics of machining 
Principles of nontraditional machining processes 
Principles of work holding 
Design of jigs and fixtures 
Metrology and inspection 

Limits, fits and tolerances 
Linear and angular measurements 
Comparators 
Gauge design 
Interferometry 
Form and finish measurement 
Alignment and testing methods 
Tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly 
Computer integrated manufacturing 

Basic concepts of CAD/CAM and their integration tools 
Production planning and control 

Forecasting models 
Aggregate production planning 
Scheduling 
Materials requirement planning 
Inventory control 

Deterministic models 
Safety stock inventory control systems 
Operations research 

Linear Programming 
Simplex method 
Transportation 
Assignment 
Network flow models 
Simple queuing models 
PERT and CPM 
GATE Metallurgical Engineering Syllabus
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrices and determinants 
Systems of linear equations 
Eigen values and Eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Limit, continuity & differentiability 
Partial derivatives 
Maxima and minima 
Sequences and series 
Test for convergence 
Fourier series 
Vector calculus 

Gradient 
Gradient, divergence and curl 
Line, surface, volume integrals 
Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems 
Differential equations 

Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs 
Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients 
Cauchy's and Euler's equations 
Laplace transforms 
PDES –Laplace 
One dimensional heat and wave equations 
Probability and Statistics 

Definitions of probability and sampling theorems 
Conditional probability 
Mean, median, mode and standard deviation 
Random variables 
Poisson, normal and binomial distributions 
Correlation and regression analysis 
Numerical methods 

Solutions of linear and nonlinear (bisection, secant, Newton Raphson methods) algebraic equations 
Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson's rule 
Single and multistep methods for differential equations 
Thermodynamics and rate processes
Laws of thermodynamics 

Activity and equilibrium constant 

Applications to metallurgical systems 

Solutions and phase equilibria 

Ellingham and phase stability diagrams 

Thermodynamics of surfaces, interfaces and defects 

Adsorption and segregation 

Basic kinetic laws and order of reactions 

Rate constants and rate limiting steps 

Principles of electro chemistry single electrode potential 

Electrochemical cells and polarizations 

Aqueous corrosion and protection of metals 

Galvanic, crevice, pitting and intergranular corrosion 

Selective leaching 

Oxidation and high temperature corrosion – characterization and control 

Heat transfer: Conduction, convection and heat transfer coefficient relations, radiation 

Mass transfer: diffusion and Fick’s laws, mass transfer coefficients 

Momentum transfer: Concepts of viscosity, shell balances 

Bernoulli’s equation, friction factors 

Extractive metallurgy
Minerals of economic importance 

Comminution techniques 

Size classification 

Flotation, gravity and other methods of mineral processing 

Agglomeration 

Pyro, hydro and electrometallurgical processes 

Material and energy balances 

Principles and processes for the extraction of nonferrous metals – aluminium, copper, zinc, lead, magnesium, nickel, titanium and other rare metals 

Iron and steel making – principles, role structure 

Properties of slags 

Metallurgical coke 

Blast furnace and direct reduction processes 

Primary and secondary steel making 

Ladle metallurgy operations including deoxidation 

Desulphurization 

Sulphide shape control 

Inert gas rinsing and vacuum reactors 

Secondary refining processes including AOD, VAD, VOD, VAR and ESR 

Ingot and continuous casting 

Stainless steel making, furnaces and refractories 

Physical metallurgy
Crystal structure and bonding characteristics of metals 

Alloys, ceramics and polymers 

Structure of surfaces and interfaces 

Nanocrystalline and amorphous structures 

Solid solutions 

Solidification 

Phase transformation and binary phase diagrams 

Principles of heat treatment of steels 

Cast iron and aluminium alloys 

Surface treatments 

Recovery, recrystallization and grain growth 

Structure and properties of industrially important ferrous and nonferrous alloys 

Elements of Xray and electron diffraction 

Principles of optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy 

Industrial ceramics, polymers and composites 

Introduction to electronic basis of thermal, optical, electrical and magnetic properties of materials 

Introduction to electronic and optoelectronic materials 

Mechanical metallurgy
Elasticity, yield criteria and plasticity 

Defects in crystals 

Elements of dislocation theory – types of dislocations 

Slip and twinning 

Source and multiplication of dislocations 

Stress fields around dislocations 

Partial dislocations 

Dislocation interactions and reactions 

Strengthening mechanisms 

Tensile, fatigue and creep behaviour 

Super plasticity 

Fracture – Griffith theory 

Basic concepts of linear elastic and elastoplastic fracture mechanics 

Ductile to brittle transition 

Fracture toughness 

Failure analysis 

Mechanical testing and tension, compression, torsion, hardness, impact, creep, fatigue, fracture toughness and formability 

Manufacturing processes
Metal casting of patterns and moulds including mould design involving feeding 

Gating and risering 

Melting and casting practices in sand casting 

Permanent mould casting 

Investment casting and shell moulding 

Casting defects and repair 

Hot, warm and cold working of metals 

Metal forming: fundamentals of metal forming processes of rolling, forging, extrusion, wire drawing 

Sheet metal forming, defects in forming 

Metal joining: Soldering, brazing and welding 

Common welding processes of shielded metal arc welding 

Gas metal arc welding 

Gas tungsten arc and submerged arc welding 

Welding metallurgy 

Problems associated with welding of steels and aluminium alloys 

Defects in welded joints 

Metallurgy and production of powders 

Compaction and sintering powder 

NDT using dye penetrant 

Ultrasonic, radiography, eddy current, acoustic emission and magnetic particle methods 

GATE Mining Engineering Syllabus
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrices and determinants 
Systems of linear equations 
Eigen values and Eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Limit 
Continuity and differentiability 
Partial derivatives 
Maxima and minima 
Sequences and series 
Test for convergence 
Fourier series 
Vector calculus 

Gradient, divergence and curl 
Line, surface & volume integrals 
Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems 
Differential equations 

Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs 
Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients 
Cauchy's and Euler's equations 
Probability and Statistics 

Measures of central tendency 
Random variables 
Poisson, normal & binomial distributions 
Correlation and regression analysis 
Numerical methods 

Solutions of linear algebraic equations 
Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson's rule 
Single and multistep methods for differential equations 
Mine development and surveying
Mine development 

Methods of access to deposits 
Underground drivages 
Drilling methods and machines 
Explosives, blasting devices and practices 
Mine surveying 

Levels and levelling 
Theodolite 
Tacheometry 
Triangulation 
Contouring 
Errors and adjustments 
Correlation 
Underground surveying 
Curves 
Photogrammetry 
Field astronomy 
EDM and total station 
Introductory GPS 
Geomechanics and ground control
Engineering mechanics 

Equivalent force systems 
Equations of equilibrium 
Two dimensional frames and trusses 
Free body diagrams 
Friction forces 
Particle kinematics and dynamics 
Beam analysis 
Geomechanics 

Geotechnical properties of rocks 
Rock mass classification 
Instrumentation and stress measurement techniques 
Theories of rock failure 
Ground vibrations 
Stress distribution around mine openings 
Subsidence 
Rock bursts and coal bumps 
Slope stability 
Ground control 

Design of pillars 
Roof supporting systems 
Mine filling 
Mining methods and machinery
Mining methods 

Surface mining: layout, development 
Loading, transportation and mechanization of surface mining 
Continuous surface mining systems 
Underground coal mining: bord and pillar systems 
Room and pillar mining 
Longwall mining, thick seam mining methods 
Highwall mining 
Underground metal mining: open, supported and caved stoping methods, stope mechanization, ore handling systems 
Mining machinery 

Generation and transmission of mechanical 
Hydraulic and pneumatic power 
Materials handling of haulages, conveyors, face and development machinery, hoisting systems, pumps, crushers 
Surface environment, mine ventilation, and underground hazards
Surface environment 

Air, water and soil pollution and standards of quality, causes and dispersion of contamination, and control 
Noise 
Land reclamation 
Mine ventilation 

Underground atmosphere 
Heat load sources and thermal environment 
Air cooling 
Mechanics of air flow 
Distribution, natural and mechanical ventilation 
Mine fans and their usage 
Auxiliary ventilation 
Ventilation planning 
Subsurface hazards 

Mine gases 
Underground hazards from fires 
Explosions 
Dust and inundation 
Ventilation planning 
Rescue apparatus and practices 
Safety in mines 
Accident data analysis 
Mine lighting 
Mine legislation 
Occupational safety 
Economics, mine planning, systems engineering
Mine economics 

Mineral resource classification 
Discounted cash flow analysis 
Mine valuation 
Mine investment analysis 
Mineral taxation 
Mine planning 

Sampling methods 
Practices and interpretation 
Reserve estimation techniques and basics of geostatistics and quality control 
Optimization of facility location 
Workstudy 
Systems engineering 

Concepts of reliability 
Reliability of simple systems 
Maintainability and availability 
Linear Programming 
Transportation and assignment problems 
Network analysis 
Inventory models 
Queueing theory 
Basics of simulation 
GATE Petroleum Engineering Syllabus
Petroleum engineering
Linear algebra 

Matrix algebra 
Systems of linear equations 
Eigen values and Eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Functions of single variable 
Limit, Continuity and differentiability 
Taylor series 
Mean value theorems 
Evaluation of definite and improper integrals 
Partial derivatives 
Total derivative 
Maxima and minima 
Gradient 
Gradient, divergence and curl 
Vector identities 
Directional derivatives 
Line, surface and volume integrals 
Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems 
Differential equations 

First order equations of linear and nonlinear 
Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients 
Cauchy's and Euler's equations 
Initial and boundary value problems 
Laplace transforms 
Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation 
Complex variables 

Complex number 
Polar form of complex number 
Triangle inequality 
Probability and Statistics 

Definitions of probability and sampling theorems 
Conditional probability 
Mean, median, mode and standard deviation 
Random variables 
Poisson, normal & binomial distributions 
Linear regression analysis 
Numerical methods 

Numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations 
Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson's rule 
Single and multistep methods for numerical solution of differential equations 
Petroleum exploration 

Classification and description of some common rocks with special reference to clastic and nonclastic reservoir rocks 
Origin, migration and accumulation of petroleum 
Petroleum exploration methods 
Oil and gas well drilling technology 

Well planning 
Drilling method 
Drilling rigs rig operating systems 
Drilling fluids function and properties 
Drilling fluid maintenance equipment 
Oil and gas well cementing operations 
Drill bit types and their applications 
Drill string and casing string function 
Operations, selection and design 
Drilling problems, their control and remedies 
Directional drilling tools 
Directional survey 
Application of horizontal, multilateral, extended reach, slim wells 
Reservoir engineering 

Petrophysical properties of reservoir rocks 
Coring and core analysis 
Reservoir fluid properties 
Phase behaviour of hydrocarbon system 
Flow of fluids through porous media 
Water and gas coning 
Reservoir pressure measurements 
Reservoir drives 
Drive mechanics and recovery factors 
Reserve estimation & techniques 
Petroleum production operations 

Well equipment 
Well completion techniques 
Well production problems and mitigation 
Well servicing & workover operations 
Workover & completion fluids 
Formation damage 
Well stimulation techniques 
Artificial lift techniques 
Field processing of oil & gas 
Storage and transportation of petroleum and petroleum products 
Metering and measurements oil & gas 
Production system analysis & optimization 
Production testing 
Multiphase flow in tubing and flowlines 
Nodal system analysis 
Pressure vessels 
Storage tanks 
Shell and tube heat exchangers 
Flow meters , pumps and compressors 
LNG value chain 
Offshore drilling and production practices 

Offshore oil and gas operations and ocean environment 
Offshore fixed platforms 
Offshore mobile units 
Station keeping methods like mooring and dynamic positioning system 
Offshore drilling from fixed platform, jackup, ships and semi submersibles 
Use of conductors and risers 
Offshore well completion 
Deep water applications of subsea technology 
Offshore production: Oil processing platforms, water injection platforms, storage 
SPM and SBM transportation and utilities 
Deep water drilling rig 
Deep water production system 
Emerging deep water technologies 
Petroleum formation evaluation 

