AP ECET 2021 Exam  Exam Date, Registration, Syllabus, Pattern, Latest Updates
About AP ECET 2021
Jawaharlal Nehru Technical University, Anantapur will conduct AP ECET 2021 for admission to the 2nd year engineering UG courses and Pharmacy courses. The application form of AP ECET 2021 will be released at sche.ap.gov.in/ECET. Interested candidates must submit their AP ECET application form 2021 before the last date. Candidates must also check the eligibility criteria of AP ECET 2021 before filling the application form.
AP ECET 2021 will be conducted as an online exam. AP ECET 2021 will contain 200 multiple choice questions spread over the four sections Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, and Engineering Subject (varying as per the subject chosen).
AP ECET 2021 Qualifying Marks
The candidates are required to meet 25% of the aggregate marks in the four subjects to qualify AP ECET 2021 i.e., 50 marks out of a total of 200 to secure a rank. There will be no minimum qualifying marks for SC/ST candidates. Allotment of candidates will be done as per their merit, preference, and availability of seats.
AP ECET 2021 result will be released on the official website. AP ECET result 2021 will include the qualifying status and marks secured by the candidates. Candidates will be able to check their AP ECET result using their registration number and AP ECET hall ticket number. After result, the authorities will release the AP ECET rank card 2021. Those shortlisted on the basis of the AP ECET rank list/merit list will be eligible to participate in the counselling process.
In order to participate in the AP ECET counselling 2021, candidates will have to first pay the counselling fee and get their documents verified. This will be followed by the choice filling process and final seat allotment.
Previous Year AP ECET Statistics
As per the previous year's statistics released, 37167 candidates had registered out of which, 31891 candidates (86%) appeared in the AP ECET 2020 exam, and 31654 (96.12%) candidates qualified.
AP ECET 2021 Highlights
Full Exam Name  Andhra Pradesh Engineering Common Entrance Test 
Short Exam Name  AP ECET 
Conducting Body  Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Ananthapur 
Frequency of Conduct  Once a year 
Exam Level  State Level Exam 
Languages  English 
Mode of Application  Online 
Application Fee (General)  550 Rs [Offline] +1 More 
Mode of Exam  Online 
Mode of Counselling  Online 
Participating Colleges  8 
AP ECET Biotechnology  Duration  3 Hours +12 More 
AP ECET 2021 Eligibility Criteria
To be eligible for AP ECET 2021, the candidates will be required to meet some conditions and requirements set by the authorities. Ineligible and invalid applications will be automatically rejected. No candidate will be eligible for final admission if he/she does not satisfy the AP ECET 2021 eligibility criteria.
AP ECET Eligibility Criteria 2021
The following eligibility criteria of AP ECET 2021 has to be satisfied by the candidates:
Nationality
Candidates should be of Indian nationality
Domicile
Should belong to the state of Andhra Pradesh. and satisfy the local/nonlocal status requirements as laid down in the Andhra Pradesh Educational Institutions.
Academic Specifications
The candidates should have qualified Diploma in Engineering and Technology from the State Board of Technical Education of Andhra Pradesh State or any other Diploma from an AICTE approved institution recognized by the Government of Andhra Pradesh.
OR
Should have qualified the 3year B.Sc Degree exam with Mathematics as one of the subjects from a recognized University.
Those candidates who have not completed but will complete their Diploma before admission will also be able to apply for AP ECET 2021.
Marks Required
To be eligible for admissions, the candidates should have passed the Diploma in Engineering and Technology with a minimum of 45% marks (for the reserved category it is 40% marks).
Mode of Application : Online
Mode of Payment : Net Banking  Credit Card  Debit Card  Other
The application form of AP ECET 2021 will be released in online mode. Candidates will have to fill and submit the application form before the final date to be registered for the entrance examination. However, candidates will also be able to submit the AP ECET 2021 application form with a late fee of Rs 1000 (+550) till a later date. All submitted information has to be valid in nature. Incomplete and incorrect applications will not be accepted by the authorities.
Steps to fill AP ECET Application Form 2021
The given steps should be followed by the authorities to fill the AP ECET 2021 application form.
Step 1  Payment of Fee: Firstly, the candidates will have to fill the mandatory details such as name, date of birth, mobile number and more and then pay the application fee. The payment of the application fee had to be done through online mode i.e., credit card/debit card/net banking. Candidates were also able to pay by cash at any one of the AP Online/ TS Online centres.
AP ECET Application Fee 2021 Rs 550
Step 2  Know Payment Status: Next, the candidates will be able to check their payment status through the tab provided by the authorities on the official website. Candidates will have to enter their Hall ticket number and mobile number to check the payment status.
Step 3  Filling of AP ECET Application Form: After the payment is done, the candidates will have to fill the online application form of AP ECET 2021. Personal, category, qualifying examination, academic information and more had to be provided by the candidates. Preferences for exam centres also had to be submitted by the candidates had to be selected. The photograph and signature of the candidates also had to be scanned and uploaded. Submission of the application form had to be done after entering all of the information.
Step 4  Print AP ECET Application Form: Finally, the candidates will have to print out the filled AP ECET 2021 application form for future reference.
AP ECET Application Form Correction The authorities will also provide the AP ECET 2021 application form correction facility in online mode.
Application Fees
Category  Quota  Mode  Gender  Amount 

ST, SC, OBC, General  Online, Offline  Female, Male  ₹ 550  
ST, SC, OBC, General  PWD  Online, Offline  Female, Male  ₹ 550 
AP ECET 2021 Syllabus
AP ECET Biotechnology Syllabus
Chemistry
Atomic structure 

Introductionfundamental particles, Bohr’s theory, quantum numbers, Aufbau principle, Hund’s rule, Pauli’s exclusion principle, electronic configurations of elements up to atomic number 20, shapes of s,p,d orbitals 
Chemical bonding 

Introduction, types of chemical bonds, ionic bond taking example of NaCl and MgO, characteristics of ionic compounds and covalent bond taking example H, O, N, HCL characteristics of covalent compounds 
Solutions 

Introduction, solution classification of solutions, solute, solvent, concentration, mole concept, molarity, normality, equivalent weight using acids, bases and salts, numerical problems on molarity and normality 
Acids and bases 

Introduction, theories of acids and bases, Arrhinus, BronstedLowry theory, Lewis acid base theory, ionic product of water, pH and related numerical problems, buffers solutions, applications 
Electrochemistry 

Conductors, insulators, electrolytes, Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation, electrolysis, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, numerical problems, Galvanic cell, standard electrode potential, electro chemical series 
Emf and numerical problems on emf of a cell 
Water technology 

Introduction, soft and hard water, causes of hardness, types of hardness, disadvantages of hard water, degree of hardness, units and its relations, softening methods, permutit process, ion exchange process, qualities of drinking water 
Municipal treatment of water for drinking purpose 
Corrosion 

Introduction, factors influencing corrosion, electrochemical theory of corrosion, composition cell, stress cell and concentration cells, rusting of iron and its mechanism, prevention of corrosion by(a) coating methods 
Prevention of corrosion by(b) cathodic protection (sacrificial and impressive voltage methods) 
Polymers 

Introduction, polymerisation, types of polymerisation–addition, condensation and copolymerisation with examples, plastics, types of plastics, advantages of plastics over traditional materials, disadvantages of using plastics 
Thermo plastics and thermo stetting plastics, differences between thermo plastics and thermo stetting plastics, preparation and uses of the following plastics: (i) Polythene, (ii) PVC, (iii) teflon, (iv) polystyrene, (v) urea formaldehyde, rubber 
Natural rubber, processing from latex, vulcanization, elastomers, BunaS, neoprene rubber and their uses 
Fuels 

Definition and classification of fuels based on physical state and occurrence, characteristics of good fuel, extraction and refining of petroleum, composition and uses of gaseous fuels(a) water gas, (b) producer gas, (c) natural gas, (d) coal gas 
Composition and uses of gaseous fuels(e) bio gas, (f) acetylene 
Environmental chemistry 

Introduction, environment, understand the termslithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere biosphere, biotic component, energy component pollutant, receptor, sink, particulate, DO, BOD, threshold limit value, COD, air pollutioncauses, effects, acid rain 
Green house effect, ozone depletion, control of air pollution, water pollutioncauses, effects, control measures 
Mathematics
Matrices 

Matrices of 3rd order: Types of matrices, algebra of matrices, transpose of a matrix, symmetric, Skew symmetric matrices, minor, cofactor of an element, determinant of a square matrix, properties, Laplace’s expansion, singular and non singular matrices 
Matrices of 3rd order: Adjoint and multiplicative inverse of a square matrix, system of linear equations in 3 variables, solutions by Crammer’s rule, matrix inversion method, GaussJordan methods 
Partial fractions: Resolving a given rational function into partial fractions 
Trigonometry 

Properties of trigonometric functions, ratios of compound angles, multiple angles, sub multiple angles, transformations of products into sum or difference and vice versa, simple trigonometric equations, properties of triangles 
Inverse trigonometric functions 
Complex numbers: Modulus and conjugate, arithmetic operations on complex number, modulus, amplitude form (polar form), Euler form (exponential form), properties, De Movire’s theorem and its applications 
Analytical geometry 

Circlesequation given center and radius, given ends of diameter, general equation, finding center and radius 
Standard forms of equations of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola, simple properties 
Differentiation and its applications 

Functions and limits, standard limits, differentiation from the first principles, differentiation of sum, product, quotient of functions, function of function, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, hyperbolic functions 
Implicit, explicit and parametric functions, derivative of a function with respect to another function, second order derivatives, geometrical applications of the derivative (angle between curves, tangent and normal), increasing and decreasing functions 
Maxima and minima (single variable functions) using second order derivative only, derivative as rate measure, errors and approximations, partial differentiation, partial derivatives up to second order, Euler’s theorem 
Integration and its applications 

Indefinite integral, standard forms, integration by decomposition of the integrand of trigonometric, algebraic, exponential, logarithmic and hyperbolic functions, integration by substitution, integration of reducible and irreducible quadratic factors 
Integration by parts, definite integrals and properties, definite integral as the limit of a sum, application of integration to find areas under plane curves and volumes of solids of revolution, mean and RMS value 
Differential equations 

Definition of a differential equation, order and degree of a differential equation, formation of differential equations, solution of differential equation of the type first order, first degree, variable, separable, homogeneous equations, exact 
Linear differential equation of the form dy/dx + Py = Q, Bernoulli’s equation 
nth order linear differential equation with constant coefficients both homogeneous and non homogeneous and finding the particular integrals for the functions, e ax, x m, Sin ax, Cos ax 
Physics
Units and dimensions 

Physical quantity, fundamental and derived physical quantities, units, fundamental and derived units, SI units, multiples and submultiples in SI units, advantages of SI units, dimensions and dimensional formulae, dimensionless quantities 
Applications and limitations of dimensional analysis, problems 
Elements of vectors 

Scalar and vector quantitiesexamples, graphical representation of a vector, types of vectors, addition and subtraction of vectors, triangle law, parallelogram law and its cases, polygon law, resolution of a vector, unit vectors (i, j, k) 
Dot product and cross product of two vectors, characteristics of dot and cross productsexamples, problems 
Kinematics and friction 

Equations of motion, acceleration due to gravity, equations of motion under gravity, expressions for maximum height, time of ascent, time of descent, time of flight, velocity on reaching the point of projection 
Motion of a body projected from the top of a tower, projectile motionexamples, horizontal and oblique projections, expressions for maximum height, time of ascent, time of flight, horizontal range, magnitude and direction of resultant velocityproblems 
Friction, normal reaction, laws of friction, coefficients of friction, angle of friction, methods of reducing friction, advantages and disadvantages of friction, motion of a body over a smooth inclined plane and a rough inclined plane–problems 
Work, power, and energy 

Work, power and energydefinitions and units, potential and kinetic energies, examples and expressions, law of conservation of energyproblems, renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy (solar, wind, biogas, tidal, nuclear energies, etc) 
Simple harmonic motion and acoustics 

Definition, conditions of S.H.M., examples of S.H.M., expressions for displacement, velocity, acceleration, time period, frequency and phase of S.H.M., time period of a simple pendulum, seconds pendulumproblems 
Sound, musical sound and noise, noise pollution, effects and methods of control of noise pollution, beats and echoeproblems, doppler effect, explanation, cases and applications, acoustics of buildings, reverberation, Sabines’ formula 
Characteristics of a good buildingproblems 
Heat and thermodynamics 

Expansion of gases, Boyle’s law, absolute scale of temperature, Charle’s laws, ideal gas equation, universal gas constant and its value, SI unitsproblems, external work done by a gas, isothermal process, adiabatic process 
First law of thermodynamics and its applications to isothermal process and adiabatic process, two specific heats of a gas, relation between Cp and Cvproblems, second law of thermodynamics and its applications 
Modern physics 

Photoelectric effect, explanation and its laws, applications of photoelectric effect (photocell), critical angle and total internal reflection, optical fibersprinciple, working, types and applications 
Concept of super conductivityits properties and applications 
Biotechnology
Basic industrial biotechnology 

Production strains, production media, types of media, carbon, nitrogen sources, biopesticides, biofertilizers 
Biophysics 

Biophysics and cell doctrine, cell theory and atomic theory, types of microscopes, biological membranes, applications of biophysics 
Genetics and cell biology 

Mendelism and its variations, linkage, cell division, chromosome structure, chromosome aberrations, genetic mechanism of sex determination, sexlinked genes, holandric genes 
Microbiology 

Classification of micro organisms, nutrition in micro organisms, growthmeasurement of microbial growth, culture media, synthetic complex media, importance and isolation of pure cultures and primary stock cultures, preservation of cultures 
Control of micro organisms, disinfection and sterilization methods, chemical agents, physical agents, different classes of disinfections. 
Bioreactor engineering 

Classification of bioreactors, energy balance of bioreactors, selectivity and optimization of bioreactors, design and analysis of bioreactors, introduction to microprocessors and their applications in bioreactors control 
Safety regulations and decontamination procedures practiced in the operation of bioreactors 
Molecular biologygenetic engineering 

Nucleic acids, structure of DNA, RNA, replication of DNA, organisation of nuclear genome, gene numbers, essential and nonessential genes, Chargaff's rule, one gene, one enzyme hypothesis, phenyl ketonuria, alkaptonuria and albinism, protein synthesis 
Applications of genetic engineering 
Plant biotechnology 

Tissue culture, techniques, application of plant tissue culture, protoplast technologyisolation, culture of protoplasts, regeneration of cell wall and callus formation, protoplast fusion 
Genetic engineering through plasmids, Ti plasmid, gene transfer in plants, symbiotic N fixation, plant protection, applicationsmethods 
Animal biotechnology 

Animal cell and tissue culture, animal organ culture techniquesadvantages, limitations and applications, production of transgenic animals by microinjection, future prospects of transgenesis, cell culture products 
Bioinformatics 

Bioinformatics in biology and medicine, biomolecules and biopolymers, genome analysis 
Enzyme engineering 

Classification of enzymes, applications, physical and chemical techniques for enzyme immobilization, advantages and disadvantages of immobilization techniques 
Structure of enzymes, primary and secondary structure and peptide bond 
AP ECET B.Sc. Mathematics Syllabus
Analytical ability
Data sufficiency 

Data in the form of two statements labeled as I and II 
Sequence and series 

Analogies of numbers and alphabets completion of blank spaces following the pattern in A:b::C:d relationship odd thing out; missing number in a sequence or a series 
Data analysis 

The data given in a table, graph, bar diagram, pie chart, Venn diagram or a passage 
Coding and decoding problems 

A code pattern of English alphabet is given 
A given word or a group of letters are to be coded and decoded based on the given code or codes 
Date, time and arrangement problems 

Calendar problems, clock problems, blood relationship, arrivals, departures and schedules; seating arrangements, symbol and notation interpretation 
Communicative English
Grammer 

Articles, prepositions, tenses, active and passive voice, concord, question tags 
Vocabulary 

Synonyms, antonyms, one word substitutes, affixes, homophones, words often confused 
Error analysis 

Spotting errors (includes all the components mentioned in this syllabus), sentence improvement 
Usage 

Idioms, phrasal verbs 
Reading comprehension 

Main idea, factual question, inferential, vocabular 
Rearrangement of parts in sentences 

Jumbled parts of a sentence to be rearranged (tests understanding of relation between form and function) 
Functional English 

Requesting, complaining, seeking permission, apologising, suggesting 
Mathematics
Differential equations of first order and first degree 

Linear differential equations; differential equations, reducible to linear form; exact differential equations; integrating factors; change of variables; total differential equations; simultaneous total differential equations 
Equations of the form dx/P = dy/Q = dz/R(i) method of grouping, (ii) method of multipliers 
Differential equations of the first order but not of the first degree 

Equations solvable for p; equations solvable for y, equations solvable for x; equations that do not contain x (or y); equations homogeneous in x and y; equations of the first degree in x and y; Clairaut’s equation 
Higher order linear differential equations 

Solution of homogeneous linear differential equations of order n with constant coefficients, solution of the nonhomogeneous linear differential equations with constant coefficients by means of polynomial operators 
(i) When Q(x) = bx k and P(D) =D a , a ≠ 0, (ii) when Q(x) =b xk and P(D) = a Dn + a Dn¯+ ... + an, (iii) when Q(x) = ea x, (iv) when Q(x) = b sin ax or b cos ax, (v) when Q(x) = V where V is a function of x 
(vi) when Q(x) = xV. Where V is any function x 
Elements of number theory 

Divisibility, primes, congruences, solutions of congruences, congruences of degree 1; the function (n) 
Binary operations 

Definition and properties, tables 
Groups 

Definition and elementary properties; finite groups and group tables 
Subgroups 

Subsets and subgroups; cyclic subgroups 
Permutations 

Functions and permutations; groups of permutations, cycles and cyclic notation, even and odd permutations, the alternating groups 
Cyclic groups 

Elementary properties, the classification of cyclic groups, subgroups of finite cyclic groups 
Isomorphism 

Definition and elementary properties, how to show that groups are isomorphic, how to show that groups are not isomorphic, Cayley’s theorem 
Groups of cosets 

Cosets; applications 
Normal subgroup and factor group 

Criteria for the existence of a coset group; inner automorphisms and normal subgroups; factor groups; simple groups 
Homomorphisms 

Definition and elementary properties; the fundamental homomorphism theorem; applications 
Vector differentiation 

Differential operator; gradient; divergence; Curl 
Vector integration 

Theorems of Gauss, Green and Stokes and problems related to them 
The plane 

Every equation of the first degree in x, y, z represents a plane, converse of the preceding theorem; transformation to the normal form, determination of a plane under given conditions(i) equation of a plane in terms of its intercepts on the axes 
Determination of a plane under given conditions(ii) equations of the plane through three given points 
Systems of planes; two sides of a plane; length of the perpendicular from a given point to a given plane; bisectors of angles between two planes; joint equation of two planes; orthogonal projection on a plane 
Volume of a tetrahedron in terms of the coordinates of its vertices; equations of a line; right line; angle between a line and a plane; the condition that a given line may lie in a given plane; the condition that two given lines are coplanar 
Number of arbitrary constants in the equations of a straight line 
Sets of conditions which determine a line; the shortest distance between two lines 
The length and equations of the line of shortest distance between two straight lines; length of the perpendicular from a given point to a given line; intersection of three planes; triangular prism 
The sphere 

The sphere: Definition and equation of the sphere; equation of the sphere through four given points; plane sections of a sphere. Intersection of two spheres; equation of a circle. Sphere through a given circle; intersection of a sphere and a line 
The sphere: Power of a point; tangent plane. Plane of contact. Polar plane. Angle of intersection of two spheres. Conditions of two spheres. Conditions for two spheres to be orthogonal; radical plane, coaxial system of spheres 
The sphere: Simplified form of the equation of two spheres 
The real numbers 

The algebraic and order properties of R; absolute value and real line; the completeness property of R; applications of the supremum property; intervals (no question should be set from this part) 
Sequences and series 

Sequences and their limits; limits theorems; monotone sequences; subsequences and the BolzanoWeierstrass theorem; the Cauchy criterion; properly divergent sequences; series 
Limits 

Limits of functions, limits theorems, some extensions of the limit concept 
Continuous functions 

Continuous functions, combinations of continuous functions; continuous functions on intervals, uniform continuity, definition, nonuniform continuity criteria, uniform continuity theorem 
Differentiations 

The derivative, the mean value theorem, L’ Hospital rules, Taylor’s theorem 
Riemann integral 

The Riemann integral, Riemann integrable functions, the fundamental theorem (scope as in introduction to real analysis by Robert G. Bartle and Donald R. Sherbert, published by John. Willey and Sons, Inc.) 
Rings 

Definition and basic properties, fields 
Integral domains 

Divisors of 0 and cancellation, integral domains, the characteristic of a ring 
Some noncommutative examples 

Matrices over a field, the quaternions 
Homomorphisms of rings 

Definition and elementary properties; maximal and prime ideals, prime fields 
Rings of polynomials 

Polynomials in an indeterminate, the evaluation homomorphisms 
Factorization of polynomials over a field 

The division algorithm in F(x); irreducible polynomials, ideal structure in F(x), uniqueness of factorization in F(x) 
Vector spaces 

Vector spaces, subspaces, linear combinations and systems of linear equations, linear dependence and linear independence, bases and dimension 
Linear transformation and matrices 

Linear transformations, null spaces, and ranges, the matrix representation of a linear transformation, composition of linear transformations and matrix multiplication, invertibility and isomorphism’s 
Systems of linear equations 

Elementary matrix operations and elementary matrices, the rank of a matrix and matrix inverses, systems of linear equations: Theoretical aspects, systems of linear equations, computational aspects 
Determinants 

Determinants of order 2; determinants of order n, properties of determinants 
Diagonalization 

Eigen values and Eigen vectors 
Inner product spaces 

Inner products and norms, the GramSchmidt orthogonalisation process and orthogonal compliments, the adjoint of a linear operator, normal and selfadjoint operators, unitary and orthogonal operators and their matrices 
AP ECET Ceramic Technology Syllabus
Chemistry
Atomic structure 

Introductionfundamental particles, Bohr’s theory, quantum numbers, Aufbau principle, Hund’s rule, Pauli’s exclusion principle, electronic configurations of elements up to atomic number 20, shapes of s,p,d orbitals 
Chemical bonding 

Introduction, types of chemical bonds, ionic bond taking example of NaCl and MgO, characteristics of ionic compounds and covalent bond taking example H, O, N, HCL characteristics of covalent compounds 
Solutions 

Introduction, solution classification of solutions, solute, solvent, concentration, mole concept, molarity, normality, equivalent weight using acids, bases and salts, numerical problems on molarity and normality 
Acids and bases 

Introduction, theories of acids and bases, Arrhinus, BronstedLowry theory, Lewis acid base theory, ionic product of water, pH and related numerical problems, buffers solutions, applications 
Electrochemistry 

Conductors, insulators, electrolytes, Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation, electrolysis, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, numerical problems, Galvanic cell, standard electrode potential, electro chemical series 
Emf and numerical problems on emf of a cell 
Water technology 

Introduction, soft and hard water, causes of hardness, types of hardness, disadvantages of hard water, degree of hardness, units and its relations, softening methods, permutit process, ion exchange process, qualities of drinking water 
Municipal treatment of water for drinking purpose 
Corrosion 

Introduction, factors influencing corrosion, electrochemical theory of corrosion, composition cell, stress cell and concentration cells, rusting of iron and its mechanism, prevention of corrosion by(a) coating methods 
Prevention of corrosion by(b) cathodic protection (sacrificial and impressive voltage methods) 
Polymers 

Introduction, polymerisation, types of polymerisation–addition, condensation and copolymerisation with examples, plastics, types of plastics, advantages of plastics over traditional materials, disadvantages of using plastics 
Thermo plastics and thermo stetting plastics, differences between thermo plastics and thermo stetting plastics, preparation and uses of the following plastics: (i) Polythene, (ii) PVC, (iii) teflon, (iv) polystyrene, (v) urea formaldehyde, rubber 
Natural rubber, processing from latex, vulcanization, elastomers, BunaS, neoprene rubber and their uses 
Fuels 

Definition and classification of fuels based on physical state and occurrence, characteristics of good fuel, extraction and refining of petroleum, composition and uses of gaseous fuels(a) water gas, (b) producer gas, (c) natural gas, (d) coal gas 
Composition and uses of gaseous fuels(e) bio gas, (f) acetylene 
Environmental chemistry 

Introduction, environment, understand the termslithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere biosphere, biotic component, energy component pollutant, receptor, sink, particulate, DO, BOD, threshold limit value, COD, air pollutioncauses, effects, acid rain 
Green house effect, ozone depletion, control of air pollution, water pollutioncauses, effects, control measures 
Mathematics
Matrices 

Matrices of 3rd order: Types of matrices, algebra of matrices, transpose of a matrix, symmetric, Skew symmetric matrices, minor, cofactor of an element, determinant of a square matrix, properties, Laplace’s expansion, singular and non singular matrices 
Matrices of 3rd order: Adjoint and multiplicative inverse of a square matrix, system of linear equations in 3 variables, solutions by Crammer’s rule, matrix inversion method, GaussJordan methods 
Partial fractions: Resolving a given rational function into partial fractions 
Trigonometry 

Properties of trigonometric functions, ratios of compound angles, multiple angles, sub multiple angles, transformations of products into sum or difference and vice versa, simple trigonometric equations, properties of triangles 
Inverse trigonometric functions 
Complex numbers: Modulus and conjugate, arithmetic operations on complex number, modulus, amplitude form (polar form), Euler form (exponential form), properties, De Movire’s theorem and its applications 
Analytical geometry 

Circlesequation given center and radius, given ends of diameter, general equation, finding center and radius 
Standard forms of equations of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola, simple properties 
Differentiation and its applications 

Functions and limits, standard limits, differentiation from the first principles, differentiation of sum, product, quotient of functions, function of function, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, hyperbolic functions 
Implicit, explicit and parametric functions, derivative of a function with respect to another function, second order derivatives, geometrical applications of the derivative (angle between curves, tangent and normal), increasing and decreasing functions 
Maxima and minima (single variable functions) using second order derivative only, derivative as rate measure, errors and approximations, partial differentiation, partial derivatives up to second order, Euler’s theorem 
Integration and its applications 

Indefinite integral, standard forms, integration by decomposition of the integrand of trigonometric, algebraic, exponential, logarithmic and hyperbolic functions, integration by substitution, integration of reducible and irreducible quadratic factors 
Integration by parts, definite integrals and properties, definite integral as the limit of a sum, application of integration to find areas under plane curves and volumes of solids of revolution, mean and RMS value 
Differential equations 

Definition of a differential equation, order and degree of a differential equation, formation of differential equations, solution of differential equation of the type first order, first degree, variable, separable, homogeneous equations, exact 
Linear differential equation of the form dy/dx + Py = Q, Bernoulli’s equation 
nth order linear differential equation with constant coefficients both homogeneous and non homogeneous and finding the particular integrals for the functions, e ax, x m, Sin ax, Cos ax 
Physics
Units and dimensions 

Physical quantity, fundamental and derived physical quantities, units, fundamental and derived units, SI units, multiples and submultiples in SI units, advantages of SI units, dimensions and dimensional formulae, dimensionless quantities 
Applications and limitations of dimensional analysis, problems 
Elements of vectors 

Scalar and vector quantitiesexamples, graphical representation of a vector, types of vectors, addition and subtraction of vectors, triangle law, parallelogram law and its cases, polygon law, resolution of a vector, unit vectors (i, j, k) 
Dot product and cross product of two vectors, characteristics of dot and cross productsexamples, problems 
Kinematics and friction 

Equations of motion, acceleration due to gravity, equations of motion under gravity, expressions for maximum height, time of ascent, time of descent, time of flight, velocity on reaching the point of projection 
Motion of a body projected from the top of a tower, projectile motionexamples, horizontal and oblique projections, expressions for maximum height, time of ascent, time of flight, horizontal range, magnitude and direction of resultant velocityproblems 
Friction, normal reaction, laws of friction, coefficients of friction, angle of friction, methods of reducing friction, advantages and disadvantages of friction, motion of a body over a smooth inclined plane and a rough inclined plane–problems 
Work, power, and energy 

Work, power and energydefinitions and units, potential and kinetic energies, examples and expressions, law of conservation of energyproblems, renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy (solar, wind, biogas, tidal, nuclear energies, etc) 
Simple harmonic motion and acoustics 

Definition, conditions of S.H.M., examples of S.H.M., expressions for displacement, velocity, acceleration, time period, frequency and phase of S.H.M., time period of a simple pendulum, seconds pendulumproblems 
Sound, musical sound and noise, noise pollution, effects and methods of control of noise pollution, beats and echoeproblems, doppler effect, explanation, cases and applications, acoustics of buildings, reverberation, Sabines’ formula 
Characteristics of a good buildingproblems 
Heat and thermodynamics 

Expansion of gases, Boyle’s law, absolute scale of temperature, Charle’s laws, ideal gas equation, universal gas constant and its value, SI unitsproblems, external work done by a gas, isothermal process, adiabatic process 
First law of thermodynamics and its applications to isothermal process and adiabatic process, two specific heats of a gas, relation between Cp and Cvproblems, second law of thermodynamics and its applications 
Modern physics 

Photoelectric effect, explanation and its laws, applications of photoelectric effect (photocell), critical angle and total internal reflection, optical fibersprinciple, working, types and applications 
Concept of super conductivityits properties and applications 
Ceramic technology
Geology and mineralogy of ceramic raw materials 

Definition of geology, petrology and mineralogy, ceramic minerals, ceramic clays and their classification, physical properties of clays, Grog and its properties, types of silica minerals, types of alumina minerals, feldspar group minerals 
Carbonate minerals, bone ash, fly ash 
White ware and heavy clay ware 

Machinery and equipment used in ceramic industry 
Body preparation 
Fabrication methods 
Drying of clay products 
Setting and firing of clay products 
Classification of earthen ware, porcelain ware, special porcelain ware, bone china, sanitary ware, heavy clay ware, floor and wall tiles 
Glazes, frits, colors and decoration 
Quality control 
Refractories 

Classification, properties and fabrication techniques of refractories 
Insulating refractories 
Kiln furniture and accessories 
Refractory cements and mortors 
Alumino silicate refractories, silica refractories, dolomite refractories, magnesite refractories, chromemagnasite refractories, magchrome refractories, carbon refractories, chromite refractories 
Super refractories properties and uses 
Glass technology 

Raw materials, classification of glass making raw materials, batch preparation, weighing, mixing, conveying and charging, glass melting process, types of furnaces, types of fabrication techniques for containers, sheet glass, float glass, optical glasses 
Safety glass, tubes, annealing, tempering, decoration, testing and quality control of glass, special glasses, heat resistant glasses, fiber glass, glass ceramic 
Cement technology 

Raw materials, limestone and limes, batch preparation, mixing, types of manufacturing process, natural cements, portland cements, special cements, rotary kiln 
Advanced ceramics 

Purification of raw materials, shaping techniques, and firing techniques, electrical ceramics, electronic ceramics, cemaric composites, magnetic ceramics, nuclear ceramics and other structural ceramics 
Stabilised zirconia and products, alumina products 
Fuels, furnaces and pyrometry 

Construction and working of industrial pyrometers, furnaces used in glass industry, enamel industry, kilns used in ceramic industry, types of fuels, advantages and disadvantages of different physical state of fuels, combustion, classification of fuels 
NCES and RES, hydrogen gas 
Enamels and glazes 