Evaluation of petrophysical of subsurface formations: principles applications, advantages and disadvantages of SP 
Resistivity, radioactive, acoustic logs and types of tools used 
Evaluation of CBL/VDL, USIT, SFT, RFT 
Production logging tools 
Principles, limitations and applications 
Special type of logging tools 
Casing inspection tools (principles, applications and limitations) 
Formations micro scanner 
NMR logging principles 
Standard log interpretation methods 
Crossplotting methods 
Oil and gas well testing 

Diffusivity equation 
Derivation & solutions 
Radius of investigation 
Principle of superposition 
Horner's approximation 
Drill stem testing 
Pressure transient tests of drawdown and build uptest analysis 
Wellbore effects 
Multilayer reservoirs 
Injection well testing 
Multiple well testing 
Interference testing 
Pulse testing 
Welltest analysis by use of type curves 
Gas well testing 
Health safety and environment in petroleum industry 

Health hazards in petroleum industry: toxicity, physiological, asphyxiation, respiratory and skin effect of petroleum hydrocarbons, sour gases 
Safety System: Manual & automatic shutdown system, blow down systems 
Gas detection system 
Fire detection and suppression systems 
Personal protection system and measures 
HSE policies 
Disaster and crisis management in petroleum industry 
Environment concepts 
Impact on ecosystem, air, water and soil 
The impact of drilling & production operations on environment 
Environmental transport of petroleum wastes 
Offshore environmental studies 
Offshore oil spill and oil spill control 
Waste treatment methods 
Enhanced oil recovery techniques 

Basic principles and mechanism of EOR 
Screening of EOR process 
Concept of pattern flooding 
Recovery efficiency 
Permeability heterogeneity 
Macroscopic and microscopic displacement efficiency 
EOR methods: Chemical flooding, miscible flooding 
Thermal recoveries (steam stimulation, hot water & steam flooding, insitu combustion) 
Microbial EOR 
Latest trends in petroleum engineering 

Coal bed methane 
Shale gas 
Oil shale 
Gas hydrate and heavy oil 
GATE Physics Syllabus
Mathematical physics
Linear vector space of basis, orthogonality and completeness 

Matrices 

Vector calculus 

Linear differential equations 

Elements of complex analysis 

CauchyRiemann conditions 

Cauchy’s theorems 

Singularities 

Residue theorem and applications 

Laplace transforms 

Fourier analysis 

Elementary ideas about tensors of covariant and contravariant tensor 

LeviCivita and Christoffel symbols of tensors 

Classical mechanics
D’Alembert’s principle 

Cyclic coordinates 

Variational principle 

Lagrange’s equation of motion 

Central force and scattering problems 

Rigid body motion 

Small oscillations 

Hamilton’s formalisms 

Poisson bracket 

Special theory of relativity and Lorentz transformations 

Relativistic kinematics 

Mass‐energy equivalence 

Electromagnetic theory
Solutions of electrostatic and magnetostatic problems including boundary value problems 

Dielectrics and conductors 

Maxwell’s equations 

Scalar and vector potentials 

Coulomb and Lorentz gauges 

Electromagnetic waves and their reflection 

Refraction 

Interference 

Diffraction and polarization 

Poynting vector 

Poynting theorem 

Energy and momentum of electromagnetic waves 

Radiation from a moving charge 

Quantum mechanics
Postulates of quantum mechanics 

Uncertainty principle 

Schrodinger equation 

One, two, and threedimensional potential problems 

Particle in a box 

Transmission through one dimensional potential barriers 

Harmonic oscillator 

Hydrogen atom 

Linear vectors and operators in Hilbert space 

Angular momentum and spin 

Addition of angular momenta 

Time independent perturbation theory 

Elementary scattering theory 

Thermodynamics and statistical physics
Laws of thermodynamics 

Macrostates and microstates 

Phase space 

Ensembles 

Partition function 

Free energy 

Calculation of thermodynamic quantities 

Classical and quantum statistics 

Degenerate fermi gas 

Black body radiation and Planck’s distribution law 

Bose‐Einstein condensation 

First and second order phase transitions 

Phase equilibria 

Critical point 

Atomic and molecular physics
Spectra of one and many electron atoms 

LS and jj coupling 

Hyperfine structure 

Zeeman and stark effects 

Electric dipole transitions and selection rules 

Rotational and vibrational spectra of diatomic molecules 

Electronic transition in diatomic molecules 

Franck‐Condon principle 

Raman effect 

NMR, ESR, Xray spectra 

Lasers of Einstein coefficients 

Population inversion of lasers 

Two and three level systems of lasers 

Solid state physics & electronics
Elements of crystallography 

Diffraction methods for structure determination 

Bonding in solids 

Lattice vibrations and thermal properties of solids 

Free electron theory 

Band theory of solids 

Nearly free electron and tight binding models 

Metals and semiconductors and insulators 

Conductivity 

Mobility and effective mass 

Optical, dielectric and magnetic properties of solids 

Elements of superconductivity 

TypeI and type II superconductors 

Meissner effect 

London equation 

Semiconductor devices and diodes 

Bipolar junction transistors 

Field effect transistors 

Operational amplifiers and negative feedback circuits 

Active filters and oscillators 

Regulated power supplies 

Basic digital logic circuits 

Sequential circuits 

Flipflops 

Counters and registers 

A/D and D/A conversion 

Nuclear and particle physics
Nuclear radii and charge distributions 

Nuclear binding energy 

Electric and magnetic moments 

Nuclear models 

Liquid drop model and semi‐empirical mass formula 

Fermi gas model of nucleus 

Nuclear shell model of liquid drop 

Nuclear force and two nucleon problem 

Alpha decay and beta‐decay 

Electromagnetic transitions in nuclei 

Rutherford scattering 

Nuclear reactions 

Conservation laws 

Fission and fusion 

Particle accelerators and detectors 

Elementary particles 

Photons and baryons 

Mesons and leptons 

Quark model 

GATE Production and Industrial Engineering Syllabus
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrix algebra 
Systems of linear equations 
Eigen values and Eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Functions of single variable 
Limit, continuity & differentiability 
Mean value theorems 
Evaluation of definite and improper integrals 
Partial derivatives 
Total derivative 
Maxima and minima 
Gradient, divergence and curl 
Vector identities 
Directional derivatives 
Line, surface, volume integrals 
Stokes, gauss and green's theorems 
Differential equations 

First order equations (linear and nonlinear) 
Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients 
Cauchy's and Euler's equations 
Initial and boundary value problems 
Laplace transforms 
Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation 
Complex variables 

Analytic functions 
Cauchy's integral theorem 
Taylor series 
Probability and Statistics 

Definitions of probability and sampling theorems 
Conditional probability 
Mean, median, mode and standard deviation 
Random variables 
Poisson, normal & binomial distributions 
Numerical methods 

Numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations 
Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson's rule 
Single and multistep methods for differential equations 
General engineering
Engineering materials 

Structure and properties correlation 
Engineering materials like metals, ceramics, polymers and composites 
Properties and applications of engineering materials 
Stressstrain behaviour of metals and alloys 
Ironcarbon phase diagram 
Heat treatment of metals and alloys, its influence on mechanical properties 
Applied mechanics 

Engineering mechanicsequivalent force systems 
Free body concepts 
Equations of equilibrium 
Trusses 
Strength of materials– stress, strain and their relationship 
Failure theories, Mohr’s circle(stress), deflection of beams 
Bending and shear stress 
Euler's theory of columns 
Theory of machines and design 

Analysis of planar mechanisms 
Cams and followers 
Governors and fly wheels 
Design of bolted, riveted and welded joints 
Interference/shrink fit joints 
Design of shafts, keys, spur gears, belt drives, brakes and clutches 
Pressure vessels 
Thermal and fluids engineering 

Fluid mechanics and statics 
Bernoulli's equation 
Flow through pipes 
Equations of continuity and momentum 
Capillary action of fluid 
Contact angle and wetting 
Thermodynamics – zeroth, first and second law of thermodynamics 
Thermodynamic system and processes 
Calculation of work and heat for systems and control volumes 
Air standard cycles 
Heat transfer  basic applications of conduction, convection and radiation 
Manufacturing processes I
Casting 

Types of casting processes and applications 
Patterns of types and materials 
Allowances 
Moulds and cores of materials, making, and testing 
Casting techniques of cast iron, steels and nonferrous metals and alloys 
Analysis of solidification and microstructure development 
Design of gating and riser 
Origin of defects 
Metal forming 

Stressstrain relations in elastic and plastic deformation 
Concept of flow stress 
Hot and cold working and forging, rolling, extrusion and wire drawing 
Sheet metal working processes  blanking, bending and deep drawing 
Ideal work and slab analysis 
Origin of metal working defects 
Joining of materials 

Principles of fusion welding processes (manual metal arc, MIG, TIG, plasma arc, submerged arc welding processes) 
Different heat sources (flame, arc, resistive, laser, electron beam) 
Heat transfer and associated losses 
Flux application and feeding of filler rod 
Principles of solid state welding processes (friction, explosive welding, ultrasonic welding processes) 
Principles of adhesive, brazing and soldering processes 
Origins of welding defects 
Powder processing 

Production of metal/ceramic powders 
Compaction and sintering of metals and ceramic powders 
Polymers and composites 

Plastic processing  injection, compression and blow molding, extrusion, calendaring and thermoforming 
Molding of composites 
Manufacturing processes II
Machine tools and machining 

Basic machine tools like centre lathe 
Milling and drilling machine of construction and kinematics 
Machining processes  turning, taper turning, thread cutting, drilling, boring, milling, gear cutting, thread production, grinding 
Geometry of single point cutting tools 
Chip formation 
Cutting forces 
Specific cutting energy and power requirements 
Merchant's analysis 
Basis of selection of machining parameters 
Tool materials, tool wear and tool life 
Economics of machining 
Thermal aspects of machining 
Cutting fluids 
Machinability 
Jigs and fixtures  principles, applications, and design 
Nontraditional manufacturing 

Principles, applications and effect of process parameters on MRR and product quality of nontraditional machining processes 
USM, AJM, WJM, AWJM, EDM and wire cut EDM, LBM, EBM, PAM, CHM, ECM nontraditional machining processes 
Computer integrated manufacturing 

Basic concepts of CAD – geometric modelling 
CAM – CNC and robotics – configurations 
Drives and controls 
Group technology and its applications  CAPP 
Cellular manufacturing and FMS 
Quality and reliability
Metrology and inspection 

Limits, fits, and tolerances, gauge design, interchangeability, selective assembly 
Linear, angular, and form measurements 
Straightness, squareness, flatness, roundness, and cylindricity by mechanical and optical methods 
Inspection of screw threads and gears 
Surface finish measurement by contact and noncontact methods 
Tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly 
Quality management 

Quality  concept and costs 
Quality assurance 
Statistical quality control 
Acceptance sampling 
Zero defects 
Six sigma 
Total quality management 
ISO 9000 
Reliability and maintenance 

Reliability, availability and maintainability 
Distribution of failure and repair times 
Determination of MTBF and MTTR 
Reliability models 
Determination of system reliability 
Preventive maintenance and replacement 
Industrial engineering
Product design and development 

Principles of good product design 
Tolerance design 
Quality and cost considerations 
Product life cycle 
Standardization 
Simplification 
Diversification 
Value engineering and analysis 
Concurrent engineering 
Comparison of production alternatives 
Work system design 

Taylor's Scientific management 
Gilbreth's contributions 
Productivity –concepts and measurements 
Method study 
Micromotion study 
Principles of motion economy 
Work measurement  time study, work sampling, standard data, PMTS 
Ergonomics 
Job evaluation 
Merit rating 
Incentive schemes 
Wage administration 
Facility design 

Facility location factors and evaluation of alternate locations 
Types of plant layout and their evaluation 
Computer aided layout design techniques 
Assembly line balancing 
Materials handling systems 
Operations research and operations management
Operation research 

Linear programming  problem formulation, simplex method 
Duality and sensitivity analysis of simplex method 
Transportation and assignment models 
Network flow models 
Constrained optimization and Lagrange multipliers 
Markovian queuing models 
Dynamic programming 
Simulation and manufacturing applications 
Engineering economy and costing 