Raw materials, enamel compositions, batch preparation, metal treatment of enamels, application of enamel and firing of enamels, defects and decoration, batch compositions of glazes, glaze preparation, firing, defects and testing of lead glazes 
Leadless glazes, feldspathic and calcareous glazes 
AP ECET Chemical Engineering Syllabus
Chemistry
Atomic structure 

Introductionfundamental particles, Bohr’s theory, quantum numbers, Aufbau principle, Hund’s rule, Pauli’s exclusion principle, electronic configurations of elements up to atomic number 20, shapes of s,p,d orbitals 
Chemical bonding 

Introduction, types of chemical bonds, ionic bond taking example of NaCl and MgO, characteristics of ionic compounds and covalent bond taking example H, O, N, HCL characteristics of covalent compounds 
Solutions 

Introduction, solution classification of solutions, solute, solvent, concentration, mole concept, molarity, normality, equivalent weight using acids, bases and salts, numerical problems on molarity and normality 
Acids and bases 

Introduction, theories of acids and bases, Arrhinus, BronstedLowry theory, Lewis acid base theory, ionic product of water, pH and related numerical problems, buffers solutions, applications 
Electrochemistry 

Conductors, insulators, electrolytes, Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation, electrolysis, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, numerical problems, Galvanic cell, standard electrode potential, electro chemical series 
Emf and numerical problems on emf of a cell 
Water technology 

Introduction, soft and hard water, causes of hardness, types of hardness, disadvantages of hard water, degree of hardness, units and its relations, softening methods, permutit process, ion exchange process, qualities of drinking water 
Municipal treatment of water for drinking purpose 
Corrosion 

Introduction, factors influencing corrosion, electrochemical theory of corrosion, composition cell, stress cell and concentration cells, rusting of iron and its mechanism, prevention of corrosion by(a) coating methods 
Prevention of corrosion by(b) cathodic protection (sacrificial and impressive voltage methods) 
Polymers 

Introduction, polymerisation, types of polymerisation–addition, condensation and copolymerisation with examples, plastics, types of plastics, advantages of plastics over traditional materials, disadvantages of using plastics 
Thermo plastics and thermo stetting plastics, differences between thermo plastics and thermo stetting plastics, preparation and uses of the following plastics: (i) Polythene, (ii) PVC, (iii) teflon, (iv) polystyrene, (v) urea formaldehyde, rubber 
Natural rubber, processing from latex, vulcanization, elastomers, BunaS, neoprene rubber and their uses 
Fuels 

Definition and classification of fuels based on physical state and occurrence, characteristics of good fuel, extraction and refining of petroleum, composition and uses of gaseous fuels(a) water gas, (b) producer gas, (c) natural gas, (d) coal gas 
Composition and uses of gaseous fuels(e) bio gas, (f) acetylene 
Environmental chemistry 

Introduction, environment, understand the termslithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere biosphere, biotic component, energy component pollutant, receptor, sink, particulate, DO, BOD, threshold limit value, COD, air pollutioncauses, effects, acid rain 
Green house effect, ozone depletion, control of air pollution, water pollutioncauses, effects, control measures 
Mathematics
Matrices 

Matrices of 3rd order: Types of matrices, algebra of matrices, transpose of a matrix, symmetric, Skew symmetric matrices, minor, cofactor of an element, determinant of a square matrix, properties, Laplace’s expansion, singular and non singular matrices 
Matrices of 3rd order: Adjoint and multiplicative inverse of a square matrix, system of linear equations in 3 variables, solutions by Crammer’s rule, matrix inversion method, GaussJordan methods 
Partial fractions: Resolving a given rational function into partial fractions 
Trigonometry 

Properties of trigonometric functions, ratios of compound angles, multiple angles, sub multiple angles, transformations of products into sum or difference and vice versa, simple trigonometric equations, properties of triangles 
Inverse trigonometric functions 
Complex numbers: Modulus and conjugate, arithmetic operations on complex number, modulus, amplitude form (polar form), Euler form (exponential form), properties, De Movire’s theorem and its applications 
Analytical geometry 

Circlesequation given center and radius, given ends of diameter, general equation, finding center and radius 
Standard forms of equations of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola, simple properties 
Differentiation and its applications 

Functions and limits, standard limits, differentiation from the first principles, differentiation of sum, product, quotient of functions, function of function, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, hyperbolic functions 
Implicit, explicit and parametric functions, derivative of a function with respect to another function, second order derivatives, geometrical applications of the derivative (angle between curves, tangent and normal), increasing and decreasing functions 
Maxima and minima (single variable functions) using second order derivative only, derivative as rate measure, errors and approximations, partial differentiation, partial derivatives up to second order, Euler’s theorem 
Integration and its applications 

Indefinite integral, standard forms, integration by decomposition of the integrand of trigonometric, algebraic, exponential, logarithmic and hyperbolic functions, integration by substitution, integration of reducible and irreducible quadratic factors 
Integration by parts, definite integrals and properties, definite integral as the limit of a sum, application of integration to find areas under plane curves and volumes of solids of revolution, mean and RMS value 
Differential equations 

Definition of a differential equation, order and degree of a differential equation, formation of differential equations, solution of differential equation of the type first order, first degree, variable, separable, homogeneous equations, exact 
Linear differential equation of the form dy/dx + Py = Q, Bernoulli’s equation 
nth order linear differential equation with constant coefficients both homogeneous and non homogeneous and finding the particular integrals for the functions, e ax, x m, Sin ax, Cos ax 
Physics
Units and dimensions 

Physical quantity, fundamental and derived physical quantities, units, fundamental and derived units, SI units, multiples and submultiples in SI units, advantages of SI units, dimensions and dimensional formulae, dimensionless quantities 
Applications and limitations of dimensional analysis, problems 
Elements of vectors 

Scalar and vector quantitiesexamples, graphical representation of a vector, types of vectors, addition and subtraction of vectors, triangle law, parallelogram law and its cases, polygon law, resolution of a vector, unit vectors (i, j, k) 
Dot product and cross product of two vectors, characteristics of dot and cross productsexamples, problems 
Kinematics and friction 

Equations of motion, acceleration due to gravity, equations of motion under gravity, expressions for maximum height, time of ascent, time of descent, time of flight, velocity on reaching the point of projection 
Motion of a body projected from the top of a tower, projectile motionexamples, horizontal and oblique projections, expressions for maximum height, time of ascent, time of flight, horizontal range, magnitude and direction of resultant velocityproblems 
Friction, normal reaction, laws of friction, coefficients of friction, angle of friction, methods of reducing friction, advantages and disadvantages of friction, motion of a body over a smooth inclined plane and a rough inclined plane–problems 
Work, power, and energy 

Work, power and energydefinitions and units, potential and kinetic energies, examples and expressions, law of conservation of energyproblems, renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy (solar, wind, biogas, tidal, nuclear energies, etc) 
Simple harmonic motion and acoustics 

Definition, conditions of S.H.M., examples of S.H.M., expressions for displacement, velocity, acceleration, time period, frequency and phase of S.H.M., time period of a simple pendulum, seconds pendulumproblems 
Sound, musical sound and noise, noise pollution, effects and methods of control of noise pollution, beats and echoeproblems, doppler effect, explanation, cases and applications, acoustics of buildings, reverberation, Sabines’ formula 
Characteristics of a good buildingproblems 
Heat and thermodynamics 

Expansion of gases, Boyle’s law, absolute scale of temperature, Charle’s laws, ideal gas equation, universal gas constant and its value, SI unitsproblems, external work done by a gas, isothermal process, adiabatic process 
First law of thermodynamics and its applications to isothermal process and adiabatic process, two specific heats of a gas, relation between Cp and Cvproblems, second law of thermodynamics and its applications 
Modern physics 

Photoelectric effect, explanation and its laws, applications of photoelectric effect (photocell), critical angle and total internal reflection, optical fibersprinciple, working, types and applications 
Concept of super conductivityits properties and applications 
Chemical engineering
Material technology 

Mechanical properties of metals and testing of materialsthermal equilibrium diagram, production of ironplain carbon steels, alloy steels, miscellaneous materials, glass, carbon, graphite, rubber, elastomers, fiberglass and FRP, etc 
Corrosioncauses, types, methods of prevention 
Chemical process principles 

Determination of molarity, molality and normality, analysis of solids , liquids, and gases on dry and wet basis, Daltons law, ideal gas equation of state, vapor pressure boiling point and freezing point 
Elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing pointuses, bypassing, recycling and purge streamsuses, limiting component, excess reactant, percentage conversion and yield and degree of completion 
Material balances with and without chemical reactions, law of conservation of energy, heat of reaction, heat of formation, and heat of combustionrelated problems, gross and net calorific values, theoretical air and excess air calculations 
Organic chemical technology 

Coal chemicals, coking of coal, coal tar distillation, petroleum refiningatmospheric distillation and vacuum distillation, fluid catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, petrochemicals from methane and ethylene, pulp and paper industry, oils 
Fats and soaps, sugar and fermentation, rubber industries 
Inorganic chemical technology 

Watersources, impuritiestreatment, dissolved solidsion exchange process and reverse osmosis (RO) process, manufacture of chemicals like, soda ash, ammonia, urea, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, super phosphate and industrial gases, paints 
Pigments and varnishes, graphite and silicon carbide and cement 
Fluid mechanics 

Flow of incompressible fluids, Newtonian and nonNewtonian fluids, viscosity, Bernoulli’s theorem, friction losses, flow meters, different types of pumps for transportation of fluids, flow past immersed bodies, fluidizationpacked bed and fluidized bed 
Heat transfer 

Conduction, mechanisms of heat flow, Fourier’s law, thermal conductivity, steady state conductioncompound resistances in series, heat flow through a cylinder–related problems 
Convectionheat flow in fluids, rate of heat transfer, average temperature of fluid stream, overall heat transfer coefficient, LMTD, fouling factors, heat transfer to fluids with and without phase change 
Radiationfundamentals, emission of radiation, black body radiation, laws of black body radiation, radiation between surfaces 
Heat exchange equipment, types of heat exchange equipment, counter current and parallel current flows 
Evaporation, liquid characteristics and important properties, types of evaporators, condensers, ejectors, evaporator economy, single and multiple effectrelated problems 
Mechanical unit operations 

Size reduction methods, laws of size reductioncrushers and grinders 
Different types of equipments for mixing dry powders, differential and cumulative screen analysis, screen effectiveness, average particle size, storage of solids, conveyers, froth floatation, electrostatic precipitator, scrubber, cyclone separators 
Filtration, sedimentation 
Thermodynamics and reaction engineering 

1st law of thermodynamics, PVT relationships for gases, 2nd law of thermodynamics, refrigeration and liquefaction, determination of equilibrium constant and conversion, temperature and pressure effects on reactions, Arhenius equation 
Basic equations and working of batch, tubular and stirred tank reactors, catalysis 
Mass transfer 

Principles of diffusion, inter phase mass transfer, distillation, absorption and adsorption, humidification, membrane separation, extraction and leaching, drying, crystallization 
Instrumentation and process control 

Static and dynamic characteristics of an instrumentstep input, linear input, sinusoidal inputs, measurement of temperature, pressure, vacuum, liquid levels and composition 
Process instrumentation, diagrams and process control, different types of controllers, concepts of DCS and PLC 
Environmental studies and pollution control engineering 

Scope and importance of environmental studies, segments, ecosystems, biodiversity, water pollutiontypes, classification, treatment methods, air pollutiontypes, classification, analysis, control methods 
Solid waste managementsources, classification, disposal, pollution control in sugar, fertilizer and petroleum industries, legal aspects 
Energy technology and plant operation 

Classification of energy sourcessolid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, combustion principles, refractories, furnaces, blast furnace, LD converter, nuclear energy, solar energy, wind energy and bioenergy, energy conservation, industrial hazards and prevention 
Safety and first aid 
AP ECET Civil Engineering Syllabus
Chemistry
Atomic structure 

Introductionfundamental particles, Bohr’s theory, quantum numbers, Aufbau principle, Hund’s rule, Pauli’s exclusion principle, electronic configurations of elements up to atomic number 20, shapes of s,p,d orbitals 
Chemical bonding 

Introduction, types of chemical bonds, ionic bond taking example of NaCl and MgO, characteristics of ionic compounds and covalent bond taking example H, O, N, HCL characteristics of covalent compounds 
Solutions 

Introduction, solution classification of solutions, solute, solvent, concentration, mole concept, molarity, normality, equivalent weight using acids, bases and salts, numerical problems on molarity and normality 
Acids and bases 

Introduction, theories of acids and bases, Arrhinus, BronstedLowry theory, Lewis acid base theory, ionic product of water, pH and related numerical problems, buffers solutions, applications 
Electrochemistry 

Conductors, insulators, electrolytes, Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation, electrolysis, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, numerical problems, Galvanic cell, standard electrode potential, electro chemical series 
Emf and numerical problems on emf of a cell 
Water technology 

Introduction, soft and hard water, causes of hardness, types of hardness, disadvantages of hard water, degree of hardness, units and its relations, softening methods, permutit process, ion exchange process, qualities of drinking water 
Municipal treatment of water for drinking purpose 
Corrosion 

Introduction, factors influencing corrosion, electrochemical theory of corrosion, composition cell, stress cell and concentration cells, rusting of iron and its mechanism, prevention of corrosion by(a) coating methods 
Prevention of corrosion by(b) cathodic protection (sacrificial and impressive voltage methods) 
Polymers 

Introduction, polymerisation, types of polymerisation–addition, condensation and copolymerisation with examples, plastics, types of plastics, advantages of plastics over traditional materials, disadvantages of using plastics 
Thermo plastics and thermo stetting plastics, differences between thermo plastics and thermo stetting plastics, preparation and uses of the following plastics: (i) Polythene, (ii) PVC, (iii) teflon, (iv) polystyrene, (v) urea formaldehyde, rubber 
Natural rubber, processing from latex, vulcanization, elastomers, BunaS, neoprene rubber and their uses 
Fuels 

Definition and classification of fuels based on physical state and occurrence, characteristics of good fuel, extraction and refining of petroleum, composition and uses of gaseous fuels(a) water gas, (b) producer gas, (c) natural gas, (d) coal gas 
Composition and uses of gaseous fuels(e) bio gas, (f) acetylene 
Environmental chemistry 

Introduction, environment, understand the termslithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere biosphere, biotic component, energy component pollutant, receptor, sink, particulate, DO, BOD, threshold limit value, COD, air pollutioncauses, effects, acid rain 
Green house effect, ozone depletion, control of air pollution, water pollutioncauses, effects, control measures 
Mathematics
Matrices 

Matrices of 3rd order: Types of matrices, algebra of matrices, transpose of a matrix, symmetric, Skew symmetric matrices, minor, cofactor of an element, determinant of a square matrix, properties, Laplace’s expansion, singular and non singular matrices 
Matrices of 3rd order: Adjoint and multiplicative inverse of a square matrix, system of linear equations in 3 variables, solutions by Crammer’s rule, matrix inversion method, GaussJordan methods 
Partial fractions: Resolving a given rational function into partial fractions 
Trigonometry 

Properties of trigonometric functions, ratios of compound angles, multiple angles, sub multiple angles, transformations of products into sum or difference and vice versa, simple trigonometric equations, properties of triangles 
Inverse trigonometric functions 
Complex numbers: Modulus and conjugate, arithmetic operations on complex number, modulus, amplitude form (polar form), Euler form (exponential form), properties, De Movire’s theorem and its applications 
Analytical geometry 

Circlesequation given center and radius, given ends of diameter, general equation, finding center and radius 
Standard forms of equations of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola, simple properties 
Differentiation and its applications 