Elementary cost accounting and methods of depreciation 
Breakeven analysis 
Techniques for evaluation of capital investments, financial statements, timecost tradeoff, resource leveling 
Production control 

Forecasting techniques  causal and time series models 
Moving average, exponential smoothing, trend and seasonality 
Aggregate production planning 
Master production scheduling 
MRP and MRPII 
Routing, scheduling and priority dispatching 
Push and pull production systems 
Concept of JIT manufacturing system 
Logistics, distribution, and supply chain management 
Inventory – functions, costs, classifications, deterministic inventory models, quantity discount 
Perpetual and periodic inventory control systems 
Project management 

PERT and CPM 
GATE Statistics Syllabus
Statistics
Calculus 

Finite, countable & uncountable sets 
Real number system as a complete ordered field 
Archimedean property 
Sequences and series 
Convergence 
Limits, continuity and uniform continuity 
Differentiability 
Mean value theorems 
Riemann integration 
Improper integrals 
Functions of two or three variables 
Directional derivatives 
Partial derivatives 
Total derivative 
Maxima and minima 
Saddle point 
Method of Lagrange's multipliers 
Double and triple integrals and their applications 
Line integrals and surface integrals 
Green's theorem, Stokes' theorem, and Gauss divergence theorem 
Linear algebra 

Finite dimensional vector spaces over real or complex fields 
Linear transformations and their matrix representations 
Rank 
Systems of linear equations 
Eigen values and Eigen vectors 
Minimal polynomial 
CayleyHamilton theorem 
Diagonalization 
Jordan canonical form 
Symmetric 
Skewsymmetric 
Hermitian, skew Hermitian 
Orthogonal and unitary matrices 
Finite dimensional inner product spaces 
Gram Schmidt orthonormalization process 
Definite forms 
Probability 

Classical, relative frequency and axiomatic definitions of probability 
Bayes' theorem 
Independent events 
Random variables and probability distributions 
Moments and moment generating functions 
Quantiles 
Standard discrete and continuous univariate distributions 
Probability inequalities (Chebyshev, Markov, Jensen) 
Function of a random variable 
Jointly distributed random variables 
Marginal and conditional distributions 
Product moments 
Joint moment generating functions 
Independence of random variables 
Transformations of random variables 
Sampling distributions 
Distribution of order statistics and range 
Characteristic functions 
Modes of convergence 
Weak and strong laws of large numbers 
Central limit theorem for i.i.d. random variables with existence of higher order moments 
Stochastic processes 

Markov chains with finite and countable state space 
Classification of states 
Limiting behaviour of nstep transition probabilities 
Stationary distribution, Poisson 
Birthanddeath processes 
Inference 

Unbiasedness 
Consistency 
Sufficiency 
Completeness 
Uniformly minimum variance unbiased estimation 
Method of moments and maximum likelihood estimations 
Confidence intervals 
Tests of hypotheses 
Most powerful and uniformly most powerful tests 
Likelihood ratio tests 
Large sample test 
Sign test 
Wilcoxon signed rank test 
MannWhitney U test 
Test for independence and chisquare test for goodness of fit 
Regression analysis 

Simple and multiple linear regression 
Polynomial regression 
Estimation 
Confidence intervals and testing for regression coefficients 
Partial and multiple correlation coefficients 
Multivariate analysis 

Basic properties of multivariate normal distribution 
Multinomial distribution 
Wishart distribution 
Hotelling's T2 and related tests 
Principal component analysis 
Discriminant analysis 
Clustering 
Design of experiments 

One and twoway Anova, CRD, RBD, LSD, 2 square and 2 cube factorial experiments 
GATE Textile Engineering and Fibre Science Syllabus
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrices and determinants 
Systems of linear equations 
Eigen values and Eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Limit, Continuity and differentiability 
Partial derivatives 
Maxima and minima 
Sequences and series 
Test for convergence 
Fourier series 
Vector calculus 

Gradient, divergence and curl 
Line, surface and volume integrals 
Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems 
Differential equations 

Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs 
Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients 
Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations 
Laplace transforms 
PDEs –Laplace, heat and wave equations 
Probability and Statistics 

Mean, median, mode and standard deviation 
Random variables 
Poisson, normal and binomial distributions 
Correlation and regression analysis 
Numerical methods 

Solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations 
Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule 
Single and multistep methods for differential equations 
Textile fibres
Classification of textile fibres 

Essential requirements of fibre forming polymers 

Gross and fine structure of natural fibres like cotton, wool, silk 

Introduction to important bast fibres 

Properties and uses of natural and man made fibres including carbon, aramid 

Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibres 

Physical and chemical methods of fibre and blend identification and blend analysis 

Molecular architecture 

Amorphous and crystalline phases 

Glass transition 

Plasticization 

Crystallization 

Melting 

Factors affecting Tg and Tm 

Production process of viscose and other regenerated cellulosic fibres such as polynosic, lyocell 

Polymerization of nylon6, nylon66, poly (ethylene terephthalate), polyacrylonitrile and polypropylene 

Melt spinning processes for PET, polyamide and polypropylene 

Wet and dry spinning processes for viscose and acrylic fibres 

Post spinning operations such as drawing, heat setting, tow totop conversion and different texturing methods 

Methods of investigating fibre structure e.g., Density, Xray diffraction, birefringence, optical and electron microscopy, I.R. spectroscopy, thermal methods (DSC, DMA/TMA, TGA) 

Structure and morphology of manmade fibres 

Mechanical properties of fibres 

Moisture sorption in fibres 

Fibre structure and property correlation 

Yarn manufacture, yarn structure and properties
Principles of opening, cleaning and mixing/blending of fibrous materials 

Working principle of modern opening and cleaning equipment 

The technology of carding 

Carding of cotton and synthetic fibres 

Drafting operation 

Roller and apron drafting principle 

Causes of mass irregularity introduced by drafting 

Roller arrangements in drafting systems 

Principles of cotton combing, combing cycle 

Mechanism and function 

Combing efficiency 

Lap preparation 

Recent developments in comber 

Roving production 

Mechanism of bobbin building, roving twist 

Principle of ring spinning 

Forces acting on yarn and traveller 

Ring and traveller designs 

Mechanism of cop formation 

Causes of end breakages 

Working principle of ring doubler and two for one twister 

Single and folded yarn twist 

Properties of double yarns 

Production of core spun yarn 

Principles of compact, rotor, air jet, air vortex, core, wrap, twist less and friction spinning 

Yarn contraction, yarn diameter 

Specific volume & packing coefficient 

Twist factor, twist strength relationship in spun yarns 

Fibre configuration and orientation in yarn 

Cause of fibre migration and its estimation 

Irregularity index 

Structure property relationship of compact ring, rotor, airjet and friction spun yarns 

Fabric manufacture, structure and properties
Principles of winding processes and machines 

Random, precision and step precision winding 

Package faults and their remedies 

Yarn clearers and tensioners 

Different systems of yarn splicing 

Features of modern cone winding machines 

Different types of warping creels 

Features of modern beam and sectional warping machines 

Different sizing systems 

Sizing of spun and filament yarns 

Sizing machines 

Principles of pirn winding processes and machines 

Primary and secondary motions of loom 

Cam design & kinematics of sley 

Effect of their settings and timings on fabric formation 

Fabric appearance and weaving performance 

Dobby and jacquard shedding 

Mechanics of weft insertion with shuttle 

Warp and weft stop motions 

Warp protection 

Weft replenishment 

Principles of weft insertion systems of shuttleless weaving machines 

Principles of multiphase and circular looms 

Principles of weft and warp knitting 

Basic weft and warp knitted structures 

Classification, production, properties and application of nonwoven fabrics 

Principle of web formation & bonding 

Basic woven fabric constructions and their derivatives 

Crepe, cord, terry, gauze, leno and double cloth constructions 

Peirce’s equations for fabric geometry 

Elastica model of plain woven fabrics 

Thickness, cover and maximum set of woven fabrics 

Textile testing
Sampling techniques, sample size and sampling errors 

Measurement of fibre length, fineness, crimp 

Measurement of cotton fibre maturity and trash content 

High volume fibre testing 

Measurement of yarn count 

Twist and hairiness 

Tensile testing of fibres, yarns and fabrics 

Evenness testing of slivers, rovings and yarns 

Classimat fault analysis 

Testing equipment for measurement of fabric properties: thickness, compressibility, air permeability, wetting & wicking, drape, crease recovery, tear strength, bursting strength and abrasion resistance 

Instruments and systems for objective evaluation of fabric hand 

Statistical analysis of experimental results 

Frequency distributions 

Correlation 

Significance tests 

Analysis of variance and control charts 

Chemical processing
Impurities in natural fibre 

Chemistry and practice of preparatory processes for cotton, wool and silk 

Mercerization of cotton 

Preparatory processes for manmade fibres and their blends 

Classification of dyes 

Dyeing of cotton, wool, silk, polyester, nylon and acrylic with appropriate dye classes 

Dyeing of polyester/cotton and polyester/wool blends 

Dyeing machines 

Dyeing of cotton knitted fabrics and machines used 

Dye fibre interaction 

Introduction to thermodynamics and kinetics of dyeing 

Methods for determination of wash, light and rubbing fastness 

Styles of printing 

Printing thickeners including synthetic thickeners 

Printing auxiliaries 

Printing of cotton with reactive dyes, wool, silk, nylon with acid and metal complex dyes 

Printing of polyester with disperse dyes 

Pigment printing 

Resist and discharge printing of cotton, silk and polyester 

Transfer printing of polyester 

Inkjet printing 

Mechanical finishing of cotton 

Stiff, soft, wrinkle resistant, water repellent, flame retardant and enzyme (biopolishing) finishing of cotton 

Milling, decatizing and shrink resistant finishing of wool 

Antistatic and soil release finishing 

Heat setting of synthetic fabrics 

Minimum application techniques 

Pollution control and treatment of effluents 

GATE Ecology and Evolution Syllabus
Ecology
Population ecology 

Metapopulation dynamics 

Growth rates 

Density independent growth 

Density dependent growth 

Niche concept 

Species interactions: plantanimal interactions 

Mutualism 

Commensalism 

Competition and predation 

Trophic interactions 

Functional ecology 

Ecophysiology 

Behavioural ecology 

Community ecology: Community assembly, organization and evolution 

Biodiversity: species richness, evenness and diversity indices 

Endemism 

Speciesarea relationships 

Ecosystem structure 

Function and services 

Nutrient cycles 

Biomes 

Habitat ecology 

Primary and secondary productivity 

Invasive species 

Global and climate change 

Applied ecology 

Evolution
Origin, evolution and diversification of life 

Natural selection 

Levels of selection 

Types of selection (stabilizing, directional etc.) 

Sexual selection 

Genetic drift 

Gene flow 

Adaptation 

Convergence 

Species concepts 

Life history strategies 

Adaptive radiation 

Biogeography and evolutionary ecology 

Origin of genetic variation 

Mendelian genetics 

Polygenic traits 

Linkage and recombination 

Epistasis 

Geneenvironment interaction 

Heritability 

Population genetics 

Molecular evolution 

Molecular clocks 

Systems of classification: cladistics and phenetics 

Molecular systematics 

Gene expression and evolution 

Mathematics and quantitative ecology
Mathematics and statistics in ecology 

Simple functions (linear, quadratic, exponential, logarithmic, etc.) 

Concept of derivatives and slope of a function 

Permutations and combinations 

Basic probability (probability of random events, sequences of events, etc.) 

Frequency distributions and their descriptive statistics (mean, variance, coefficient of variation, correlation, etc.) 