Functions and limits, standard limits, differentiation from the first principles, differentiation of sum, product, quotient of functions, function of function, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, hyperbolic functions 
Implicit, explicit and parametric functions, derivative of a function with respect to another function, second order derivatives, geometrical applications of the derivative (angle between curves, tangent and normal), increasing and decreasing functions 
Maxima and minima (single variable functions) using second order derivative only, derivative as rate measure, errors and approximations, partial differentiation, partial derivatives up to second order, Euler’s theorem 
Integration and its applications 

Indefinite integral, standard forms, integration by decomposition of the integrand of trigonometric, algebraic, exponential, logarithmic and hyperbolic functions, integration by substitution, integration of reducible and irreducible quadratic factors 
Integration by parts, definite integrals and properties, definite integral as the limit of a sum, application of integration to find areas under plane curves and volumes of solids of revolution, mean and RMS value 
Differential equations 

Definition of a differential equation, order and degree of a differential equation, formation of differential equations, solution of differential equation of the type first order, first degree, variable, separable, homogeneous equations, exact 
Linear differential equation of the form dy/dx + Py = Q, Bernoulli’s equation 
nth order linear differential equation with constant coefficients both homogeneous and non homogeneous and finding the particular integrals for the functions, e ax, x m, Sin ax, Cos ax 
Physics
Units and dimensions 

Physical quantity, fundamental and derived physical quantities, units, fundamental and derived units, SI units, multiples and submultiples in SI units, advantages of SI units, dimensions and dimensional formulae, dimensionless quantities 
Applications and limitations of dimensional analysis, problems 
Elements of vectors 

Scalar and vector quantitiesexamples, graphical representation of a vector, types of vectors, addition and subtraction of vectors, triangle law, parallelogram law and its cases, polygon law, resolution of a vector, unit vectors (i, j, k) 
Dot product and cross product of two vectors, characteristics of dot and cross productsexamples, problems 
Kinematics and friction 

Equations of motion, acceleration due to gravity, equations of motion under gravity, expressions for maximum height, time of ascent, time of descent, time of flight, velocity on reaching the point of projection 
Motion of a body projected from the top of a tower, projectile motionexamples, horizontal and oblique projections, expressions for maximum height, time of ascent, time of flight, horizontal range, magnitude and direction of resultant velocityproblems 
Friction, normal reaction, laws of friction, coefficients of friction, angle of friction, methods of reducing friction, advantages and disadvantages of friction, motion of a body over a smooth inclined plane and a rough inclined plane–problems 
Work, power, and energy 

Work, power and energydefinitions and units, potential and kinetic energies, examples and expressions, law of conservation of energyproblems, renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy (solar, wind, biogas, tidal, nuclear energies, etc) 
Simple harmonic motion and acoustics 

Definition, conditions of S.H.M., examples of S.H.M., expressions for displacement, velocity, acceleration, time period, frequency and phase of S.H.M., time period of a simple pendulum, seconds pendulumproblems 
Sound, musical sound and noise, noise pollution, effects and methods of control of noise pollution, beats and echoeproblems, doppler effect, explanation, cases and applications, acoustics of buildings, reverberation, Sabines’ formula 
Characteristics of a good buildingproblems 
Heat and thermodynamics 

Expansion of gases, Boyle’s law, absolute scale of temperature, Charle’s laws, ideal gas equation, universal gas constant and its value, SI unitsproblems, external work done by a gas, isothermal process, adiabatic process 
First law of thermodynamics and its applications to isothermal process and adiabatic process, two specific heats of a gas, relation between Cp and Cvproblems, second law of thermodynamics and its applications 
Modern physics 

Photoelectric effect, explanation and its laws, applications of photoelectric effect (photocell), critical angle and total internal reflection, optical fibersprinciple, working, types and applications 
Concept of super conductivityits properties and applications 
Civil engineering
Strength of materials 

Simple stresses and strains, curves for ductile materials, mechanical properties of materials, Hooke’s law, lateral strain, Poisson’s ratio, elastic constants and the relation between them, composite sections, resilience strain energy 
Gradual and sudden loading, shear force and bending moment, diagrams for cantilever, simply supported, fixed, continuous and overhanging beams subjected to point loads and UDL 
Theory of simple bending, assumptions, bending equation, bending stresses, section modulus, shear stress distribution across various sections like rectangular, circular and Isections, torsion, solid and hollow circular shafts 
Theory of structures 

Deflection of cantilevers and simply supported beams, double integration and Macaulay’s methods, Mohr’s theorems for slope and deflections, calculation for propped cantilevers subjected to simple loading 
Analysis of fixed and continuous beams of uniform section for simple loading without sinking of supports 
Columns and strutstypes, slenderness ratio, Euler’s and Rankine’s formulae for axial loading 
Determination of forces in members of statically determinate, plane and pinjointed trusses for dead loads only 
Dams and retaining walls, conditions for stability, middle third rule, Rankine’s formula for active earth pressure 
Reinforced concrete structures 

Grades of concrete, characteristic strength, modulus of elasticityI.S. 4562000, philosophy of limit state design 
Limit state of strength and serviceability, partial safety factor, design strength of materials and design loads, assumptions 
Analysis and limit state design of rectangular beams, singly, doubly reinforced and Tbeams 
Shear in RCC beams, lintels and sunshades, development length 
Slabsanalysis and limit state design of oneway and twoway slabs as per IS.4562000 
Torsion reinforcement 
Design of continuous slabs and beams, deflection check for slabs and beams 
Detailing of reinforcement in singly reinforced and doubly reinforced simply supported beams of rectangular sections and lintels, one way and two way slabs 
Columns: Codal provisions of I.S 4562000, short and long columns, different shapes, design of short columns by limit state method, long columnsconcept, effective length for different end conditions 
Columns: Footingsisolated column footings, one way shear and two way shear. Stairstypes, loads on stairs 
Working stress method of design: Basic principles, neutral axis, lever arm, design and analysis of singly reinforced simply supported rectangular beams. Comparison of limit state and working stress methods 
Surveying 

Chain surveying, purpose and principle, errors and corrections, different operations in chain surveying, obstacles, methods of calculation of area 
Compass surveyingpurpose and principle, bearings, traversing using prismatic compass, local attractionerrors 
Levellingdefinitions, component parts, errors, classification of levelling, contouring, characteristics and methods 
Theodoliteprinciples and component parts, fundamental lines and relationship among them, adjustments of theodolite, measurement of horizontal and vertical angleserrors, traverse computations, Bowditch and transit rule 
Tacheometryprinciple, stadia tacheometry, tangential tacheometry, principle and uses of E.D.M, electronic theodolite, total station, global positioning systemimportance, G.I.Suse and applications in civil engineering 
Hydraulics 

Fluid properties, specific weight, mass density, specific gravity, surface tension, capillarity, viscosity 
Atmospheric pressure, gauge pressure and absolute pressure 
Fluid pressure on plane surfaces, centre of pressure, measurement of fluid pressure using piezometer and manometers 
Types of flowsuniform, non uniform, steady, unsteady, laminar and turbulent flows 
Energies of liquid in motion, continuity equation 
Bernoulli’s theoremm, pitot tube, venturimeter 
Flow thorough small and large orifices, free orifices, submerged orifices, coefficients of orifices, Cc, Cv and Cd 
Flow through internal, external, convergent and divergent mouthpieces 
Types of notches, rectangular and triangular, flow over notches 
Types of weirs, sharp crested and broad crested, mathematical formulae for discharge, Franci’s and Bazin’s 
Flow through pipes, major and minor losses, Chezy’s and Darcy’s formulae for loss of head due to friction, HGL and TEL, flow through siphon pipes 
Reynold’s number for laminar and turbulent flows 
Flow through open channels, rectangular and trapezoidal, Chezy’s formula for discharge, Kutter’s and Manning’s equation for Chezy’s constants, most economical sections 
Centrifugal pumps without problems 
Classification of turbines, Kaplan, Franci’s and Pelton wheel without problems, use of draft tube 
Hydroelectrical installations, components and uses 
Irrigation engineering 

Necessity of irrigations, perinnial and inundation irrigation, flow and lift irrigation, principal crops, kharif and rabi seasons, duty, delta and base period 
Methods of irrigation, check flooding, basin flooding, contour bunding, furrow, sprinkler and drip irrigations 
Hydrology, rainfall , types of rain gauges, types of catchments, rainfall and runoff 
Measurement of velocity of flow in streams, Ryve’s and Dicken’s formulae for computing maximum flood discharge 
Classifications of head works, component parts of diversion head works 
Weirs and barrages 
Perculation and uplift pressures 
Types of reservoirsdead storage, live storage and surcharge storage 
Storage head works, different types of dams, rigid and non rigid dams, gravity dams, low and high dams 
Elementary profile of a dam 
Failures of gravity dams, drainage galleries 
Ogee and siphon spillways 
Earth damstypes, failures and precautions 
Phreatic lines and drainage arrangements in earthen dams 
Distribution works, classifications and alignment of canals, typical cross section of a canal, berm and balanced depth of cutting, canal lining 
Lacey’s silt theory 
Cross drainage workstypes and functions 
AP ECET Computer Science and Engineering Syllabus
Chemistry
Atomic structure 

Introductionfundamental particles, Bohr’s theory, quantum numbers, Aufbau principle, Hund’s rule, Pauli’s exclusion principle, electronic configurations of elements up to atomic number 20, shapes of s,p,d orbitals 
Chemical bonding 

Introduction, types of chemical bonds, ionic bond taking example of NaCl and MgO, characteristics of ionic compounds and covalent bond taking example H, O, N, HCL characteristics of covalent compounds 
Solutions 

Introduction, solution classification of solutions, solute, solvent, concentration, mole concept, molarity, normality, equivalent weight using acids, bases and salts, numerical problems on molarity and normality 
Acids and bases 

Introduction, theories of acids and bases, Arrhinus, BronstedLowry theory, Lewis acid base theory, ionic product of water, pH and related numerical problems, buffers solutions, applications 
Electrochemistry 

Conductors, insulators, electrolytes, Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation, electrolysis, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, numerical problems, Galvanic cell, standard electrode potential, electro chemical series 
Emf and numerical problems on emf of a cell 
Water technology 

Introduction, soft and hard water, causes of hardness, types of hardness, disadvantages of hard water, degree of hardness, units and its relations, softening methods, permutit process, ion exchange process, qualities of drinking water 
Municipal treatment of water for drinking purpose 
Corrosion 

Introduction, factors influencing corrosion, electrochemical theory of corrosion, composition cell, stress cell and concentration cells, rusting of iron and its mechanism, prevention of corrosion by(a) coating methods 
Prevention of corrosion by(b) cathodic protection (sacrificial and impressive voltage methods) 
Polymers 

Introduction, polymerisation, types of polymerisation–addition, condensation and copolymerisation with examples, plastics, types of plastics, advantages of plastics over traditional materials, disadvantages of using plastics 
Thermo plastics and thermo stetting plastics, differences between thermo plastics and thermo stetting plastics, preparation and uses of the following plastics: (i) Polythene, (ii) PVC, (iii) teflon, (iv) polystyrene, (v) urea formaldehyde, rubber 
Natural rubber, processing from latex, vulcanization, elastomers, BunaS, neoprene rubber and their uses 
Fuels 

Definition and classification of fuels based on physical state and occurrence, characteristics of good fuel, extraction and refining of petroleum, composition and uses of gaseous fuels(a) water gas, (b) producer gas, (c) natural gas, (d) coal gas 
Composition and uses of gaseous fuels(e) bio gas, (f) acetylene 
Environmental chemistry 

Introduction, environment, understand the termslithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere biosphere, biotic component, energy component pollutant, receptor, sink, particulate, DO, BOD, threshold limit value, COD, air pollutioncauses, effects, acid rain 
Green house effect, ozone depletion, control of air pollution, water pollutioncauses, effects, control measures 
Mathematics
Matrices 

Matrices of 3rd order: Types of matrices, algebra of matrices, transpose of a matrix, symmetric, Skew symmetric matrices, minor, cofactor of an element, determinant of a square matrix, properties, Laplace’s expansion, singular and non singular matrices 
Matrices of 3rd order: Adjoint and multiplicative inverse of a square matrix, system of linear equations in 3 variables, solutions by Crammer’s rule, matrix inversion method, GaussJordan methods 
Partial fractions: Resolving a given rational function into partial fractions 
Trigonometry 

Properties of trigonometric functions, ratios of compound angles, multiple angles, sub multiple angles, transformations of products into sum or difference and vice versa, simple trigonometric equations, properties of triangles 
Inverse trigonometric functions 
Complex numbers: Modulus and conjugate, arithmetic operations on complex number, modulus, amplitude form (polar form), Euler form (exponential form), properties, De Movire’s theorem and its applications 
Analytical geometry 

Circlesequation given center and radius, given ends of diameter, general equation, finding center and radius 
Standard forms of equations of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola, simple properties 
Differentiation and its applications 

Functions and limits, standard limits, differentiation from the first principles, differentiation of sum, product, quotient of functions, function of function, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, hyperbolic functions 
Implicit, explicit and parametric functions, derivative of a function with respect to another function, second order derivatives, geometrical applications of the derivative (angle between curves, tangent and normal), increasing and decreasing functions 
Maxima and minima (single variable functions) using second order derivative only, derivative as rate measure, errors and approximations, partial differentiation, partial derivatives up to second order, Euler’s theorem 
Integration and its applications 

Indefinite integral, standard forms, integration by decomposition of the integrand of trigonometric, algebraic, exponential, logarithmic and hyperbolic functions, integration by substitution, integration of reducible and irreducible quadratic factors 
Integration by parts, definite integrals and properties, definite integral as the limit of a sum, application of integration to find areas under plane curves and volumes of solids of revolution, mean and RMS value 
Differential equations 

Definition of a differential equation, order and degree of a differential equation, formation of differential equations, solution of differential equation of the type first order, first degree, variable, separable, homogeneous equations, exact 
Linear differential equation of the form dy/dx + Py = Q, Bernoulli’s equation 
nth order linear differential equation with constant coefficients both homogeneous and non homogeneous and finding the particular integrals for the functions, e ax, x m, Sin ax, Cos ax 
Physics
Units and dimensions 

Physical quantity, fundamental and derived physical quantities, units, fundamental and derived units, SI units, multiples and submultiples in SI units, advantages of SI units, dimensions and dimensional formulae, dimensionless quantities 
Applications and limitations of dimensional analysis, problems 
Elements of vectors 

Scalar and vector quantitiesexamples, graphical representation of a vector, types of vectors, addition and subtraction of vectors, triangle law, parallelogram law and its cases, polygon law, resolution of a vector, unit vectors (i, j, k) 
Dot product and cross product of two vectors, characteristics of dot and cross productsexamples, problems 
Kinematics and friction 

Equations of motion, acceleration due to gravity, equations of motion under gravity, expressions for maximum height, time of ascent, time of descent, time of flight, velocity on reaching the point of projection 
Motion of a body projected from the top of a tower, projectile motionexamples, horizontal and oblique projections, expressions for maximum height, time of ascent, time of flight, horizontal range, magnitude and direction of resultant velocityproblems 
Friction, normal reaction, laws of friction, coefficients of friction, angle of friction, methods of reducing friction, advantages and disadvantages of friction, motion of a body over a smooth inclined plane and a rough inclined plane–problems 
Work, power, and energy 

Work, power and energydefinitions and units, potential and kinetic energies, examples and expressions, law of conservation of energyproblems, renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy (solar, wind, biogas, tidal, nuclear energies, etc) 
Simple harmonic motion and acoustics 

Definition, conditions of S.H.M., examples of S.H.M., expressions for displacement, velocity, acceleration, time period, frequency and phase of S.H.M., time period of a simple pendulum, seconds pendulumproblems 
Sound, musical sound and noise, noise pollution, effects and methods of control of noise pollution, beats and echoeproblems, doppler effect, explanation, cases and applications, acoustics of buildings, reverberation, Sabines’ formula 
Characteristics of a good buildingproblems 
Heat and thermodynamics 

Expansion of gases, Boyle’s law, absolute scale of temperature, Charle’s laws, ideal gas equation, universal gas constant and its value, SI unitsproblems, external work done by a gas, isothermal process, adiabatic process 
First law of thermodynamics and its applications to isothermal process and adiabatic process, two specific heats of a gas, relation between Cp and Cvproblems, second law of thermodynamics and its applications 
Modern physics 

Photoelectric effect, explanation and its laws, applications of photoelectric effect (photocell), critical angle and total internal reflection, optical fibersprinciple, working, types and applications 
Concept of super conductivityits properties and applications 
Computer science and engineering
Digital electronics 

Logic families: TTL, ECL, MOS, logic gates AND, OR, NOT, NOR, NAND and XOR, Boolean expressions, Kmapm, combinational circuits, flipflops, registers, counters, decoders, multiplexers and semiconductor memories 
Microprocessors 

8086 microprocessorarchitecture, segmentation concepts, register organization, addressing modes, instruction set, preliminary features of 80286, 80386, and 80486 
Computer organization 

Functional blocks of CPU, fixed point, floating point number representations, instructions, addressing modes, stored program concept, instruction execution, memory hierarchy, virtual memory, associative memory, cache memory, I/O organization 
Methods of data transfer, programmed I/O, DMA, Interrupts, IOP 
C and data structures 

Data types, storage classes, operators and expressions, control statements, functions, parameter passing, call by value, call by referencearrays, strings, pointers, structures, unions, type definitions, pre processor statements, files, data structures 
Linked lists, queues and stacks, trees, binary trees, sorting: Bubble, selection, insertion, quick and merge sorts, searching: Linear and binary search techniques 
Computer networks 

OSI reference model, TCP/IP reference model, classification of networks, network topologies: Bus, ring, star, mesh, hybrid, LAN components, coaxial, twisted pair, optical fiber cables and connectorsrepeaters, hubs, switches, NICethernet, token bus 
Token ring, inter network packet exchange/ sequenced packet exchangeHTTP, FTP, SMTP, telnetTCP/IP addressing schemeIP address classes, sub netting 
Operating systems 

Windows: Advantages, features, hardware requirements, various menus and tool bars, operating system services, process management, CPU scheduling algorithms, deadlocks, memory management, overlays, paging, segmentation, virtual memory 
Page replacement algorithms, disk scheduling, free space management, disk scheduling algorithms 
RDBMS 

Need of database systems, data independence, data models, ER model, structure of relational database, normal forms: 1st, 2nd and 3rdSQL, data types, operators, DDL, DML and DCL commandsviews, sequences, synonyms, indexes and clusters, PL/SQL 
Data types, control structures, cursor management, exceptions, functions, triggers, procedures and packages 
Object oriented programming through C++ 

Concept of OOPs, classes and objects, constructors and destructors, arrays, pointers, references, inline functions, function overloading and operator overloading, inheritance, virtual functions, friend functions, this pointer, I/O manipulators 
File and i/o functions 
Java programming 

Java, data types, variables, operators, arrays, classes and objects, methods, constructors, overloading, inheritance, visibility mode, packages, interfaces, multithreading, exception handling, applets 
Internet programming and ADO.net 

Internet fundamentals, HTML, tags, attributes, formatting text, PHP, loops, strings, statements, arrays, functions, databases, cookies, sessions, debugging 
ADO.net, data adapters, data sets, connection objects and command objects 
AP ECET Electronics and Communication Engineering Syllabus
Chemistry
Atomic structure 

Introductionfundamental particles, Bohr’s theory, quantum numbers, Aufbau principle, Hund’s rule, Pauli’s exclusion principle, electronic configurations of elements up to atomic number 20, shapes of s,p,d orbitals 
Chemical bonding 

Introduction, types of chemical bonds, ionic bond taking example of NaCl and MgO, characteristics of ionic compounds and covalent bond taking example H, O, N, HCL characteristics of covalent compounds 
Solutions 

Introduction, solution classification of solutions, solute, solvent, concentration, mole concept, molarity, normality, equivalent weight using acids, bases and salts, numerical problems on molarity and normality 
Acids and bases 

Introduction, theories of acids and bases, Arrhinus, BronstedLowry theory, Lewis acid base theory, ionic product of water, pH and related numerical problems, buffers solutions, applications 
Electrochemistry 

Conductors, insulators, electrolytes, Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation, electrolysis, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, numerical problems, Galvanic cell, standard electrode potential, electro chemical series 
Emf and numerical problems on emf of a cell 
Water technology 

Introduction, soft and hard water, causes of hardness, types of hardness, disadvantages of hard water, degree of hardness, units and its relations, softening methods, permutit process, ion exchange process, qualities of drinking water 
Municipal treatment of water for drinking purpose 
Corrosion 

Introduction, factors influencing corrosion, electrochemical theory of corrosion, composition cell, stress cell and concentration cells, rusting of iron and its mechanism, prevention of corrosion by(a) coating methods 
Prevention of corrosion by(b) cathodic protection (sacrificial and impressive voltage methods) 
Polymers 

Introduction, polymerisation, types of polymerisation–addition, condensation and copolymerisation with examples, plastics, types of plastics, advantages of plastics over traditional materials, disadvantages of using plastics 
Thermo plastics and thermo stetting plastics, differences between thermo plastics and thermo stetting plastics, preparation and uses of the following plastics: (i) Polythene, (ii) PVC, (iii) teflon, (iv) polystyrene, (v) urea formaldehyde, rubber 
Natural rubber, processing from latex, vulcanization, elastomers, BunaS, neoprene rubber and their uses 
Fuels 

Definition and classification of fuels based on physical state and occurrence, characteristics of good fuel, extraction and refining of petroleum, composition and uses of gaseous fuels(a) water gas, (b) producer gas, (c) natural gas, (d) coal gas 
Composition and uses of gaseous fuels(e) bio gas, (f) acetylene 
Environmental chemistry 

Introduction, environment, understand the termslithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere biosphere, biotic component, energy component pollutant, receptor, sink, particulate, DO, BOD, threshold limit value, COD, air pollutioncauses, effects, acid rain 
Green house effect, ozone depletion, control of air pollution, water pollutioncauses, effects, control measures 
Mathematics
Matrices 

Matrices of 3rd order: Types of matrices, algebra of matrices, transpose of a matrix, symmetric, Skew symmetric matrices, minor, cofactor of an element, determinant of a square matrix, properties, Laplace’s expansion, singular and non singular matrices 
Matrices of 3rd order: Adjoint and multiplicative inverse of a square matrix, system of linear equations in 3 variables, solutions by Crammer’s rule, matrix inversion method, GaussJordan methods 
Partial fractions: Resolving a given rational function into partial fractions 
Trigonometry 

Properties of trigonometric functions, ratios of compound angles, multiple angles, sub multiple angles, transformations of products into sum or difference and vice versa, simple trigonometric equations, properties of triangles 
Inverse trigonometric functions 
Complex numbers: Modulus and conjugate, arithmetic operations on complex number, modulus, amplitude form (polar form), Euler form (exponential form), properties, De Movire’s theorem and its applications 
Analytical geometry 

Circlesequation given center and radius, given ends of diameter, general equation, finding center and radius 
Standard forms of equations of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola, simple properties 
Differentiation and its applications 

Functions and limits, standard limits, differentiation from the first principles, differentiation of sum, product, quotient of functions, function of function, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, hyperbolic functions 
Implicit, explicit and parametric functions, derivative of a function with respect to another function, second order derivatives, geometrical applications of the derivative (angle between curves, tangent and normal), increasing and decreasing functions 
Maxima and minima (single variable functions) using second order derivative only, derivative as rate measure, errors and approximations, partial differentiation, partial derivatives up to second order, Euler’s theorem 
Integration and its applications 

Indefinite integral, standard forms, integration by decomposition of the integrand of trigonometric, algebraic, exponential, logarithmic and hyperbolic functions, integration by substitution, integration of reducible and irreducible quadratic factors 
Integration by parts, definite integrals and properties, definite integral as the limit of a sum, application of integration to find areas under plane curves and volumes of solids of revolution, mean and RMS value 
Differential equations 

Definition of a differential equation, order and degree of a differential equation, formation of differential equations, solution of differential equation of the type first order, first degree, variable, separable, homogeneous equations, exact 
Linear differential equation of the form dy/dx + Py = Q, Bernoulli’s equation 
nth order linear differential equation with constant coefficients both homogeneous and non homogeneous and finding the particular integrals for the functions, e ax, x m, Sin ax, Cos ax 
Physics
Units and dimensions 

Physical quantity, fundamental and derived physical quantities, units, fundamental and derived units, SI units, multiples and submultiples in SI units, advantages of SI units, dimensions and dimensional formulae, dimensionless quantities 
Applications and limitations of dimensional analysis, problems 
Elements of vectors 

Scalar and vector quantitiesexamples, graphical representation of a vector, types of vectors, addition and subtraction of vectors, triangle law, parallelogram law and its cases, polygon law, resolution of a vector, unit vectors (i, j, k) 
Dot product and cross product of two vectors, characteristics of dot and cross productsexamples, problems 
Kinematics and friction 

Equations of motion, acceleration due to gravity, equations of motion under gravity, expressions for maximum height, time of ascent, time of descent, time of flight, velocity on reaching the point of projection 
Motion of a body projected from the top of a tower, projectile motionexamples, horizontal and oblique projections, expressions for maximum height, time of ascent, time of flight, horizontal range, magnitude and direction of resultant velocityproblems 
Friction, normal reaction, laws of friction, coefficients of friction, angle of friction, methods of reducing friction, advantages and disadvantages of friction, motion of a body over a smooth inclined plane and a rough inclined plane–problems 
Work, power, and energy 

Work, power and energydefinitions and units, potential and kinetic energies, examples and expressions, law of conservation of energyproblems, renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy (solar, wind, biogas, tidal, nuclear energies, etc) 
Simple harmonic motion and acoustics 

Definition, conditions of S.H.M., examples of S.H.M., expressions for displacement, velocity, acceleration, time period, frequency and phase of S.H.M., time period of a simple pendulum, seconds pendulumproblems 
Sound, musical sound and noise, noise pollution, effects and methods of control of noise pollution, beats and echoeproblems, doppler effect, explanation, cases and applications, acoustics of buildings, reverberation, Sabines’ formula 
Characteristics of a good buildingproblems 
Heat and thermodynamics 

Expansion of gases, Boyle’s law, absolute scale of temperature, Charle’s laws, ideal gas equation, universal gas constant and its value, SI unitsproblems, external work done by a gas, isothermal process, adiabatic process 
First law of thermodynamics and its applications to isothermal process and adiabatic process, two specific heats of a gas, relation between Cp and Cvproblems, second law of thermodynamics and its applications 
Modern physics 

Photoelectric effect, explanation and its laws, applications of photoelectric effect (photocell), critical angle and total internal reflection, optical fibersprinciple, working, types and applications 
Concept of super conductivityits properties and applications 
Electronics and communication engineering
Electronic devices and circuits theory 

Semiconductor diodes, varactor diode, Zener diode, clippers and clampers, transistors, FETs, UJT (characteristics only), power supplies, rectifiers and filters, HW, FW and bridge type, RC, LC and CLC filters , series and shunt regulators 
Transistor amplifiers, CE, CC and CB configurations, biasing techniques, RC coupled, transformer coupled amplifiers, differential amplifiersfeedback, power and tuned amplifiers, operational amplifiers, characteristics and applications 
RC, LC and crystal oscillators, astable, bistable and monostable, multivibrators using transistors and 555 timers, Schmitt trigger, sweep circuits, Miller and bootstrap circuits 
Circuit theory 

Mesh current and node voltage analysis, Crammer’s rule. network theorems, Thevenin’s, Norton’s, maximum power transfer, superposition and reciprocity theorems, series and parallel resonance, Qfactor, selectivity, bandwidth, linear wave shaping circuits 
Transmission lines, characteristic impedance, reflection coefficient, SWR, transmission line losses and impedance matching 
Electronic measuring instruments 

Analog instruments, extension of range of ammeter, voltmeter and Ohmmeter, FET voltmeter, differential voltmeter, digital instruments, Ramp, dual slope integration, successive approximation, digital frequency meter, digital LCR meter, CRO, CRT 
Time base generator, deflection sensitivity, triggered sweep circuits, CRO applications, AF oscillator, RF signal generator, AF and RF power meters, Q meter, distortion factor meter, digital IC teste 
Industrial and measuring electronics 

Thyristor family, SCR ,TRIAC, power BJT, IGBT (characteristics, working principle and applications), converters, single phase HW, FW fully controlled, choppers, modes of operation, inverters and cycloconverters, series and parallel inverters 
PWM inverters, sinusoidal three phase inverters, single phase center tapped cycloconverters, speed control of A.C./ D.C. motors using converters and choppers 
SMPS, off line and on line UPS, opto electronic devices, LDR, photo diode and transistor and photo voltaic cell (characteristics and applications), transducers, LVDT, strain gauge, thermistor, thermocouple, ultrasonics, pulse echo flaw detector 
Communication systems 

Analog, need for modulation, types of modulation, AM, FM, PM, modulation index, bandwidth, power requirements, transmitters, low level, high level and SSB types, receivers, super heterodyne, AM and FM receivers, characteristics, sensitivity, selectivity 
Fidelity, IMRR and choice of IF, wave propagation, ground, sky and space wavesproperties 
Digital, pulse modulation, PCM, delta modulation, data codes, synchronous and asynchronous transmission, error detection and correction, digital modulation, ASK ,FSK, PSK and QAM, generation and detection, multiplexing, TDM, FDM, multiple access, TDMA 
Advanced communication systems 

Antennas, radiation resistance, beam width, polarization, directivity, efficiency, bandwidth, gain, front to back ratio, folded dipole, arrays, broadside, end fire, Yagi, log periodic, turnstile antennas, parabolic reflectorsbeam width 
Parabolic reflectorsgain and applications 
Wave guides, rectangular, dominant mode, phase and group velocity, cut off wavelength, working principle and applications of magnetron, Klystron, TWT, radar, range equation, pulsed radars, indicators, duplexers, CW radars and MTI radars 
Satellite communication, up link and down link frequencies, types of satellites, satellite on board, earth station systems, satellite applications, fiber optic communication, types of fibers, couplers, splices, connectors, switches 
Optical emitters and detectors, optical repeaters, wave length division multiplexing, mobile communication, cellular concept, AMPS, GSM, CDMA systems 
Digital electronics 

Number systems, logic gates, Boolean algebra, adders and subtractors, flipflops, registers and counters, memories, RAM, ROM, flash ROM, NVROM, D/A converters, binary weighted, R2R ladder, A/D converter, counter and successive approximation types 
Microcontrollers and microprocessors 

8051 architecture, instruction set, subroutines, use of input and output machine related statements, time delay programme, assembler directives, peripheral Ics, 8251, 8255, and 8257–8086 architecture, instruction set 
Features of Pentium and its derivatives 
Audio video systems 

Recording and reproduction of sound using magnetic and optical methods, television picture elements, scanning and synchronization, blanking and interlacing, composite video signal, flicker, camera tubes, image orthicon, silicon diode array, TV receivers 
Tuner, IF, sync separator, deflection circuits, EHT and sound circuits, color TV, additive and subtractive mixing, color picture tubes, degaussing, types of color TV systems, NTSC , PAL and SECAM, PAL system processing, DTH system 
Data communications and computer networks 