Statistical hypothesis testing: concept of pvalue 

Type I and type II error 

Test statistics like ttest and Chisquare test 

Basics of linear regression and ANOVA 

Behavioural ecology
Classical ethology 

Neuroethology 

Evolutionary ethology 

Chemical 

Acoustic and visual signalling 

Mating systems 

Sexual dimorphism 

Mate choice 

Parenting behaviour competition 

Aggression 

Foraging behaviour 

Predator–prey interactions 

Sociobiology: kin selection, altruism, costs and benefits of groupliving 

GATE XE Engineering Mathematics Syllabus
Linear algebra
Matrices and determinants 

Systems of linear equations 

Eigen values and Eigen vectors 

Calculus
Limit, continuity and differentiability 

Partial derivatives 

Maxima and minima 

Sequences and series 

Test for convergence 

Fourier series 

Vector calculus
Gradient 

Divergence and curl 

Line 

Surface and volume integrals 

Stokes 

Gauss and green’s theorems 

Differential equations
Linear and nonlinear first order odes 

Higher order linear odes with constant coefficients 

Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations 

Laplace transforms 

PDEs –Laplace 

Heat and wave equations 

Probability and statistics
Mean, median, mode and standard deviation 

Random variables 

Poisson 

Normal and binomial distributions 

Correlation and regression analysis 

Numerical methods
Solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations 

Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule 

Single and multistep methods for differential equations 

Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Algebra of matrices 
Inverse and rank of a matrix 
System of linear equations 
Symmetric, skewsymmetric and orthogonal matrices 
Determinants 
Eigenvalues and eigenvectors 
Diagonalisation of matrices 
CayleyHamilton theorem 
Calculus 

Functions of single variable: limit, continuity and differentiability 
Mean value theorems 
Indeterminate forms and L'hospital's rule 
Maxima and minima 
Taylor's theorem 
Fundamental theorem and mean valuetheorems of integral calculus 
Evaluation of definite and improper integrals 
Applications of definite integrals to evaluate areas and volumes 
Functions of two variables: limit, continuity and partial derivatives 
Directional derivative 
Total derivative 
Tangent plane and normal line 
Maxima, minima and saddle points 
Method of Lagrange multipliers 
Double and triple integrals, and their applications 
Sequence and series: convergence of sequence and series 
Tests for convergence 
Power series 
Taylor's series 
Fourier series 
Half range sine and cosine series 
Vector calculus 

Line and surface integrals 
Green's theorem, Stokes theorem and Gauss divergence theorem (without proofs) 
Complex variables 

Analytic functions 
CauchyRiemann equations 
Line integral, Cauchy's integral theorem and integral formula (without proof) 
Taylor's series and Laurent series 
Residue theorem (without proof) and its applications 
Ordinary differential equations 

First order equations (linear and nonlinear) 
Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients 
Second order linear differential equations with variable coefficients 
Method of variation of parameters 
CauchyEuler equation 
Power series solutions 
Legendre polynomials, Bessel functions of the first kind and their properties 
Partial differential equations 

Classification of second order linear partial differential equations 
Method of separation of variables 
Laplace equation 
Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations 
Probability and Statistics 

Axioms of probability 
Conditional probability 
Bayes' theorem 
Discrete and continuous random variables: binomial, Poisson and normal distributions 
Correlation and linear regression 
Numerical methods 

Solution of systems of linear equations using LU decomposition, Gauss elimination and GaussSeidel methods 
Lagrange and Newton's interpolations, solution of polynomial and transcendental equations by NewtonRaphson method 
Numerical integration by trapezoidal rule, Simpson's rule and Gaussian quadrature rule 
Numerical solutions of first order differential equations by euler's method and 4th order rungekutta method 
GATE XE Fluid Mechanics Syllabus
Flow and fluid properties
Viscosity 

Relationship between stress and strainrate for Newtonian fluids 

Incompressible and compressible flows 

Differences between laminar and turbulent flows 

Hydrostatics: Buoyancy, manometry and forces on submerged bodies 

Kinematics
Eulerian and Lagrangian description of fluids motion 

Concept of local and convective accelerations 

Steady and unsteady flows 

Integral analysis
Control volume analysis for mass, momentum and energy 

Differential analysis
Differential equations of mass and momentum for incompressible flows: inviscid 

Euler equation and viscous flows 

NavierStokes equations 

Concept of fluid rotation 

Vorticity 

Stream function 

Exact solutions of NavierStokes equation for Couette flow and Poiseuille flow 

Inviscid flows
Bernoulli’s equation of assumptions and applications 

Potential function 

Elementary plane flows 

Uniform flow, source, sink and doublet and their superposition for potential flow past simple geometries 

Dimensional analysis
Concept of geometric, kinematic and dynamic similarity 

Some common nondimensional parameters and their physical significance of Reynolds number 

Froude number and Mach number of physical significance 

Internal flows
Fully developed pipe flow 

Empirical relations for laminar and turbulent flows: friction factor and DarcyWeisbach equation 

Prandtl boundary layer equations
Concept and assumptions 

Qualitative idea of boundary layer and separation 

Streamlined and bluff bodies 

Drag and lift forces 

Flow measurements: Basic ideas of flow measurement using venturimeter 

Pitotstatic tube and orifice plate 

GATE XE Materials Science Syllabus
Processing of materials
Powder synthesis 

Sintering 

Chemical methods 

Crystal growth techniques 

Zone refining 

Preparation of nanoparticles and thin films 

Characterisation techniques
Xray diffraction 

Spectroscopic techniques like UVVis, IR, Raman 

Optical and electron microscopy 

Structure and imperfections
Crystal symmetry 

Point groups 

Space groups 

Indices of planes 

Close packing in solids 

Bonding in materials 

Coordination and radius ratio concepts 

Point defects 

Dislocations 

Grain boundaries 

Surface energy and equilibrium shapes of crystals 

Thermodynamics and kinetics
Phase rule 

Phase diagrams 

Solid solutions 

Invariant reactions 

Lever rule 

Basic heat treatment of metals 

Solidification and phase transformations 

Fick’s laws of diffusion 

Mechanisms of diffusion 

Temperature dependence of diffusivity 

Properties of materials
Mechanical properties 

Stressstrain response of metallic, ceramic and polymer materials 
Yield strength 
Tensile strength and modulus of elasticity 
Toughness 
Plastic deformation 
Fatigue 
Creep and fracture 
Electronic properties 

Free electron theory 
Fermi energy 
Density of states 
Elements of band theory 
Semiconductors 
Hall effect 
Dielectric behaviour 
Piezo, ferro, pyroelectric materials 
Magnetic properties 

Origin of magnetism in metallic and ceramic materials 
Paramagnetism 
Diamagnetism 
Ferro and ferrimagnetism 
Thermal properties 

Specific heat 
Thermal conductivity and thermal expansion 
Thermoelectricity 
Optical properties 

Refractive index 
Absorption and transmission of electromagnetic radiation in solids 
Electro optic and magneto optic materials 
Spontaneous and stimulated emission 
Gas and solid state lasers 
Material types
Concept of amorphous 

Single crystals and polycrystalline materials 

Crystallinity and its effect on physical properties 

Metal, ceramic, polymers, classification of polymers and polymerization 

Structure and properties 

Additives for polymer products 

Processing and applications 

Effect of environment on materials, composites 

Environmental degradation
Corrosion, oxidation and prevention 

Elements of quantum mechanics and mathematics
Basics of quantum mechanics 

Quantum mechanical treatment of electrical, optical and thermal properties of materials 

Analytical solid geometry 

Differentiation and integration 

Differential equations 

Vectors and tensors 

Matrices 

Fourier series 

Complex analysis 

Probability and Statistics 

GATE XE Solid Mechanics Syllabus
Solid mechanics
Equivalent force systems 

Freebody diagrams 

Equilibrium equations 

Analysis of determinate trusses and frames 

Friction 

Particle kinematics and dynamics 

Dynamics of rigid bodies under planar motion 

Law of conservation of energy 

Law of conservation of momentum 

Stresses and strains 

Principal stresses and strains 

Mohr’s circle for plane stress and plane strain 

Generalized Hooke’s law 

Elastic constants 

Thermal stresses 

Theories of failure 

Axial, shear and bending moment diagrams 

Axial, shear and bending stresses 

Combined stresses 

Deflection (for symmetric bending) 

Torsion in circular shafts 

Thin walled pressure vessels 

Energy methods (Castigliano’s theorems) 

Euler buckling 

Free vibration of single degree of freedom systems 

GATE XE Thermodynamics Syllabus
Basic concepts
Continuum and macroscopic approach 

Thermodynamic systems (closed and open) 

Thermodynamic properties and equilibrium 

State of a system 

State postulate for simple compressible substances 

State diagrams 

Paths and processes on state diagrams 

Concepts of heat and work 

Different modes of work 

Zeroth law of thermodynamics 

Concept of temperature 

First law of thermodynamics
Concept of energy and various forms of energy 

Internal energy 

Enthalpy 

Specific heats 

First law applied to elementary processes 

Closed systems and control volumes 

Steady and unsteady flow analysis 

Second law of thermodynamics
Limitations of the first law of thermodynamics 

Concepts of heat engines and heat pumps/refrigerators 

KelvinPlanck and Clausius statements and their equivalence 

Reversible and irreversible processes 

Carnot cycle and Carnot principles/theorems 

Thermodynamic temperature scale 

Clausius inequality and concept of entropy 

Microscopic interpretation of entropy 

The principle of increase of entropy 

Ts diagrams 

Second law analysis of control volume 

Availability and irreversibility 

Third law of thermodynamics 

Properties of pure substances
Thermodynamic properties of pure substances in solid, liquid and vapour phases 

PvT behaviour of simple compressible substances 

Phase rule 

Thermodynamic property tables and charts 

Ideal and real gases 

Ideal gas equation of state and Vander Waals equation of state 

Law of corresponding states 

Compressibility factor and generalized compressibility chart 

Thermodynamic relations
Tds relations 

Helmholtz and Gibbs functions 

Gibbs relations 

Maxwell relations 

JouleThomson coefficient 

Coefficient of volume expansion 

Adiabatic and isothermal compressibilities 

Clapeyron and ClapeyronClausius equations 

Thermodynamic cycles
Carnot vapour cycle 

Ideal Rankine cycle 

Rankine reheat cycle 

Airstandard Otto cycle 

Airstandard diesel cycle 

Airstandard Brayton cycle 

Vapourcompression refrigeration cycle 

Ideal gas mixtures
Dalton’s and Amagat’s laws 

Properties of ideal gas mixtures 

Airwater vapour mixtures and simple thermodynamic processes involving them 

Specific and relative humidities 

Dew point and wet bulb temperature 

Adiabatic saturation temperature 

Psychrometric chart 

GATE XE Polymer Science and Engineering Syllabus
Polymer science and engineering
Chemistry of high polymers 

Monomers 
Functionality, degree of polymerizations 
Classification of polymers 
Glass transition 
Melting transition 
Criteria for rubberiness 
Polymerization methods: addition and condensation, their kinetics 
Metallocene polymers and other newer techniques of polymerization, copolymerization, monomer reactivity ratios and its significance 
Kinetics, different copolymers, random, alternating, azeotropic copolymerization 
Block and graft copolymers 
Techniques for copolymerization bulk, solution, suspension, emulsion 
Polymer characterization 

Solubility and swelling 
Concept of average molecular weight 
Determination of number average 
Weight average, viscosity average and zaverage molecular weights 
Polymer crystallinity 
Analysis of polymers using IR, XRD, thermal (DSC, DMTA, TGA) 
Microscopic optical and electronic techniques 
Synthesis and properties 

Commodity and general purpose thermoplastics: PE, PP, PS, PVC, polyesters, acrylic, PU polymers 
Engineering plastics: Nylon, PC, PBT, PSU, PPO, ABS, fluoropolymers 
Thermosetting polymers: PF, MF, UF, epoxy, unsaturated polyester, alkyds 
Natural and synthetic rubbers and recovery of NR hydrocarbon from latex, SBR, nitrile, CR, CSM, EPDM, IIR, BR, silicone, TPE 
Polymer blends and composites 

Difference between blends and composites, their significance 
Choice of polymers for blending 
Blend miscibilitymiscible and immiscible blends 
Thermodynamics 
Phase morphology 
Polymer alloys 
Polymer eutectics 
Plasticplastic, rubberplastic and rubberrubber blends 
FRP, particulate, long and short fibre reinforced composites 
Polymer technology 

Polymer compoundingneed and significance 
Different compounding ingredients for rubber and plastics 
Crosslinking and vulcanization 
Vulcanization kinetics 
Polymer rheology 

Flow of Newtonian and nonNewtonian fluids 
Different flow equations 
Dependence of shear modulus on temperature 
Molecular/segmental deformations at different zones and transitions 
Measurements of rheological parameters by capillary rotating 
Parallel plate, coneplate rheometer 
Viscoelasticitycreep and stress relaxations 
Mechanical models 
Control of rheological characteristics through compounding 
Rubber curing in parallel plate viscometer 
ODR and MDR 
Polymer processing 

Compression molding 
Transfer molding 
Injection molding 
Blow molding 
Reaction injection molding 
Extrusion 
Pultrusion 
Calendaring 
Rotational molding 
Thermoforming 
Rubber processing in tworoll mill 
Internal mixer 
Polymer testing 

Mechanicalstatic and dynamic tensile 
Flexural 
Compressive 
Abrasion 
Endurance 
Fatigue 
Hardness 
Tear 
Resilience 
Impact 
Toughness 
Conductivitythermal and electrical 
Dielectric constant 
Dissipation factor 
Power factor 
Electric resistance 
Surface resistivity 
Volume resistivity 
Swelling 
Ageing resistance 
Environmental stress cracking resistance 
GATE XE Food Technology Syllabus
Food chemistry and nutrition
Carbohydrates 

Structure and functional properties of mono, oligo, and polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre 
Gelatinization and retrogradation of starch 
Proteins 

Classification and structure of proteins in food 
Biochemical changes in post mortem and tenderization of muscles 
Lipids 

Classification and structure of lipids 
Rancidity, polymerization and polymorphism 
Pigments 

Carotenoids 
Chlorophylls 
Tannins and myoglobin 
Food flavours 

Terpenes 
Esters 
Aldehydes 
Ketones and quinines 
Enzymes 

Specificity 
Simple and inhibition kinetics 
Coenzymes 
Enzymatic and nonenzymatic browning 
Nutrition 

Balanced diet 
Essential amino acids and essential fatty acids 
Protein efficiency ratio 
Water soluble and fat soluble vitamins 
Role of minerals in nutrition 
Cofactors 
Antinutrients 
Nutraceuticals 
Nutrient deficiency diseases 
Chemical and biochemical changes 

Changes occur in foods during different processing 
Food microbiology
Characteristics of microorganisms 

Morphology of bacteria 
Yeast 
Mold and actinomycetes 
Spores and vegetative cells 
Gramstaining 
Microbial growth 

Growth and death kinetics 
Serial dilution technique 
Food spoilage 

Spoilage microorganisms in different food products including milk,fish, meat, egg, cereals and their products 
Toxins from microbes 

Pathogens and nonpathogens including staphylococcus 
Salmonella 
Shigella 
Escherichia 
Bacillus 
Clostridium 
Aspergillus genera 
Fermented foods and beverages 

Curd, yoghurt, cheese, pickles, soyasauce, sauerkraut, idli, dosa, vinegar, alcoholic beverages and sausage 
Food products technology
Processing principles 

Thermal processing 
Chilling 
Freezing 
Dehydration 
Addition of preservatives and food additives 
Irradiation 
Fermentation 
Hurdle technology 
Intermediate moisture foods 
Food packaging and storage 

Packaging materials 
Aseptic packaging 
Controlled and modified atmosphere storage 
Cereal processing and products 

Milling of rice, wheat, and maize 
Parboiling of paddy 
Bread, biscuits, extruded products and ready to eat breakfast cereals 
Oil processing 

Expelling 
Solvent extraction 
Refining and hydrogenation 
Fruits and vegetables processing 

Extraction, clarification, concentration and packaging of fruit juice, jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, tomato sauce, ketchup, and puree, potato chips, pickles 
Plantation crops processing and products 

Tea, coffee, cocoa, spice, extraction of essential oils and oleoresins from spices 
Milk and milk products processing 

Pasteurization and sterilization 
Cream, butter, ghee, icecream, cheese and milk powder 
Processing of animal products 

Drying, canning, and freezing of fish and meat 
Waste utilization 

Pectin from fruit wastes 
Uses of byproducts from rice milling 
Food standards and quality maintenance 

FPO, PFA, Agmark, ISI, HACCP, food plant sanitation and cleaning in place (CIP) 
Food engineering
Mass and energy balance; momentum transfer 

Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe 
Reynolds number 
Heat transfer 

Heat transfer by conduction 
Convection 
Radiation 
Heat exchangers 
Mass transfer 

Molecular diffusion and Fick's law 
Conduction and convective mass transfer, permeability through single and multilayer films 
Mechanical operations 

Size reduction of solids 
High pressure homogenization 
Filtration 
Centrifugation 
Settling, sieving, mixing and agitation of liquid 
Thermal operations 

Thermal sterilization 
Evaporation of liquid foods 
Hot air drying of solids 
Spray and freezedrying 
Freezing and crystallization 
Mass transfer operations 

Psychometry, humidification and dehumidification operations 
GATE XE Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Syllabus
Atmospheric and Ocean science
Atmospheric science 

Fundamental of Meteorology 
Thermal structure of the atmosphere and its composition 
Radiation balance and laws 
Wind belts, monsoon, climate 
Atmospheric thermodynamics 
Hydrostatic equilibrium, hydrostatic equation 
Variation of pressure with height, geopotential 
Tropical convection 
Atmospheric electricity 
Cloud physics 
Observation techniques of the atmosepheric properties 
Fundamental equations 
Pressure, gravity, centripetal and corolis forces 
Continuity equation in cartesian and isobaric coordinates 
Scale analysis,inertial flow, geostrophic and gradient winds 
Thermal wind, vorticity 
Atmospheric turbulence, baroclinic instabiltiy and atmosphreric waves 
Tropical meteorology: Trade wind inversion, ITCZ 
Monsoon trough tropical cyclones, their structure and development theory 
Monsoon depressions 
Climate variability and forcings 
MaddenJulian oscillation(MJO), ENSO, QBO (quasibiennial oscillation) and sunspot cycles 
Primitive equations of numerical weather prediction 
General circulation and climate modelling 
Synoptic weather forecasting, prediction of weather elements such as rain,maximum and minimum temperature and fog 
Data assimilation 
Ocean science 

Seawater Properties, TS diagrams 
Ocean observations, ocean tide and waves and their properties 
Coastal processes and Estuary dynamics 
Coastal zone management 
Wind Driven Circulation: Ekman, Sverdrup, Stommel and Munk theories, inertial currents 
Geostrophic motion, barotropic and baroclinic conditions 
Oceanic eddies 
Global conveyor belt circulation 
Subtropical gyres 
Western boundary currents 
Equatorial current systems, current system in the Indian ocean 
Momentum equation, mass conservation, vorticity 
Ocean and wave modeling 
Ocean state forecasting 
Data assimilation, ocean turbulence 
Chemical property of seawater, major and minor elements, their behavior and chemical exchanges across interfaces and residence times in seawater 
Element chemistry in atypical conditionsestuaries 
Biochemical cycling of nutrients, trace metals and organic matter 
Airsea exchange of important biogenic dissolved gases 
Carbon dioxidecarbonate system 
Alkalinity and control of ph 
Biological pump 
Marine pollution 
Primary and secondary production 
Factors controlling phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance and diversity 
Nekton and fisheries oceanography 
GATE XL Chemistry Syllabus
Atomic structure and periodicity
Planck’s quantum theory 

Wave particle duality 

Uncertainty principle 

Quantum mechanical model of hydrogen atom 

Electronic configuration of atoms and ions 

Periodic table and periodic properties: Ionization energy, electron affinity 

Electronegativity and atomic size 

Structure and bonding
Ionic and covalent bonding 

MO and VB approaches for diatomic molecules 

VSEPR theory and shape of molecules 

Hybridization 

Resonance 

Dipole moment 

Structure parameters such as bond length, bond angle and bond energy 

Hydrogen bonding and Vander Waals interactions 

Ionic solids, ionic radii and lattice energy (Born‐Haber cycle) 

HSAB principle 

S, p and d block elements
Oxides, halides and hydrides of alkali, alkaline earth metals, B, Al, Si, N, P, and S 

General characteristics of 3D elements 

Coordination complexes of valence bond and crystal field theory 

Coordination complexes of colour, geometry, magnetic properties and isomerism 

Chemical equilibria
Colligative properties of solutions 

Ionic equilibria in solution 

Solubility product 

Common ion effect 

Hydrolysis of salts, pH, buffer and their applications 

Equilibrium constants (Kc, Kp and Kx) for homogeneous reactions 

Electrochemistry
Conductance 

Kohlrausch’s law 

Cell potentials 

EMF 

Nernst equation 

Galvanic cells 

Thermodynamic aspects and their applications 

Reaction kinetics
Rate constant 

Order of reaction 

Molecularity 

Activation energy 

Zero, first and second order kinetics 

Catalysis and elementary enzyme reactions 

Thermodynamics
First law 

Reversible and irreversible processes 

Internal energy 

Enthalpy 

Kirchhoff equation 

Heat of reaction 

Hess’s law 

Heat of formation 

Second law 

Entropy 

Free energy and work function 

Gibbs‐Helmholtz equation 

Clausius‐Clapeyron equation 

Free energy change 

Equilibrium constant and Trouton’s rule 

Third law of thermodynamics 

Structurereactivity correlations and organic reaction mechanisms
Acids and bases 

Electronic and steric effects 

Optical and geometrical isomerism 

Tautomerism 

Conformers and concept of aromaticity 

Elementary treatment of SN1, SN2, E1 and E2 reactions 

Hoffmann and Saytzeff rules 

Addition reactions 

Markownikoff’s rule and Kharash effect 

Aromatic electrophilic substitutions 

Orientation effect as exemplified by various functional groups 

Dielsalder, Wittig and hydroboration reactions 

Identification of functional groups by chemical tests 

GATE XL Biochemistry Syllabus
Biochemistry
Section 1 

Organization of life 
Importance of water 
Structure and function of biomolecules: Amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids 
Protein structure 
Folding and function 
Myoglobin 
Haemoglobin 
Lysozyme 
Ribonuclease A 
Carboxypeptidase and chymotrypsin 
Section 2 

Enzyme kinetics including its regulation and inhibition 
Vitamins and coenzymes 
Metabolism and bioenergetics 
Generation and utilization of ATP 
Metabolic pathways and their regulation: Glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway 
Oxidative phosphorylation 
Gluconeogenesis 
Glycogen and fatty acid metabolism 
Metabolism of nitrogen containing compounds and nitrogen fixation 
Amino acids and nucleotides of containing compound 
Photosynthesis and Calvin cycle 
Section 3 

Biochemical separation techniques: Ion exchange, size exclusion and affinity chromatography 
Characterization of biomolecules by electrophoresis 
UVvisible and fluorescence spectroscopy and mass spectrometry 
Section 4 

Cell structure and organelles 
Biological membranes 
Transport across membranes 
Signal transduction 
Hormones and neurotransmitters 
Section 5 

DNA replication 
Transcription and translation 
Biochemical regulation of gene expression 
Recombinant DNA technology and applications PCR 
Site directed mutagenesis and DNAmicroarray 
Section 6 

Immune system: Active and passive immunity 
Complement system 
Antibody structure 
Function and diversity 
Cells of the immune system: T, B and macrophages 
T and B cell activation 
Major histocompatibility complex 
T cell receptor 
Immunological techniques: Immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, RIA and ELISA 
GATE XL Botany Syllabus
Botany
Plant systematics 

Major systems of classification 
Plant groups 
Phylogenetic relationships and molecular systematics 
Plant anatomy 

Plant cell structure and its components 
Cell wall and membranes 
Organization, organelles, cytoskeleton, anatomy of root, stem and leaves 
Floral parts 
Embryo and young seedlings 
Meristems 
Vascular system, their ontogeny, structure and functions 
Secondary growth in plants and stellar organization 
Morphogenesis & development 

Cell cycle 
Cell division 
Life cycle of an angiosperm 
Pollination 
Fertilization 
Embryogenesis 
Seed formation 
Seed storage proteins 
Seed dormancy and germination 
Concept of cellular totipotency 
Clonal propagation 
Organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis 
Artificial seed 
Somaclonal variation 
Secondary metabolism in plant cell culture 
Embryo culture, In vitro fertilization 
Physiology and biochemistry 