Transmission media, twisted pair, UTP, STP, coaxial cable, optical fibre, comparison, Shannon capacity theorem, network topologies, BUS, STAR , RING, switching, packet and message switching, OSI architecture and functions, CSMA, CDMA and token ring 
Properties and operations, wireless LAN, bluetooth technology, WAN architecture, packet transmission, ARPA Net, ISP and ISDN architectures, WAN protocols, X .25, frame relay, ATM, TCP/IP features and comparison, ports and sockets, domain name system 
POP and SMTP server, file transfer protocol, proxy server and web server architecture 
AP ECET Electrical and Electronics Engineering Syllabus
Chemistry
Atomic structure 

Introductionfundamental particles, Bohr’s theory, quantum numbers, Aufbau principle, Hund’s rule, Pauli’s exclusion principle, electronic configurations of elements up to atomic number 20, shapes of s,p,d orbitals 
Chemical bonding 

Introduction, types of chemical bonds, ionic bond taking example of NaCl and MgO, characteristics of ionic compounds and covalent bond taking example H, O, N, HCL characteristics of covalent compounds 
Solutions 

Introduction, solution classification of solutions, solute, solvent, concentration, mole concept, molarity, normality, equivalent weight using acids, bases and salts, numerical problems on molarity and normality 
Acids and bases 

Introduction, theories of acids and bases, Arrhinus, BronstedLowry theory, Lewis acid base theory, ionic product of water, pH and related numerical problems, buffers solutions, applications 
Electrochemistry 

Conductors, insulators, electrolytes, Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation, electrolysis, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, numerical problems, Galvanic cell, standard electrode potential, electro chemical series 
Emf and numerical problems on emf of a cell 
Water technology 

Introduction, soft and hard water, causes of hardness, types of hardness, disadvantages of hard water, degree of hardness, units and its relations, softening methods, permutit process, ion exchange process, qualities of drinking water 
Municipal treatment of water for drinking purpose 
Corrosion 

Introduction, factors influencing corrosion, electrochemical theory of corrosion, composition cell, stress cell and concentration cells, rusting of iron and its mechanism, prevention of corrosion by(a) coating methods 
Prevention of corrosion by(b) cathodic protection (sacrificial and impressive voltage methods) 
Polymers 

Introduction, polymerisation, types of polymerisation–addition, condensation and copolymerisation with examples, plastics, types of plastics, advantages of plastics over traditional materials, disadvantages of using plastics 
Thermo plastics and thermo stetting plastics, differences between thermo plastics and thermo stetting plastics, preparation and uses of the following plastics: (i) Polythene, (ii) PVC, (iii) teflon, (iv) polystyrene, (v) urea formaldehyde, rubber 
Natural rubber, processing from latex, vulcanization, elastomers, BunaS, neoprene rubber and their uses 
Fuels 

Definition and classification of fuels based on physical state and occurrence, characteristics of good fuel, extraction and refining of petroleum, composition and uses of gaseous fuels(a) water gas, (b) producer gas, (c) natural gas, (d) coal gas 
Composition and uses of gaseous fuels(e) bio gas, (f) acetylene 
Environmental chemistry 

Introduction, environment, understand the termslithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere biosphere, biotic component, energy component pollutant, receptor, sink, particulate, DO, BOD, threshold limit value, COD, air pollutioncauses, effects, acid rain 
Green house effect, ozone depletion, control of air pollution, water pollutioncauses, effects, control measures 
Mathematics
Matrices 

Matrices of 3rd order: Types of matrices, algebra of matrices, transpose of a matrix, symmetric, Skew symmetric matrices, minor, cofactor of an element, determinant of a square matrix, properties, Laplace’s expansion, singular and non singular matrices 
Matrices of 3rd order: Adjoint and multiplicative inverse of a square matrix, system of linear equations in 3 variables, solutions by Crammer’s rule, matrix inversion method, GaussJordan methods 
Partial fractions: Resolving a given rational function into partial fractions 
Trigonometry 

Properties of trigonometric functions, ratios of compound angles, multiple angles, sub multiple angles, transformations of products into sum or difference and vice versa, simple trigonometric equations, properties of triangles 
Inverse trigonometric functions 
Complex numbers: Modulus and conjugate, arithmetic operations on complex number, modulus, amplitude form (polar form), Euler form (exponential form), properties, De Movire’s theorem and its applications 
Analytical geometry 

Circlesequation given center and radius, given ends of diameter, general equation, finding center and radius 
Standard forms of equations of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola, simple properties 
Differentiation and its applications 

Functions and limits, standard limits, differentiation from the first principles, differentiation of sum, product, quotient of functions, function of function, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, hyperbolic functions 
Implicit, explicit and parametric functions, derivative of a function with respect to another function, second order derivatives, geometrical applications of the derivative (angle between curves, tangent and normal), increasing and decreasing functions 
Maxima and minima (single variable functions) using second order derivative only, derivative as rate measure, errors and approximations, partial differentiation, partial derivatives up to second order, Euler’s theorem 
Integration and its applications 

Indefinite integral, standard forms, integration by decomposition of the integrand of trigonometric, algebraic, exponential, logarithmic and hyperbolic functions, integration by substitution, integration of reducible and irreducible quadratic factors 
Integration by parts, definite integrals and properties, definite integral as the limit of a sum, application of integration to find areas under plane curves and volumes of solids of revolution, mean and RMS value 
Differential equations 

Definition of a differential equation, order and degree of a differential equation, formation of differential equations, solution of differential equation of the type first order, first degree, variable, separable, homogeneous equations, exact 
Linear differential equation of the form dy/dx + Py = Q, Bernoulli’s equation 
nth order linear differential equation with constant coefficients both homogeneous and non homogeneous and finding the particular integrals for the functions, e ax, x m, Sin ax, Cos ax 
Physics
Units and dimensions 

Physical quantity, fundamental and derived physical quantities, units, fundamental and derived units, SI units, multiples and submultiples in SI units, advantages of SI units, dimensions and dimensional formulae, dimensionless quantities 
Applications and limitations of dimensional analysis, problems 
Elements of vectors 

Scalar and vector quantitiesexamples, graphical representation of a vector, types of vectors, addition and subtraction of vectors, triangle law, parallelogram law and its cases, polygon law, resolution of a vector, unit vectors (i, j, k) 
Dot product and cross product of two vectors, characteristics of dot and cross productsexamples, problems 
Kinematics and friction 

Equations of motion, acceleration due to gravity, equations of motion under gravity, expressions for maximum height, time of ascent, time of descent, time of flight, velocity on reaching the point of projection 
Motion of a body projected from the top of a tower, projectile motionexamples, horizontal and oblique projections, expressions for maximum height, time of ascent, time of flight, horizontal range, magnitude and direction of resultant velocityproblems 
Friction, normal reaction, laws of friction, coefficients of friction, angle of friction, methods of reducing friction, advantages and disadvantages of friction, motion of a body over a smooth inclined plane and a rough inclined plane–problems 
Work, power, and energy 

Work, power and energydefinitions and units, potential and kinetic energies, examples and expressions, law of conservation of energyproblems, renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy (solar, wind, biogas, tidal, nuclear energies, etc) 
Simple harmonic motion and acoustics 

Definition, conditions of S.H.M., examples of S.H.M., expressions for displacement, velocity, acceleration, time period, frequency and phase of S.H.M., time period of a simple pendulum, seconds pendulumproblems 
Sound, musical sound and noise, noise pollution, effects and methods of control of noise pollution, beats and echoeproblems, doppler effect, explanation, cases and applications, acoustics of buildings, reverberation, Sabines’ formula 
Characteristics of a good buildingproblems 
Heat and thermodynamics 

Expansion of gases, Boyle’s law, absolute scale of temperature, Charle’s laws, ideal gas equation, universal gas constant and its value, SI unitsproblems, external work done by a gas, isothermal process, adiabatic process 
First law of thermodynamics and its applications to isothermal process and adiabatic process, two specific heats of a gas, relation between Cp and Cvproblems, second law of thermodynamics and its applications 
Modern physics 

Photoelectric effect, explanation and its laws, applications of photoelectric effect (photocell), critical angle and total internal reflection, optical fibersprinciple, working, types and applications 
Concept of super conductivityits properties and applications 
Electrical and electronics engineering
Basic electrical engineering 

Ohms and Kirchhoff’s laws, star/ delta transformation, network theorems, power and energy, heating effects of electric current, magnetic effects, electromagnetic induction, electrostatics, batteries, types of electrical engineering materialsconducting 
Semiconducting, magnetic, insulating, dielectricproperties and uses 
D.C. machines, batteries and measuring instruments 

D.C. generators: Construction, Operation, types, EMF equation, windings, characteristics, efficiency and parallel operation 
D.C. motors: Principle of operation, back EMF, torque equation, types, armature reaction. Characteristics, starters, speed control, losses, efficiency and testing, battries 
Measurements instruments: Classification, principle of operation of moving coil, moving iron, dynamometer type, induction type meters, instrument transformers, induction type energy meter, M.D. indicator, TRI vector meter, PF meter, frequency meter 
Measurements instruments: Measurement of resistance, transducers and sensorstypes, thermistor, thermocouple, pressure transducers and strain gauges 
A.C. circuits and transformers 

A.C. circuits: Fundamentals, Series and parallel RLC circuits, resonant circuits, polyphase circuits, measurement of power by 2 wattmeters 
Transformers: Singlephase transformer, construction, operation, equivalent circuit regulation, efficiency, testing and parallel operation, accessories of transformers and cooling. Threephase transformers, autotransformers 
A.C. machines 

Alternators: Construction, operation, EMF equation, regulation, testing and parallel operation 
Synchronous motors: Operation and performance, effects of excitation, ‘V’curve and inverted ‘V’curve, methods of starting and uses 
Threephase induction motors: Construction, principle of operation, torque equation, sliptorque characteristics, losses, efficiency, speed control, starters, doublecage motor 
Single phase induction motors: Types, principle of operation, applications. Singlephase commutator motors: Types, principle of operation and applications 
Power system generation and protection 

Generating stations: Working, components, domparison of thermal, hydel, nuclear and gas power stations. Pollution control, combined working, power stations auxiliaries, characteristic curves and important terms, types of tariffs 
Generating stations: Power factor correction and economy 
Power systems protection: Circuit breakerstypes, principles of operation and uses, current limiting reactors, relaysclassification, principle of operation of induction type over current relay, directional and non directional relays 
Power systems protection: Differential relays and distance relays, protection of alternators, transformers, busbars, transmission lines, lightening arrestors, neutral grounding 
Transmission and distribution 

Transmission and distribution: Types of supply systems, transmission line parameters, inductance and capacitance, performance of short and medium lines, regulation, Ferranti effect, corona, basic concepts of HVDC transmission 
Transmission and distribution: Advantage and disadvantages of HVDC transmission. Components of lines, supports, conductor spacing, ground clearance and sag, insulators, voltage distribution across the string, string efficiency 
Transmission and distribution: Methods of improving string efficiency. Earthing and layout of substations. Cablesclassification, insulation resistance, specifications. Distributionradial and ring distributors, variation of load voltage 
Electric traction 

Electric traction: Systems of train electrification, speedtime curves for different services, schedule speed, tractive effort, specific energy consumption, traction system auxiliaries, traction motor 
Electrical estimation 

Electric wiring: Tools, wires, types of wiring, accessories, lamp circuits, estimating and costing of domestic, industrial, power, irrigation pump sets, over head lines and ii KV sub stations, rural electrification, departmental tests, earthing 
Electric wiring: Maintenance of electrical machines 
Basic electronics and digital electronics 

Semiconductor devices: N type and P type, Zener diode, PNP and NPN transistors, transistor configurations, characteristics, power supplieshalf and full wave rectifiers, filters, Zener diode regulation, special devicesUJT, FET, LED, SCR 
Semiconductor devices: Opto coupler, photo diode, photo transistor, CRO and timers 
Amplifiers: Types, pinciples of operation, characteristics 
Oscillators: Types, operation and application of each 
Digital electronics: Different numbering systems, inter conversions, Boolean algebra, logic families, performance of AND, OR, NOT, NOR, NAND gates, combinational logic circuits, sequential logic circuits, resistors and memories, A/D and D/A converters 
Power electronics and micro controller 

Power electronic devices: Construction and working of SCR, GTOSCR, DIAC, TRIAC, voltampere characteristics, triggering of SCR using UJT, protection 
Converters, AC regulators, choppers, inverters and cycloconverters: Types of Converters, working of AC regulators and choppers. Types of inverters, principles of working, basic principle of working of cyclo converters 
Converters, AC regulators, choppers, inverters and cycloconverters: Speed control of D.C. motors by using converters and choppers, speed control of induction motor by using AC voltage regulatorsV/F control, switched mode power supplies (SMPS), UPS 
Micro Controllers: Architecture of 8051, instruction set of 8051, programming concepts, peripheral ICSfunction, features 
AP ECET Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering Syllabus
Chemistry
Atomic structure 

Introductionfundamental particles, Bohr’s theory, quantum numbers, Aufbau principle, Hund’s rule, Pauli’s exclusion principle, electronic configurations of elements up to atomic number 20, shapes of s,p,d orbitals 
Chemical bonding 

Introduction, types of chemical bonds, ionic bond taking example of NaCl and MgO, characteristics of ionic compounds and covalent bond taking example H, O, N, HCL characteristics of covalent compounds 
Solutions 

Introduction, solution classification of solutions, solute, solvent, concentration, mole concept, molarity, normality, equivalent weight using acids, bases and salts, numerical problems on molarity and normality 
Acids and bases 

Introduction, theories of acids and bases, Arrhinus, BronstedLowry theory, Lewis acid base theory, ionic product of water, pH and related numerical problems, buffers solutions, applications 
Electrochemistry 

Conductors, insulators, electrolytes, Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation, electrolysis, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, numerical problems, Galvanic cell, standard electrode potential, electro chemical series 
Emf and numerical problems on emf of a cell 
Water technology 

Introduction, soft and hard water, causes of hardness, types of hardness, disadvantages of hard water, degree of hardness, units and its relations, softening methods, permutit process, ion exchange process, qualities of drinking water 
Municipal treatment of water for drinking purpose 
Corrosion 

Introduction, factors influencing corrosion, electrochemical theory of corrosion, composition cell, stress cell and concentration cells, rusting of iron and its mechanism, prevention of corrosion by(a) coating methods 
Prevention of corrosion by(b) cathodic protection (sacrificial and impressive voltage methods) 
Polymers 

Introduction, polymerisation, types of polymerisation–addition, condensation and copolymerisation with examples, plastics, types of plastics, advantages of plastics over traditional materials, disadvantages of using plastics 
Thermo plastics and thermo stetting plastics, differences between thermo plastics and thermo stetting plastics, preparation and uses of the following plastics: (i) Polythene, (ii) PVC, (iii) teflon, (iv) polystyrene, (v) urea formaldehyde, rubber 
Natural rubber, processing from latex, vulcanization, elastomers, BunaS, neoprene rubber and their uses 
Fuels 

Definition and classification of fuels based on physical state and occurrence, characteristics of good fuel, extraction and refining of petroleum, composition and uses of gaseous fuels(a) water gas, (b) producer gas, (c) natural gas, (d) coal gas 
Composition and uses of gaseous fuels(e) bio gas, (f) acetylene 
Environmental chemistry 

Introduction, environment, understand the termslithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere biosphere, biotic component, energy component pollutant, receptor, sink, particulate, DO, BOD, threshold limit value, COD, air pollutioncauses, effects, acid rain 
Green house effect, ozone depletion, control of air pollution, water pollutioncauses, effects, control measures 
Mathematics
Matrices 

Matrices of 3rd order: Types of matrices, algebra of matrices, transpose of a matrix, symmetric, Skew symmetric matrices, minor, cofactor of an element, determinant of a square matrix, properties, Laplace’s expansion, singular and non singular matrices 
Matrices of 3rd order: Adjoint and multiplicative inverse of a square matrix, system of linear equations in 3 variables, solutions by Crammer’s rule, matrix inversion method, GaussJordan methods 
Partial fractions: Resolving a given rational function into partial fractions 
Trigonometry 