Plant water relations 
Transport of minerals and solutes 
Stress physiology 
Stomatal physiology 
Signal transduction 
N2 metabolism 
Photosynthesis 
Photorespiration 
Respiration 
Flowering of photoperiodism and vernalization 
Biochemical mechanisms involved in flowering 
Molecular mechanism of senescence and aging 
Biosynthesis 
Mechanism of action and physiological effects of plant growth regulators 
Structure and function of biomolecules proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid, enzyme kinetics 
Genetics 

Principles of Mendelian inheritance 
Linkage 
Recombination 
Genetic mapping 
Extrachromosomal inheritance 
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome organization 
Regulation of gene expression 
Gene mutation and repair 
Chromosomal aberrations (numerical and structural) 
Transposons 
Plant breeding and genetic modification 

Principles, methods – selection, hybridization, heterosis 
Male sterility 
Genetic maps and molecular markers 
Sporophytic and gametophytic selfincompatibility 
Haploidy 
Triploidy 
Somatic cell hybridization 
Markerassisted selection 
Gene transfer methods viz. direct and vectormediated 
Plastid transformation 
Transgenic plants and their application in agriculture 
Molecular pharming 
Plant bodies 
Economic botany 

A general account of economically and medicinally important plants and cereals 
Pulses, plants yielding fibers, timber, sugar, beverages, oils, rubber, pigments, dyes, gums, drugs and narcotics 
Economic importance of algae, fungi, lichen and bacteria 
Plant pathology 

Nature and classification of plant diseases 
Diseases of important crops caused by fungi, bacteria,nematodes and viruses, and their control measures 
Mechanisms of pathogenesis and resistance 
Molecular detection of pathogens 
Plantmicrobe beneficial interactions 
Ecology and environment 

Ecosystems – types 
Dynamics 
Degradation 
Ecological succession 
Food chains and energy flow 
Vegetation types of the world 
Pollution and global warming 
Speciation and extinction 
Conservation strategies 
Cryopreservation 
Phytoremediation 
GATE XL Microbiology Syllabus
Microbiology
Historical perspective 

Discovery of microbial world 
Landmark discoveries relevant to the field of microbiology 
Controversy over spontaneous generation 
Role of microorganisms in transformation of organic matter and in the causation of diseases 
Methods in microbiology 

Pure culture techniques 
Theory and practice of sterilization 
Principles of microbial nutrition 
Enrichment culture techniques for isolation of microorganisms 
Light phase contrast and electronmicroscopy 
Microbial taxonomy and diversity 

Bacteria, archea and their broad classification 
Eukaryotic microbes: Yeasts, molds and protozoa 
Viruses and their classification 
Molecular approaches to microbial taxonomy 
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells of structure and fun prokaryotic cell suction 

Prokaryotic cells 
Cell walls 
Cell membranes 
Mechanisms of solute transport across membranes 
Flagella and pili 
Capsules 
Cell inclusions like endospores and gas vesicles 
Eukaryotic cell organelles of endoplasmic reticulum 
Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and chloroplasts 
Microbial growth 

Definition of growth 
Growth curve 
Mathematical expression of exponential growth phase 
Measurement of growth and growth yields 
Synchronous growth 
Continuous culture 
Effect of environmental factors on growth 
Control of microorganisms 

Effect of physical and chemical agents 
Evaluation of effectiveness of antimicrobial agents 
Microbial metabolism 

Energetics of redox reactions and electron carriers 
An overview of metabolism 
Glycolysis 
Pentosephosphate pathway 
EntnerDoudoroff pathway 
Glyoxylate pathway 
The citric acid cycle 
Fermentation 
Aerobic and anaerobic respiration 
Chemolithotrophy 
Photosynthesis 
Calvin cycle 
Biosynthetic pathway for fatty acids synthesis 
Common regulatory mechanisms in synthesis of amino acids 
Regulation of major metabolic pathways 
Microbial diseases and host pathogen interaction 

Normal microbiota 
Classification of infectious diseases 
Reservoirs of infection 
Nosocomial infection 
Emerging infectious diseases 
Mechanism of microbial pathogenicity 
Nonspecific defence of host 
Antigens and antibodies 
Humoral and cell mediated immunity 
Vaccines 
Immune deficiency 
Human diseases caused by viruses 
Bacteria and pathogenic fungi 
Chemotherapy/antibiotics 

General characteristics of antimicrobial drugs 
Antibiotics and classification 
Mode of action and resistance 
Antifungal and antiviral drugs 
Microbial genetics 

Types of mutation 
UV and chemical mutagens 
Selection of mutants 
Ames test for mutagenesis 
Bacterial genetic system and transformation 
Conjugation of bacterial genetic system 
Transduction 
Recombination 
Plasmids 
Transposons 
DNA repair 
Regulation of gene expression of repression and induction 
Operon model 
Bacterial genome with special reference to E.coli 
Phage λ and its life cycle 
RNA phages 
RNA viruses 
Retroviruses 
Basic concept of microbial genomics 
Microbial ecology 

Microbial interactions 
Carbon 
Sulphur and nitrogen cycles 
Soil microorganisms associated with vascular plants 
GATE XL Zoology Syllabus
Zoology
Animal world 

Animal diversity 
Distribution, systematics and classification of animals 
Phylogenetic relationships 
Evolution 

Origin and history of life on earth 
Theories of evolution 
Natural selection 
Adaptation 
Speciation 
Genetics 

Basic principles of inheritance 
Molecular basis of heredity 
Sex determination and sexlinked characteristics 
Cytoplasmic inheritance 
Linkage, recombination and mapping of genes in eukaryotes 
Population genetics 
Biochemistry and molecular biology 

Nucleic acids 
Proteins 
Lipids and carbohydrates 
Replication 
Transcription and translation 
Regulation of gene expression 
Organization of genome 
Kreb's cycle 
Glycolysis 
Enzyme Catalysis 
Hormones and their actions 
Vitamins 
Cell biology 

Structure of cell 
Cellular organelles and their structure and function 
Cell cycle 
Cell division 
Chromosomes and chromatin structure 
Gene expression in Eukaryotes 

Eukaryotic gene organization and expression (basic principles of signal transduction) 
Animal anatomy and physiology 

Comparative physiology 
The respiratory system 
Circulatory system 
Digestive system 
The nervous system 
The excretory system 
The endocrine system 
The reproductive system 
The skeletal system 
Osmoregulation 
Parasitology and immunology 

Nature of parasite 
Hostparasite relation 
Protozoan and helminthic parasites 
The immune response 
Cellular and humoral immune response 
Evolution of the immune system 
Development biology 

Embryonic development 
Cellular differentiation 
Organogenesis 
Metamorphosis 
Genetic basis of development 
Stem cells 
Ecology 

The ecosystem 
Habitats 
The food chain 
Population dynamics 
Species diversity 
Zoogeography 
Biogeochemical cycles 
Conservation biology 
Animal behaviour 

Types of behaviours 
Courtship 
Mating and territoriality 
Instinct, learning and memory 
Social behaviour across the animal taxa 
Communication 
Pheromones 
Evolution of animal behaviour 
GATE XL Food Technology Syllabus
Food chemistry and nutrition
Carbohydrates 

Structure and functional properties of mono, oligo, and polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre 
Gelatinization and retrogradation of starch 
Proteins 

Classification and structure of proteins in food 
Biochemical changes in post mortem and tenderization of muscles 
Lipids 

Classification and structure of lipids 
Rancidity, polymerization and polymorphism 
Pigments 

Carotenoids 
Chlorophylls 
Tannins and myoglobin 
Food flavours 

Terpenes 
Esters 
Aldehydes 
Ketones and quinines 
Enzymes 

Specificity 
Simple and inhibition kinetics 
Coenzymes 
Enzymatic and nonenzymatic browning 
Nutrition 

Balanced diet 
Essential amino acids and essential fatty acids 
Protein efficiency ratio 
Water soluble and fat soluble vitamins 
Role of minerals in nutrition 
Cofactors 
Antinutrients 
Nutraceuticals 
Nutrient deficiency diseases 
Chemical and biochemical changes 

Changes occur in foods during different processing 
Food microbiology
Characteristics of microorganisms 

Morphology of bacteria 
Yeast 
Mold and actinomycetes 
Spores and vegetative cells 
Gramstaining 
Microbial growth 

Growth and death kinetics 
Serial dilution technique 
Food spoilage 

Spoilage microorganisms in different food products including milk,fish, meat, egg, cereals and their products 
Toxins from microbes 

Pathogens and nonpathogens including staphylococcus 
Salmonella 
Shigella 
Escherichia 
Bacillus 
Clostridium 
Aspergillus genera 
Fermented foods and beverages 

Curd, yoghurt, cheese, pickles, soyasauce, sauerkraut, idli, dosa, vinegar, alcoholic beverages and sausage 
Food products technology
Processing principles 

Thermal processing 
Chilling 
Freezing 
Dehydration 
Addition of preservatives and food additives 
Irradiation 
Fermentation 
Hurdle technology 
Intermediate moisture foods 
Food packaging and storage 

Packaging materials 
Aseptic packaging 
Controlled and modified atmosphere storage 
Cereal processing and products 

Milling of rice, wheat, and maize 
Parboiling of paddy 
Bread, biscuits, extruded products and ready to eat breakfast cereals 
Oil processing 

Expelling 
Solvent extraction 
Refining and hydrogenation 
Fruits and vegetables processing 

Extraction, clarification, concentration and packaging of fruit juice, jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, tomato sauce, ketchup, and puree, potato chips, pickles 
Plantation crops processing and products 

Tea, coffee, cocoa, spice, extraction of essential oils and oleoresins from spices 
Milk and milk products processing 

Pasteurization and sterilization 
Cream, butter, ghee, icecream, cheese and milk powder 
Processing of animal products 

Drying, canning, and freezing of fish and meat 
Waste utilization 

Pectin from fruit wastes 
Uses of byproducts from rice milling 
Food standards and quality maintenance 

FPO, PFA, Agmark, ISI, HACCP, food plant sanitation and cleaning in place (CIP) 
Food engineering
Mass and energy balance; momentum transfer 

Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe 
Reynolds number 
Heat transfer 

Heat transfer by conduction 
Convection 
Radiation 
Heat exchangers 
Mass transfer 

Molecular diffusion and Fick's law 
Conduction and convective mass transfer, permeability through single and multilayer films 
Mechanical operations 

Size reduction of solids 
High pressure homogenization 
Filtration 
Centrifugation 
Settling, sieving, mixing and agitation of liquid 
Thermal operations 

Thermal sterilization 
Evaporation of liquid foods 
Hot air drying of solids 
Spray and freezedrying 
Freezing and crystallization 
Mass transfer operations 

Psychometry, humidification and dehumidification operations 
GATE Biomedical Engineering Syllabus
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrix algebra 
Systems of linear equations 
Eigen values and Eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Mean value theorems 
Theorems of integral calculus 
Partial derivatives, maxima and minima 
Multiple integrals, fourier series, vector identities 
Line, surface and volume integrals 
Stokes, gauss and green's theorems 
Differential equations 

First order equation (linear and nonlinear) 
Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients 
Method of variation of parameters 
Cauchy's and Euler's equations 
Initial and boundary value problems 
Solution of partial differential equations : Variable separable method 
Analysis of complex variables 

Analytic functions 
Cauchy's integral theorem and integral formula 
Taylor's and Laurent's series 
Residue theorem, solution of integrals 
Probability and Statistics 

Sampling theorems, conditional probability 
Mean, median, mode and standard deviation 
Random variables, discrete and continuous distributions 
Normal, poisson and binomial distributions 
Tests of significance, statistical power analysis and sample size estimation 
Regression and correlation analysis 
Numerical methods 

Matrix inversion 
Solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations 
Iterative methods for solving differential equations, numerical integration 
Electrical Circuits
Voltage and current sources 

Independent, dependent, ideal and practical 
VI relationships of resistor, inductor, mutual inductor and capacitor 
Transient analysis of RLC circuits with DC excitation 
Kirchoffs laws, mesh and nodal analysis, superposition, Thevenin, Norton, maximum power transfer and reciprocity theorems 
Peak, average and RMS values of AC quantities 
Apparent, active and reactive powers 
Phasor analysis, impedance and admiffance 
Series and parallel resonance, locus diagrams,realization of basic filters with R, L and C elements 
Signals and systems
Continuous and discrete signal and systems 

Periodic, aperiodic and impulse signals 
Sampling theorem 
Laplace, Fourier and ztransforms 
Transfer function, frequency response of first and second order linear time invariant systems, impulse response of systems 
Convolution, correlation 
Discrete time system : Impulse response, frequency response, pulse transfer function 
Dft 
Basics of IIR and FIR filters 
Analog and digital electronics
Analog and digital electronics 

Characteristics and applications of diode, Zener diode, BJT and MOSFET 
Small signal analysis of transistor circuits, feedback amplifiers 
Characteristics of operational amplifiers 
applications of Op Amps 
Difference amplifier, adder, subtractor, integrator, differentiator, instrumentation amplifier, buffer 
Combinational logic circuits, minimization of boolean functions 
IC families: TTL and CMOS 
Arithmetic circuits, comparators, Schmitt trigger, multivibrators, sequential circuits, flipflops, shift registers, timers and counters 
Sampleandhold circuit, multiplexer 
Characteristics of ADC and DAC (resolution, quantization, significant bits, conversion/settling time) 
Basics of number systems, microprocessor and microcontroller 
Applications, memory and inputoutput interfacing 
Elements of data acquisition systems 
Measurements and control systems
Measurements and control systems 

SI units, systematic and random errors in measurement 
Expression of uncertainty  accuracy and precision index, propagation of errors 
Pmmc, mi and dynamometer type instruments 
Dc potentiometer 
Bridges for measurement of R, L and C, Qmeter 
Basics of control engineering  modeling system 
Transfer function and statespace model, stability analysis 
Time domain and frequency domain analysis 
Sensors and bioinstrumentation
Types of instruments 

Resistive, capacitive, inductive, piezoelectric, Hall effect sensors and associated signal conditioning circuits 
Optical sources and detectors 
LED, photodiode, pin and avalanche photo diode (APD), light dependent resistor and their characteristics 
Basics of magnetic sensing 
Interferometer : applications in metrology 
Basics of fiber optic sensing, LASERs 
Origin, nature and types of biosignals 
Principles of sensing physiological parameters 
Types of transducers and their characteristics 
Electrodes for bioelectric signals, bioelectric signals and their characteristics 
Biopotential amplifiers, noise and artefacts and their management, electrical Isolation (optical and electrical) and safety of biomedical instruments 
Generation, acquisition and signal conditioning 
Analysis of of biosignals : ECG,EMG, EEG, EOG, Blood ERG, PCG, GSR 
Principles of measuring blood pressure, core temperature, volume & flow in arteries, veins and tissues  lung volumes, respiration and cardiac rate 
Human anatomy and physiology
Human anatomy and physiology 

Basic elements of human body  muscloskeletal system, respiratory system, circulatory system, excretory system, endocrine system, nervous system, digestive, nervous, immune, integumentary, and reproductive systems 
Basics of cell and molecular biology 
Biomechanics
Engineering mechanics 

Freebody diagrams and equilibrium 
Trusses and frames 
Virtual work 
Kinematics and dynamics of particles and of rigid bodies in plane motion 
Impulse and momentum (linear and angular) & energy formulations, collisions 
Hard tissues 

Definition of stress and strain 
Deformation mechanics 
Bone structure & composition mechanical properties of bone, cortical and cancellous bones, viscoelastic properties 
Maxwell & Voight models  anisotropy, fatigue analysis 
Soft tissues 

Structure, functions, material properties and modeling of soft tissues 
Cartilage, tendon, ligament, muscle  hodgkinhuxley model 
Human joints and movements 

Skeletal joints, forces and stresses in human joints, types of joint, biomechanical analysis joints, parameterization and analysis in gait 
Biofluid mechanics 

Flow properties of blood 
Dynamics of fluid flow in the intact human cardiovascular system  modeling and experimental approaches 
Pulse wave velocities in arteries 
Measurement /estimation of in vivo elasticity of blood vessels 
Medical imaging systems
Medical imaging systems 

Basic physics and Instrumentation of medical images in XRay, Ultrasound, CT, MRI, PET, FMRI, SPECT and their characteristics 
Biomaterials
Medical imaging systems 

Basic properties of biomaterials, biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradable materials 
Fundamentals of implants and medical devices, drug delivery carriers, scaffolds for tissue engineering 
GATE 2021 Preparation Tips
Since GATE is a national level entrance examination for postgraduate engineering admissions and PSU recruitment, the difficulty level is quite high. Therefore, the candidates should be well prepared for the examination. Candidates can check the tips for GATE 2021 given below to boost their preparation for the upcoming exam.
Create a study schedule as per convenience. Candidates should note that they should not overwork and just work to the best of their abilities.
Know the exam pattern and syllabus. Candidates should check the syllabus and exam pattern beforehand to know which topics have to be studied and the type of questions likely to be asked.
Candidates can also prepare notes regularly to have quick revisions anytime anywhere.
While studying is important, the candidates should also take small breaks in between to ensure they are at their best condition.
Candidates will be able to know the detailed information about how the entrance examination will be conducted through the exam pattern of GATE 2021. By knowing the exam pattern in detail, the candidates will be able to know the required details to help them prepare. The authorities will conduct GATE 2021 for 25 papers.
GATE Exam Pattern
Particulars  Details 
Examination Mode  Computer Based Test 
Duration  3 hours (180 minutes) 
Number of GATE Papers  25 Papers 
Sections 

Type of Questions 

Total Number of Questions  65 Questions (including 10 questions from General Aptitude) 
Design of Questions  Questions will test the following abilities:

Distribution of Questions  AE, AG, BT, CE, CH, CS, EC, EE, IN, ME, MN, MT, PE, PI, TF, XE and BM 

Distribution of Questions in AR, CY, EY, GG, MA, PH and XL 

Total Marks  100 Marks 
Marking Scheme


GATE 2021 Paper Codes
Papers  Codes  Papers  Codes 
Architecture and Planning  AR  Mathematics  MA 
Biotechnology  BT  Physics  PE 
Aerospace Engineering  AE  Metallurgical Engineering  MT 
Agricultural Engineering  AG  Engineering Sciences  XE 
Chemical Engineering  CH  Life Sciences  XL 
Civil Engineering  CE  Instrumentation Engineering  IN 
Computer Science and Information Technology  CS  Mining Engineering  MN 
Electronics and Communication Engineering  EC  Mechanical Engineering  ME 
Electrical Engineering  EE  Textile Engineering and Fibre Science  TF 
Chemistry  CY  Production and Industrial Engineering  PI 
Ecology and Evolution  EY  Petroleum Engineering  PE 
Geology and Geophysics  GG  Statistics  ST 
Biomedical Engineering  BM 
The authorities will release the mock test of GATE 2021 in online mode. Candidates must note that the mock test will be replica of the entrance examination and can be used to boost the preparation process. The mock test will help candidates get familiar with the functionalities of the online exam. Listed below are some of the main features of the mock test:
 The mock test is paperspecific. Candidates can take the mock test which is specifically available for their paper.
 Candidates will be able to understand the exam in a better way and get rid of exam fear by attempting the mock test of GATE 2021.
 During the mock test, the status of questions, such as  answered, unanswered, and marked for review, will be seen on the screen in a different colour palette.
 Two sections will be present in the mock test – subject specific section and General Aptitude section
 Candidate will have the ability to navigate between sections and from one question to another using specific symbols during the mock test
Previous Years' Mock Test of GATE
S.No  Subject Code  GATE Paper  GATE 2020 Mock Test  GATE 2019 Mock Test  GATE 2018 Mock Test 
1  AE  
2  AG  
3  AR  Architecture and Planning  
4  BT  
5  CE  
6  CH  
7  CS  
8  CY  
9  EC  
10  EE  
11  EY  Ecology and Evolution  
12  GG  Geology and Geophysics  
13  IN  
14  MA  Mathematics  
15  ME  
16  MN  
17  MT  
18  PE  
19  PH  Physics  
20  PI  
21  ST  Statistics  NA  
22  TF  Textile Engineering and Fiber Science  
23  XE  Engineering Sciences  Engineering Mathematics  Click Here Fluid Mechanics  Click Here Materials Science  Click Here Solid Mechanics  Click Here Thermodynamics  Click Here Polymer Science and Engineering  Click Here Food Technology  Click Here Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences  Click Here  
24  XL  Life Sciences  Chemistry  Click Here Biochemistry  Click Here Botany  Click Here Microbiology  Click Here Zoology  Click Here Food Technology  Click Here  
25  BM  Biomedical Engineering  Not Available     
Registered candidates will be able to download the admit card of GATE 2021 in online mode tentatively in the first week of January. The admit card is an important document which the candidates have to keep safely throughout the admission process. While reporting to the exam centre, the candidates will have to present their admit card and one valid identity proof. In case of any mistakes in the admit card, the candidates will have to contact the authorities. To download admit cards, candidates had to login to the GOAPS portal using their enrollment or email id and password.
Steps to download GATE 2021 Admit Card
 Visit the GOAPS portal
 Candidates will have to login using their enrollment id/ email address and password
 The admit card will displayed on the screen.
 Candidates will have to download and take 2 printouts of the same.
List of documents allowed with GATE 2021 admit card (Indian Students)
Aadhaar Card
Voter ID
PAN Card
Passport
College ID
Employee ID
Driving License
List of documents allowed for International Candidates
Valid Passport
Government Issued ID
College ID
Employee ID
State  City 