Properties of trigonometric functions, ratios of compound angles, multiple angles, sub multiple angles, transformations of products into sum or difference and vice versa, simple trigonometric equations, properties of triangles 
Inverse trigonometric functions 
Complex numbers: Modulus and conjugate, arithmetic operations on complex number, modulus, amplitude form (polar form), Euler form (exponential form), properties, De Movire’s theorem and its applications 
Analytical geometry 

Circlesequation given center and radius, given ends of diameter, general equation, finding center and radius 
Standard forms of equations of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola, simple properties 
Differentiation and its applications 

Functions and limits, standard limits, differentiation from the first principles, differentiation of sum, product, quotient of functions, function of function, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, hyperbolic functions 
Implicit, explicit and parametric functions, derivative of a function with respect to another function, second order derivatives, geometrical applications of the derivative (angle between curves, tangent and normal), increasing and decreasing functions 
Maxima and minima (single variable functions) using second order derivative only, derivative as rate measure, errors and approximations, partial differentiation, partial derivatives up to second order, Euler’s theorem 
Integration and its applications 

Indefinite integral, standard forms, integration by decomposition of the integrand of trigonometric, algebraic, exponential, logarithmic and hyperbolic functions, integration by substitution, integration of reducible and irreducible quadratic factors 
Integration by parts, definite integrals and properties, definite integral as the limit of a sum, application of integration to find areas under plane curves and volumes of solids of revolution, mean and RMS value 
Differential equations 

Definition of a differential equation, order and degree of a differential equation, formation of differential equations, solution of differential equation of the type first order, first degree, variable, separable, homogeneous equations, exact 
Linear differential equation of the form dy/dx + Py = Q, Bernoulli’s equation 
nth order linear differential equation with constant coefficients both homogeneous and non homogeneous and finding the particular integrals for the functions, e ax, x m, Sin ax, Cos ax 
Physics
Units and dimensions 

Physical quantity, fundamental and derived physical quantities, units, fundamental and derived units, SI units, multiples and submultiples in SI units, advantages of SI units, dimensions and dimensional formulae, dimensionless quantities 
Applications and limitations of dimensional analysis, problems 
Elements of vectors 

Scalar and vector quantitiesexamples, graphical representation of a vector, types of vectors, addition and subtraction of vectors, triangle law, parallelogram law and its cases, polygon law, resolution of a vector, unit vectors (i, j, k) 
Dot product and cross product of two vectors, characteristics of dot and cross productsexamples, problems 
Kinematics and friction 

Equations of motion, acceleration due to gravity, equations of motion under gravity, expressions for maximum height, time of ascent, time of descent, time of flight, velocity on reaching the point of projection 
Motion of a body projected from the top of a tower, projectile motionexamples, horizontal and oblique projections, expressions for maximum height, time of ascent, time of flight, horizontal range, magnitude and direction of resultant velocityproblems 
Friction, normal reaction, laws of friction, coefficients of friction, angle of friction, methods of reducing friction, advantages and disadvantages of friction, motion of a body over a smooth inclined plane and a rough inclined plane–problems 
Work, power, and energy 

Work, power and energydefinitions and units, potential and kinetic energies, examples and expressions, law of conservation of energyproblems, renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy (solar, wind, biogas, tidal, nuclear energies, etc) 
Simple harmonic motion and acoustics 

Definition, conditions of S.H.M., examples of S.H.M., expressions for displacement, velocity, acceleration, time period, frequency and phase of S.H.M., time period of a simple pendulum, seconds pendulumproblems 
Sound, musical sound and noise, noise pollution, effects and methods of control of noise pollution, beats and echoeproblems, doppler effect, explanation, cases and applications, acoustics of buildings, reverberation, Sabines’ formula 
Characteristics of a good buildingproblems 
Heat and thermodynamics 

Expansion of gases, Boyle’s law, absolute scale of temperature, Charle’s laws, ideal gas equation, universal gas constant and its value, SI unitsproblems, external work done by a gas, isothermal process, adiabatic process 
First law of thermodynamics and its applications to isothermal process and adiabatic process, two specific heats of a gas, relation between Cp and Cvproblems, second law of thermodynamics and its applications 
Modern physics 

Photoelectric effect, explanation and its laws, applications of photoelectric effect (photocell), critical angle and total internal reflection, optical fibersprinciple, working, types and applications 
Concept of super conductivityits properties and applications 
Electronics and instrumentation engineering
Electrical engineering 

Ohm’s law, Kirchhoff’s law, stardelta transformation, basics of D.C. machines, motors and generators, A.C. machines, Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems 
Industrial electronics and control engineering 

Photo transistor, photo conductive device, photo multiplier, solar cell, optocoupler, dot matrix and seven segment displays, bar graph, basic principles of induction heating, dielectric heating and resistance welding 
Generation and applications of ultrasonics 
Basics of open loop and closed loop control systems, transfer functions, signal flow graphs, time response of first order and second order system, concept of stability (Routh Hurwitz and root locus) 
Electronics 

Resistor, capacitor and inductor specifications and applications of transformers, basics of switches, fuses, relays and microphones, semi conductor materials, PN junction formation, forward and reverse biasing voltages, formation 
Working and configurations of PNP and NPN transistors, Zener diode, FET, MOSFET, UJT, diode as rectifier, C, LC and CLC filter circuits, RC coupled amplifier, transformer coupled amplifier, Darlington and cascaded amplifier 
ClassA and classB pushpull amplifier, complementary type power amplifier, oscillator principle, RC phase shift and Wien bridge oscillator, boot strap sweep circuit, Miller sweep circuit, bistable, astable and monostable multivibrator using transistor 
Digital electronics 

Number systems, logic gates, half adder and subtractor, full adder, RS, T , D and master, slave JK type flipflops, counters, up/ down counter, ring counter, registers, shift registers, universal shift register , basic memories (RAM and ROM) 
ADC (counter method, successive approximation method) and DAC, (R2R method, binary weighted method) 
Electronic measuring instruments 

Analog Instruments, extension of range of ammeter, voltmeter and Ohmmeter, FET voltmeter, differential voltmeter, cigital instruments, ramp, dual slope integration, successive approximation, digital frequency meter 
CRO, CRT, time base generator, deflection sensitivity, triggered sweep circuits, CRO applications, AF oscillator, RF signal generator, AF and RF power meters, Q meter, distortion factor meter, digital IC tester, logic and spectrum analyzer 
Process instrumentation 

Fundamentals of instrumentation, basic transducer theory for the measurement of displacement (LVDT, potentiometer, inductive, capacitive) angular velocity, temperature (thermometers, RTD, thermo couple, thermister, pyrometers) 
Pressure (elastic elements, strain gauge, piezo electric), flow (head type flow meters, rotameter, electromagnetic flow meter, anemometers, ultrasonic flow meter), pH, conductivity, weight, humidity, level, viscosity and density 
Detection of alpha, beta, and gamma particles 
Process control 

Onoff control, proportional, integral and derivative controllers, PID controller, tuning of PID controller, actuators (pneumatic, electropneumatic hydraulic) basics of control valves, cascade controller, ratio controller, adaptive control, line diagrams 
Letter codes, basic of CNC machine, basics of robot 
Communication and linear IC applications 

Need and types of modulation, SSB, DSB and VSB transmission, AM and FM transmitters, AM and FM detectors, basics of pulse modulation and applications, optical fibre communication, characteristics of operational amplifier 
Applications of operational amplifier like (summer, integrator, differentiator, inverter, voltage follower, V to I converter, I to V converter, comparator, square wave generator, mono stable multivibrator, astable multivibrator, Wien bridge oscillator) 
Applications of operational amplifier like (instrumentation amplifier, Schmitt trigger, ADC and DAC), applications of 555 timer, phase locked loop 
Analytical and biomedical instrumentation 

Electromagnetic spectrum, Beer Lamberts law, mono chromator, light sources and detectors, spectrophotometer (UV, visible, IR), flame photometer, spectroflourometer, polarimeter, gas analyzer, mass spectrometer, liquid chromatography and gas chromatography 
Basics of diagnostic equipment ECG , EEG, EMG blood flow measurement, pace maker, defibrillator, Xray equipment, CAT 
Micro controllers and PLCs 

Architecture and instruction set of 8051 micro controller, interfacing peripherals (8255, 8251, 8257 and 8259) and applications of 8051 
Basics of PLC, architecture and instruction set of PLC and applications 
AP ECET Mechanical Engineering Syllabus
Chemistry
Atomic structure 

Introductionfundamental particles, Bohr’s theory, quantum numbers, Aufbau principle, Hund’s rule, Pauli’s exclusion principle, electronic configurations of elements up to atomic number 20, shapes of s,p,d orbitals 
Chemical bonding 

Introduction, types of chemical bonds, ionic bond taking example of NaCl and MgO, characteristics of ionic compounds and covalent bond taking example H, O, N, HCL characteristics of covalent compounds 
Solutions 

Introduction, solution classification of solutions, solute, solvent, concentration, mole concept, molarity, normality, equivalent weight using acids, bases and salts, numerical problems on molarity and normality 
Acids and bases 

Introduction, theories of acids and bases, Arrhinus, BronstedLowry theory, Lewis acid base theory, ionic product of water, pH and related numerical problems, buffers solutions, applications 
Electrochemistry 

Conductors, insulators, electrolytes, Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation, electrolysis, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, numerical problems, Galvanic cell, standard electrode potential, electro chemical series 
Emf and numerical problems on emf of a cell 
Water technology 

Introduction, soft and hard water, causes of hardness, types of hardness, disadvantages of hard water, degree of hardness, units and its relations, softening methods, permutit process, ion exchange process, qualities of drinking water 
Municipal treatment of water for drinking purpose 
Corrosion 

Introduction, factors influencing corrosion, electrochemical theory of corrosion, composition cell, stress cell and concentration cells, rusting of iron and its mechanism, prevention of corrosion by(a) coating methods 
Prevention of corrosion by(b) cathodic protection (sacrificial and impressive voltage methods) 
Polymers 

Introduction, polymerisation, types of polymerisation–addition, condensation and copolymerisation with examples, plastics, types of plastics, advantages of plastics over traditional materials, disadvantages of using plastics 
Thermo plastics and thermo stetting plastics, differences between thermo plastics and thermo stetting plastics, preparation and uses of the following plastics: (i) Polythene, (ii) PVC, (iii) teflon, (iv) polystyrene, (v) urea formaldehyde, rubber 
Natural rubber, processing from latex, vulcanization, elastomers, BunaS, neoprene rubber and their uses 
Fuels 

Definition and classification of fuels based on physical state and occurrence, characteristics of good fuel, extraction and refining of petroleum, composition and uses of gaseous fuels(a) water gas, (b) producer gas, (c) natural gas, (d) coal gas 
Composition and uses of gaseous fuels(e) bio gas, (f) acetylene 
Environmental chemistry 

Introduction, environment, understand the termslithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere biosphere, biotic component, energy component pollutant, receptor, sink, particulate, DO, BOD, threshold limit value, COD, air pollutioncauses, effects, acid rain 
Green house effect, ozone depletion, control of air pollution, water pollutioncauses, effects, control measures 
Mathematics
Matrices 

Matrices of 3rd order: Types of matrices, algebra of matrices, transpose of a matrix, symmetric, Skew symmetric matrices, minor, cofactor of an element, determinant of a square matrix, properties, Laplace’s expansion, singular and non singular matrices 
Matrices of 3rd order: Adjoint and multiplicative inverse of a square matrix, system of linear equations in 3 variables, solutions by Crammer’s rule, matrix inversion method, GaussJordan methods 
Partial fractions: Resolving a given rational function into partial fractions 
Trigonometry 

Properties of trigonometric functions, ratios of compound angles, multiple angles, sub multiple angles, transformations of products into sum or difference and vice versa, simple trigonometric equations, properties of triangles 
Inverse trigonometric functions 
Complex numbers: Modulus and conjugate, arithmetic operations on complex number, modulus, amplitude form (polar form), Euler form (exponential form), properties, De Movire’s theorem and its applications 
Analytical geometry 

Circlesequation given center and radius, given ends of diameter, general equation, finding center and radius 
Standard forms of equations of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola, simple properties 
Differentiation and its applications 

Functions and limits, standard limits, differentiation from the first principles, differentiation of sum, product, quotient of functions, function of function, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, hyperbolic functions 
Implicit, explicit and parametric functions, derivative of a function with respect to another function, second order derivatives, geometrical applications of the derivative (angle between curves, tangent and normal), increasing and decreasing functions 
Maxima and minima (single variable functions) using second order derivative only, derivative as rate measure, errors and approximations, partial differentiation, partial derivatives up to second order, Euler’s theorem 
Integration and its applications 

Indefinite integral, standard forms, integration by decomposition of the integrand of trigonometric, algebraic, exponential, logarithmic and hyperbolic functions, integration by substitution, integration of reducible and irreducible quadratic factors 
Integration by parts, definite integrals and properties, definite integral as the limit of a sum, application of integration to find areas under plane curves and volumes of solids of revolution, mean and RMS value 
Differential equations 

Definition of a differential equation, order and degree of a differential equation, formation of differential equations, solution of differential equation of the type first order, first degree, variable, separable, homogeneous equations, exact 
Linear differential equation of the form dy/dx + Py = Q, Bernoulli’s equation 
nth order linear differential equation with constant coefficients both homogeneous and non homogeneous and finding the particular integrals for the functions, e ax, x m, Sin ax, Cos ax 
Physics
Units and dimensions 

Physical quantity, fundamental and derived physical quantities, units, fundamental and derived units, SI units, multiples and submultiples in SI units, advantages of SI units, dimensions and dimensional formulae, dimensionless quantities 
Applications and limitations of dimensional analysis, problems 
Elements of vectors 

Scalar and vector quantitiesexamples, graphical representation of a vector, types of vectors, addition and subtraction of vectors, triangle law, parallelogram law and its cases, polygon law, resolution of a vector, unit vectors (i, j, k) 
Dot product and cross product of two vectors, characteristics of dot and cross productsexamples, problems 
Kinematics and friction 

Equations of motion, acceleration due to gravity, equations of motion under gravity, expressions for maximum height, time of ascent, time of descent, time of flight, velocity on reaching the point of projection 
Motion of a body projected from the top of a tower, projectile motionexamples, horizontal and oblique projections, expressions for maximum height, time of ascent, time of flight, horizontal range, magnitude and direction of resultant velocityproblems 
Friction, normal reaction, laws of friction, coefficients of friction, angle of friction, methods of reducing friction, advantages and disadvantages of friction, motion of a body over a smooth inclined plane and a rough inclined plane–problems 
Work, power, and energy 

Work, power and energydefinitions and units, potential and kinetic energies, examples and expressions, law of conservation of energyproblems, renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy (solar, wind, biogas, tidal, nuclear energies, etc) 
Simple harmonic motion and acoustics 

Definition, conditions of S.H.M., examples of S.H.M., expressions for displacement, velocity, acceleration, time period, frequency and phase of S.H.M., time period of a simple pendulum, seconds pendulumproblems 
Sound, musical sound and noise, noise pollution, effects and methods of control of noise pollution, beats and echoeproblems, doppler effect, explanation, cases and applications, acoustics of buildings, reverberation, Sabines’ formula 
Characteristics of a good buildingproblems 
Heat and thermodynamics 

Expansion of gases, Boyle’s law, absolute scale of temperature, Charle’s laws, ideal gas equation, universal gas constant and its value, SI unitsproblems, external work done by a gas, isothermal process, adiabatic process 
First law of thermodynamics and its applications to isothermal process and adiabatic process, two specific heats of a gas, relation between Cp and Cvproblems, second law of thermodynamics and its applications 
Modern physics 