Andhra Pradesh  Anantapur 
Kurnool  
Bhimavaram  
Eluru  
Kakinada  
Rajahmundry  
Tadepalligudem  
Tirupati  
Srikakulam  
Vijayawada  
Visakhapatnam  
Kerala  Angamaly 
Kannur  
Kasaragod  
Kozhikode  
Malappuram  
Palakkad  
Thrissur  
Thiruvananthapuram  
Payyanur  
Vadakara  
Karnataka  Bagalkot 
Ballari  
Belagavi  
Bengaluru  
Bidar  
Davanagere  
Hassan  
Hubballi  
Kalaburagi  
Kolar  
Mangaluru  
Manipal  
Mysuru  
Shimoga  
Tumakuru  
Telangana  Hyderabad 
Warangal  
Andaman and Nicobar Islands  Port Blair 
Gujarat  Ahmedabad 
Anand  
Bhavnagar  
Bhuj  
Gandhinagar  
Mehsana  
Rajkot  
Surat  
Vadodara  
Maharashtra  Ahmednagar 
Amravati  
Aurangabad  
Baramati  
Jalgaon  
Kankavali  
Kolhapur  
Mumbai  
Nagpur  
Nanded  
Nashik  
Navi Mumbai  
Pune  
Ratnagiri  
Sangli  
Satara  
Solapur  
Thane  
Goa  Goa 
Rajasthan  Ajmer 
Alwar  
Bikaner  
Jaipur  
Jodhpur  
Kota  
Sikar  
Udaipur  
Chittorgarh  
Haryana  Bahadurgarh 
Faridabad  
Gurugram  
Hisar  
Karnal  
Palwal  
Ambala  
Kurukshetra  
Panipat  
Sonepat  
Yamuna Nagar  
Rohtak  
Uttar Pradesh  Greater Noida 
Mathura  
Agra  
Aligarh  
Allahabad  
Bareilly  
Gorakhpur  
Lucknow  
Varanasi  
Ghaziabad  
Meerut  
Moradabad  
Muzaffarnagar  
Noida  
Kanpur  
Madhya Pradesh  Indore 
Ujjain  
Bhopal  
Gwalior  
Jabalpur  
Jammu and Kashmir  Jammu 
Samba  
Delhi  New Delhi 
Tripura  Agartala 
West Bengal  Asansol 
Burdwan  
Kalyani  
Siliguri  
Hooghly  
Kharagpur  
Kolkata  
Durgapur  
Jharkhand  Dhanbad 
Jamshedpur  
Ranchi  
Bokaro Steel City  
Assam  Dibrugarh 
Guwahati  
Jorhat  
Silchar  
Tezpur  
Sikkim  Gangtok 
Manipur  Imphal 
Bihar  Muzaffarpur 
Patna  
Arrah  
Purnea  
Meghalaya  Shillong 
Odisha  Balasore 
Berhampur  
Bhubaneshwar  
Cuttack  
Rourkela  
Sambalpur  
Chhattisgarh  Bhilai 
Bilaspur  
Raipur  
Tamil Nadu  Tiruchirappalli 
Tirunelveli  
Vellore  
Viluppuram  
Virudhunagar  
Punjab  Amritsar 
Bathinda  
Jalandhar  
Khanna  
Ludhiana  
Mohali  
Pathankot  
Patiala  
Sangrur  
Himachal Pradesh  Baddi 
Hamirpur  
Shimla  
Una  
Uttarakhand  Bhimtal 
Dehradun  
Haldwani  
Roorkee  
Arunachal Pradesh  Itanagar 
Documents Required at Exam
 Printout of GATE 2021 admit card
 Original and valid ID proof: passport, PAN Card, voter ID, AadhaarUID, college ID, employee ID or driving license
Candidates will be able to access the provisional answer key of GATE 2021 tentatively in third week of February. The correct answers to all of the questions of GATE 2021 will be made available and the candidates will be able to check it to calculate their probable secure scores before the result is announced. By following the official marking scheme, the candidates will be able to know what scores they have secured. Candidates will also be able to raise objections against the provisional answer key within a certain period of time. After checking the objections, the final answer key will be released by the authorities tentatively in the third week of March 2021.
Previous Year's GATE Question Paper and Answer Key (Official)
Paper Code  Question Paper Link  Provisional Answer Key  Final Answer Key 
Aerospace Engineering (AE)  Click Here  Click Here  
Agricultural Engineering (AG)  Click Here  Click Here  
Architecture and Planning (AR)  Click Here  Click Here  
Biotechnology (BT)  Click Here  Click Here  
Biomedical Engineering (BM)  Click Here  Click Here  Click Here 
Civil Engineering (CE)  Click Here (CE1)  Click Here (CE1)  
Click Here (CE2)  Click Here (CE2)  
Chemical Engineering (CH)  Click Here  Click Here  
Computer Science and Information Technology (CS)  Click Here  Click Here  
Chemistry (CY)  Click Here  Click Here  
Electronics and Communication Engineering (EC)  Click Here  Click Here  
Electrical Engineering (EE)  Click Here  Click Here  
Ecology and Evolution (EY)  Click Here  Click Here  
Geology and Geophysics (GG)  Click Here  Click Here  
Instrumentation Engineering (IN)  Click Here  Click Here  
Mathematics (MA)  Click Here  Click Here  
Mechanical Engineering (ME)  Click Here (ME1)  Click Here (ME1)  
Click Here (ME2)  Click Here (ME2)  
Mining Engineering (MN)  Click Here  Click Here  
Metallurgical Engineering (MT)  Click Here  Click Here  
Petroleum Engineering (PE)  Click Here  Click Here  
Physics (PH)  Click Here  Click Here  
Production and Industrial Engineering (PI)  Click Here  Click Here  
Statistics (ST)  Click Here  Click Here  
Textile Engineering and Fibre Science (TF)  Click Here  Click Here  
Engineering Sciences (XEA, B, C, D, E, F, G, H)  Click Here  Click Here  
Life Sciences (XLP, Q, R, S, T, U)  Click Here  Click Here 
1008
Colleges
Accepting Admission
through
GATE
Click here
IIT Bombay will release the result of GATE 2021 tentatively in the second week of March through GOAPS. Candidates will be able to check their result by logging in using their enrollment id/ email id and date of birth. Information related to secured scores and All India Rank of the candidate will be available in the result. The official score card will also be released separately. The authorities will released the GATE score card for only those candidates who has scored equal to or more than the qualifying cutoff in GATE 2021.
Steps to download GATE 2021 Result
 Go to the official website
 Candidates will have to enter their enrollment id, registration number and date of birth
 The result will be displayed on the screen.
GATE Score Card 2021
After the result is declared, the authorities will release the scorecard of GATE 2021. Candidates will be able to download the score card for free till a deadline specified by the authorities. Thereafter candidates will be able to download the score card by paying a fee of Rs 500. The scorecard is issued for only those candidates who score equal to or more than the qualifying cutoff.
Details mentioned in GATE Score Card 2021
 Candidate’s name and photograph
 Gender
 Registration Number of GATE 2021
 Attempted GATE paper
 Obtained Score (calculated out of 1000)
 Total Marks obtained out of 100 (Raw score)
 GATE 2021 Score Card Validity
 Obtained All India Rank
 Qualifying Marks (Categorywise)
 Total number of candidates who took the paper
The minimum marks that a candidate has to score to qualify in the examination will constitute the qualifying cutoff of GATE 2021. Along with the result, the qualifying cutoff will also be declared by the authorities. Candidates need to meet the qualifying cutoff for GATE 2021 to qualify the examination, however for allotment, the admission cutoff has to be satsified. Since there is no common counselling for GATE, the admission cutoff will be determined by institutes for admission to various M.Tech courses offered by them.
Previous Year's GATE Qualifying Cutoff (Official)
S. No.  Paper Name  Paper Code  Qualifying Marks  
General  OBC (NCL)  SC/ST/PwD  
1  Life Sciences  XL  31.7  28.5  21.1 
2  Civil Engineering  CE  32.9  29.6  21.9 
3  Electrical Engineering  EE  33.4  30.0  22.2 
4  Computer Science and Information Technology  CS  28.5  25.6  19.0 
5  Mechanical Engineering  ME  34.0  30.6  22.6 
6  Petroleum Engineering  PE  39.8  35.8  26.5 
7  Electronics and Communication Engineering  EC  28.8  25.9  19.2 
8  Chemical Engineering  CH  35.7  32.1  23.8 
9  Chemistry  CY  26.7  24.0  17.8 
10  Biotechnology  BT  30.7  27.6  20.4 
11  Engineering Sciences Minor  XE  26.0  23.4  17.3 
12  Textile Engineering and Fibre Science  TF  37.1  33.3  24.7 
13  Aerospace Engineering  AE  27.2  24.4  18.1 
14  Agricultural Engineering  AG  26.3  23.6  17.5 
15  Architecture and Planning  AR  34.8  31.3  23.2 
16  Ecology and Evolution  EY  42.2  37.9  28.1 
17  Geology  GG  38.4  34.5  25.6 
Geophysics  GG  51.9  46.7  34.6  
18  Instrumentation Engineering  IN  34.6  31.1  23.0 
19  Mathematics  MA  25  22.5  16.7 
20  Mining Engineering  MN  32.7  29.4  21.8 
21  Metallurgical Engineering  MT  49.2  44.2  32.8 
22  Physics  PH  37.2  33.4  24.8 
23  Production and Industrial Engineering  PI  36.6  32.9  24.4 
24  Statistics  ST  25  22.5  16.6 
25  Biomedical Engineering  BM  25.0  22.5  16.6 
Mode of Counselling: Online
No common counselling will be conducted for GATE 2021. All candidates will have to individually apply for admissions at their preferred institutes. However, the counselling and admission process of GATE for IIT admissions is done by COAP. Similarly, for admissions into NITs, IIEST Shibpur, and some IIITs & GFTIs, CCMT is conducted.
What is GATE COAP 2021?
GATE Common Offer Acceptance (COAP) was started in 2017 by the IITs as a common admission platform for making admission offers to candidates. So, while the candidate still needs to apply to an IIT individually for admission, he/she will only know about any offers by registering on the COAP portal. Also, the acceptance or rejection of offers can be made only through COAP.
Admission to IITs is a twostep process:
 Apply to an IIT (or IITs): The candidate has to apply to the IIT based on their GATE scores.
Register on COAP to view, accept or reject admission offers. Based on the applications received by the IITs, they will make all the offers on COAP portal.
Note: IIT COAP is not an application portal, but instead an admission portal.
CCMT:
Admissions to the postgraduate programmes will be through CCMT which is the Centralized Counselling for M.Tech/ M.Arch/ M.Plan admissions at the NITs, and other GFTIs. Candidates have to fill the application form on CCMT to be conducted by one of the NITs, fill their choices of courses and institutes and after the seat is allotted on the basis of their GATE score, they must complete admission formalities if they accept the seat.
Documents Required at Counselling
 Self attested copy of GATE score card (2019 or 2020 or 2021)
 Photo ID proof as per government of India norms
 Original birth certificate issued by competent authority
 Class X (high school) board certificate as date of birth proof
 Class XII original mark sheet
 Original grade or mark sheets of qualifying examination for all semesters
 If degree is completed, original degree or provisional certificate
 Original category certificate for candidates belonging to SC/ ST/ OB categories, if applicable
 Candidate's undertaking regarding OB status in the required format
 Original certificate for PwD, if applicable
 Original migration certificate of last institute/ university attended
 Three color passport size photographs
 Original conduct certificate from the head of the institute last attended
 Original transfer certificate from the head of the institute last attended
 Original course completion certificate from the head of the university or institute, in case result is awaited
 One set of selfattested photocopies of all original documents
General Information
Validity of Exam Result:  For 3 Years 
Mode of Exam:  Online 
Contacts:  01126591750 
+2 More  
Relevant Links:  Official Website Link Click Here 
Applications Open Now
Upcoming Engineering Exams
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Question: How can I download the admit card of GATE 2021?
Answer:
Candidates can download the admit card from the official portal of GATE 2021 tentatively from the first week of January. Students have to login to GOAPS portal to download their admit card. GATE admit card will be available in online mode only and will not be sent to candidates by post or any other means.
Question: How can I challenge the GATE answer key?
Answer:
Candidates can challenge the GATE answer key online through GOAPS portal within the time period specified by the authorities.
Question: How can I download the GATE answer Key?
Answer:
Students can check the answer key from GATE official website. No login credentials is required to check the answer key.
Question: How can I check GATE result 2021?
Answer:
GATE 2021 result will be available online tentatively in the third week of March. Candidates have to login in GOAPS portal using their enrollment ID date of birth.
GATE Updates and Notifications
Questions related to GATE
How to prepare for gate maths?
Important books you can go for
 Introduction to Real analysis by Donald R. Sherbert Robert G. Bartle.
 Functional Analysis by Rudin
 Solved papers on verbal and numerical ability Made Easy Team
My gate score is 391 ( general category). Is there any chance of job ........???......plz help
Hello
Kindly mention your GATE marks out of 100 and your GATE paper and graduation percentage then we can tell you about your chances in PSUs.
Good Luck!
my gate score is 883 (marks 81.89 and rank 78) in civil branch and OBC NCL category what are the chances of PSU like ONGC IOCL & NHAI?
hi,
see cutoff score changes every year and it depends on certain factors like number of participants, questions difficulty level, seat matrix, number of vacancy in particular psus etc. however at this score you have decent chances for psu , so I suggest you to apply all of them where vacancy is for civil engineering.
You may use Careers360 college predictor tool to know your predictable colleges and psu calling chances
from where will I get OBC NCL Certificate format,for applying GATE scholorship
Hi Muhammed Mubashir,
After the declaration of gate result, you have to apply for IITs or NITs specifically. You can apply only by going to their official site. In official site you will find all the details, like last year cutoff, application procedure and information about gate scholarship. From there you will able to download the format of your OBC NCL certificate.
I got mark greater than general cut off in GATE , do i need non cremy layer certificate to aaply scholorship if I belong to obc (ncl), or can I apply as general category student?
Hello,
The category which you have filled while filling the GATE application form will be considered regardless of the cut off marks of a particular category.If you have filled your category as OBCNCL in the application form then you must upload valid OBCNCL which not more that one year old.If you have filled your category as general then you don't need to upload any category certificate while applying for scholarship.
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