Photoelectric effect, explanation and its laws, applications of photoelectric effect (photocell), critical angle and total internal reflection, optical fibersprinciple, working, types and applications 
Concept of super conductivityits properties and applications 
Mechanical engineering
Workshop technology 

Basic workshop tools and operations (carpentry, fitting and sheet metal) metrology, liner, angular and surface measurement, comparators 
Working and operations of lathe, drilling, shaper, slotter, planner, milling machines, Capstan and turret lathes, copying lathes, surface finishing operations, honing, lapping, super finishing, electro plating, metal spraying 
Basic components of NC, CNC, and DNC machines, FMS and robotics, CNC part programming, manual and computer assisted 
Welding, forging, foundry and conventions in drawing 

Equipment used in arc and gas welding 
Modern welding methodssubmerged arc, atomic, hydrogen, CO and ultrasonic welding 
Forging processes and toolscold and hot working processes 
Pattern types, types of molding sand and their properties, defects in casting and welding 
Conventions in machine drawing, production drawing, limits, fits and tolerances, surface finish, specifications of standard components like bolts, nuts, bearings, etc 
Engineering materials and solid mechanics 

Mechanical properties of materials, destructive and non destructive testing of materials, production of iron and steel, iron carbon equilibrium diagram, heat treatment processes, plain carbon and alloy steels, ferrous and nonferrous metals and alloys 
Powder metallurgy 
Resolution of forces, simple machines, simple stresses and strains, shear force and bending moment diagrams, strain energy, deflection of beams 
Design of machine elements 

Belt, rope and chain drives, velocity ratio, belt tensions and centrifugal tension, effect of belt thicknessslip, lengths of open and cross belting, power transmitted by belt, simple, compound, and epicyclic gear trains, roller and Silent chains 
Design of bolts, nuts and screws, shafts, keys, couplings, thin cylindrical shells, springs, cams, flywheels and governors 
Thermodynamics 

Laws of perfect gases and basic thermodynamics, thermodynamic processes, air standard cycles, fuels and combustion, I.C. engines, two and four stroke engines, petrol and diesel engines, indicated and brake powers, indicated and brake thermal efficiencies 
Air compressors, gas turbines and jet propulsion 
Hydraulic machines and pneumatics 

Properties of fluids, flow through pipes, impact of jets, hydraulic turbines, governing, working principles and operation of reciprocating and centrifugal pumps, hydraulic and pneumatic circuit devices, air cylinders and hydro pneumatic systems 
Steam boilers, nozzles and turbines 

Properties of steam, working, performance of boilers, steam nozzles, condition for maximum discharge, steam turbinesclassification, velocity diagrams for single stage impulse turbine and reaction turbine 
Refrigeration 

Methods of refrigeration, cycles and analysisair, vapor compression and vapor absorption refrigeration, refrigeration equipment 
Industrial management and engineering 

Work study, inspection and SQC, estimation and costing, principles and function of management, organization structures, production and materials management, financial management, entrepreneurial development, marketing and sales, principles of ISO 9000 
Automobile engineering 

Automobile chassis construction, function of transmission system, gear boxes, single and multiplate clutches, function and construction of propeller shaft, universal joint, differential, semi and full floating rear axle, front and stub axles 
Wheel alignment and balancing, steering mechanisms 
Braking systemweight transfer during braking, skidding, hydraulic braking and air pressure braking systems 
AP ECET Metallurgical Engineering Syllabus
Chemistry
Atomic structure 

Introductionfundamental particles, Bohr’s theory, quantum numbers, Aufbau principle, Hund’s rule, Pauli’s exclusion principle, electronic configurations of elements up to atomic number 20, shapes of s,p,d orbitals 
Chemical bonding 

Introduction, types of chemical bonds, ionic bond taking example of NaCl and MgO, characteristics of ionic compounds and covalent bond taking example H, O, N, HCL characteristics of covalent compounds 
Solutions 

Introduction, solution classification of solutions, solute, solvent, concentration, mole concept, molarity, normality, equivalent weight using acids, bases and salts, numerical problems on molarity and normality 
Acids and bases 

Introduction, theories of acids and bases, Arrhinus, BronstedLowry theory, Lewis acid base theory, ionic product of water, pH and related numerical problems, buffers solutions, applications 
Electrochemistry 

Conductors, insulators, electrolytes, Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation, electrolysis, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, numerical problems, Galvanic cell, standard electrode potential, electro chemical series 
Emf and numerical problems on emf of a cell 
Water technology 

Introduction, soft and hard water, causes of hardness, types of hardness, disadvantages of hard water, degree of hardness, units and its relations, softening methods, permutit process, ion exchange process, qualities of drinking water 
Municipal treatment of water for drinking purpose 
Corrosion 

Introduction, factors influencing corrosion, electrochemical theory of corrosion, composition cell, stress cell and concentration cells, rusting of iron and its mechanism, prevention of corrosion by(a) coating methods 
Prevention of corrosion by(b) cathodic protection (sacrificial and impressive voltage methods) 
Polymers 

Introduction, polymerisation, types of polymerisation–addition, condensation and copolymerisation with examples, plastics, types of plastics, advantages of plastics over traditional materials, disadvantages of using plastics 
Thermo plastics and thermo stetting plastics, differences between thermo plastics and thermo stetting plastics, preparation and uses of the following plastics: (i) Polythene, (ii) PVC, (iii) teflon, (iv) polystyrene, (v) urea formaldehyde, rubber 
Natural rubber, processing from latex, vulcanization, elastomers, BunaS, neoprene rubber and their uses 
Fuels 

Definition and classification of fuels based on physical state and occurrence, characteristics of good fuel, extraction and refining of petroleum, composition and uses of gaseous fuels(a) water gas, (b) producer gas, (c) natural gas, (d) coal gas 
Composition and uses of gaseous fuels(e) bio gas, (f) acetylene 
Environmental chemistry 

Introduction, environment, understand the termslithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere biosphere, biotic component, energy component pollutant, receptor, sink, particulate, DO, BOD, threshold limit value, COD, air pollutioncauses, effects, acid rain 
Green house effect, ozone depletion, control of air pollution, water pollutioncauses, effects, control measures 
Mathematics
Matrices 

Matrices of 3rd order: Types of matrices, algebra of matrices, transpose of a matrix, symmetric, Skew symmetric matrices, minor, cofactor of an element, determinant of a square matrix, properties, Laplace’s expansion, singular and non singular matrices 
Matrices of 3rd order: Adjoint and multiplicative inverse of a square matrix, system of linear equations in 3 variables, solutions by Crammer’s rule, matrix inversion method, GaussJordan methods 
Partial fractions: Resolving a given rational function into partial fractions 
Trigonometry 

Properties of trigonometric functions, ratios of compound angles, multiple angles, sub multiple angles, transformations of products into sum or difference and vice versa, simple trigonometric equations, properties of triangles 
Inverse trigonometric functions 
Complex numbers: Modulus and conjugate, arithmetic operations on complex number, modulus, amplitude form (polar form), Euler form (exponential form), properties, De Movire’s theorem and its applications 
Analytical geometry 

Circlesequation given center and radius, given ends of diameter, general equation, finding center and radius 
Standard forms of equations of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola, simple properties 
Differentiation and its applications 

Functions and limits, standard limits, differentiation from the first principles, differentiation of sum, product, quotient of functions, function of function, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, hyperbolic functions 
Implicit, explicit and parametric functions, derivative of a function with respect to another function, second order derivatives, geometrical applications of the derivative (angle between curves, tangent and normal), increasing and decreasing functions 
Maxima and minima (single variable functions) using second order derivative only, derivative as rate measure, errors and approximations, partial differentiation, partial derivatives up to second order, Euler’s theorem 
Integration and its applications 

Indefinite integral, standard forms, integration by decomposition of the integrand of trigonometric, algebraic, exponential, logarithmic and hyperbolic functions, integration by substitution, integration of reducible and irreducible quadratic factors 
Integration by parts, definite integrals and properties, definite integral as the limit of a sum, application of integration to find areas under plane curves and volumes of solids of revolution, mean and RMS value 
Differential equations 

Definition of a differential equation, order and degree of a differential equation, formation of differential equations, solution of differential equation of the type first order, first degree, variable, separable, homogeneous equations, exact 
Linear differential equation of the form dy/dx + Py = Q, Bernoulli’s equation 
nth order linear differential equation with constant coefficients both homogeneous and non homogeneous and finding the particular integrals for the functions, e ax, x m, Sin ax, Cos ax 
Physics
Units and dimensions 

Physical quantity, fundamental and derived physical quantities, units, fundamental and derived units, SI units, multiples and submultiples in SI units, advantages of SI units, dimensions and dimensional formulae, dimensionless quantities 
Applications and limitations of dimensional analysis, problems 
Elements of vectors 

Scalar and vector quantitiesexamples, graphical representation of a vector, types of vectors, addition and subtraction of vectors, triangle law, parallelogram law and its cases, polygon law, resolution of a vector, unit vectors (i, j, k) 
Dot product and cross product of two vectors, characteristics of dot and cross productsexamples, problems 
Kinematics and friction 

Equations of motion, acceleration due to gravity, equations of motion under gravity, expressions for maximum height, time of ascent, time of descent, time of flight, velocity on reaching the point of projection 
Motion of a body projected from the top of a tower, projectile motionexamples, horizontal and oblique projections, expressions for maximum height, time of ascent, time of flight, horizontal range, magnitude and direction of resultant velocityproblems 
Friction, normal reaction, laws of friction, coefficients of friction, angle of friction, methods of reducing friction, advantages and disadvantages of friction, motion of a body over a smooth inclined plane and a rough inclined plane–problems 
Work, power, and energy 

Work, power and energydefinitions and units, potential and kinetic energies, examples and expressions, law of conservation of energyproblems, renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy (solar, wind, biogas, tidal, nuclear energies, etc) 
Simple harmonic motion and acoustics 

Definition, conditions of S.H.M., examples of S.H.M., expressions for displacement, velocity, acceleration, time period, frequency and phase of S.H.M., time period of a simple pendulum, seconds pendulumproblems 
Sound, musical sound and noise, noise pollution, effects and methods of control of noise pollution, beats and echoeproblems, doppler effect, explanation, cases and applications, acoustics of buildings, reverberation, Sabines’ formula 
Characteristics of a good buildingproblems 
Heat and thermodynamics 

Expansion of gases, Boyle’s law, absolute scale of temperature, Charle’s laws, ideal gas equation, universal gas constant and its value, SI unitsproblems, external work done by a gas, isothermal process, adiabatic process 
First law of thermodynamics and its applications to isothermal process and adiabatic process, two specific heats of a gas, relation between Cp and Cvproblems, second law of thermodynamics and its applications 
Modern physics 

Photoelectric effect, explanation and its laws, applications of photoelectric effect (photocell), critical angle and total internal reflection, optical fibersprinciple, working, types and applications 
Concept of super conductivityits properties and applications 
Metallurgical engineering
Elementary priciples of metallugry 

Introduction to metallurgy, ores and ore dressing, methods of ore sampling, communition, screening and classification, principles and processes of pyro, hydro and electrometallurgy, minerals of commercially important metals 
Fuels, refractories and pyrometry 

Classification of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, testing and properties of important fuels, manufacture and characteristics of metallurgical, coke, combustion of fuels, properties, manufacture and selection of refractories 
Principles and operation of important pyrometers 
Metallugrical thermodynamics 

Introduction and applications of thermodynamics, first law of thermodynamics, thermo chemistry, second law of thermodynamics, Ellingham diagrams, fugacity, activity and equilibrium constant, phase equilibria, solutions 
Physical metallurgy 

Structure of metals and alloys, solidification, diffusion, binary thermal equilibrium diagrams, ironcarbon diagram, important nonferrous binary alloy systems, microscopic and macroscopic examination of metals and alloys 
Heat treatment technology 

Heat treatment of plain carbon steelsannealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering of steels, TTT diagrams , hardenability, grain size, quenching media 
Alloy steels and effect of alloying elements on plain carbon steels, stainless steels, tool steelscase hardening techniques 
Special heat treatment techniques such as austempering, martempering, subzero treatment, heat treatment of nonferrous metals and alloys, age hardening, heat treatment furnaces 
Ferrous extractive metallurgy 

Iron ores and preparation of iron ores, blast furnace plant and equipment, blast furnace reactions, irregularities andrecent trends, sponge iron and methods of production, ferro alloystypes and applications 
Steel making by Bessemer, LD, Kaldo, OLP, open hearth and electric furnaces, new techniques in steel making, vacuum treatment of liquid steel, ingot defects, continuous casting 
Nonferrous extractive metallurgy 

Extraction of copper, pyro and hydrometallurgical methods and refining, aluminum, extraction, anode effect, refiningzinc and lead, pyro and hydrometallurgical extraction and refining 
Extraction of magnesium by dows and pidgeon processes 
Extraction of titanium by Kroll’s process, refining by Van arkell’s process, extraction of thorium and zirconium 
Material testing 

Tension test 
Stressstrain relationships, necking phenomenon 
Hardnesstestsprinciples and types 
Impact testingnotched bar impact tests 
Transition temperature 
Fatigue, stress cycles, SN diagram, factors affecting fatigue 
Creep testingcreep curve, stressrupture test 
Nondestructive testing, principles, methods and applications of liquid penetrant, radiography, ultrasonic magnetic particle and Eddy current test 
Mechanical metallurgy 

Plastic deformation of metals, lattice defectsm, slip and twinning, CRSS, strengthening mechanisms 
Strain hardening, hot and cold working, recovery, recrystallisation and grain growth 
Metal forming processes, rolling, forging, extrusion and sheet metal forming processes and defects, thermo mechanical treatments, isoforming and ausforming 
Powder metallurgy 
Methods of powder production, characterization, compaction, sintering and applications of powder metallurgy 
Foundry technology 

Patterns: Types, materials and pattern allowances, moulding sandsproperties and testing, moulding processes and equipment: Sand casting, die casting, shell moulding, centrifugal casting, investment casting and CO process 
Cores: Types of cores and properties, pouring and feeding of castings 
Cast ironstypes, melting of cast irons, Grey, S.G and malleable iron 
Aluminium, copper and steel foundry practices 
Defects in castings 
Cleaning and salvage of castings 
Welding technology 

Basic concepts of welding, principles and processes of various welding techniques such as oxyacetylene, shield arc welding, inert gas welding, TIG and MIG, special welding processesplasma, resistance, electro slag, electron beam, thermit and laser 
Soldering and brazing, weldability, factors affecting weldability, heat affected zone, microstructure, post weld treatments, welding defectsinspection and testing 
AP ECET Mining Engineering Syllabus
Chemistry
Atomic structure 

Introductionfundamental particles, Bohr’s theory, quantum numbers, Aufbau principle, Hund’s rule, Pauli’s exclusion principle, electronic configurations of elements up to atomic number 20, shapes of s,p,d orbitals 
Chemical bonding 

Introduction, types of chemical bonds, ionic bond taking example of NaCl and MgO, characteristics of ionic compounds and covalent bond taking example H, O, N, HCL characteristics of covalent compounds 
Solutions 

Introduction, solution classification of solutions, solute, solvent, concentration, mole concept, molarity, normality, equivalent weight using acids, bases and salts, numerical problems on molarity and normality 
Acids and bases 

Introduction, theories of acids and bases, Arrhinus, BronstedLowry theory, Lewis acid base theory, ionic product of water, pH and related numerical problems, buffers solutions, applications 
Electrochemistry 

Conductors, insulators, electrolytes, Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation, electrolysis, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, numerical problems, Galvanic cell, standard electrode potential, electro chemical series 
Emf and numerical problems on emf of a cell 
Water technology 

Introduction, soft and hard water, causes of hardness, types of hardness, disadvantages of hard water, degree of hardness, units and its relations, softening methods, permutit process, ion exchange process, qualities of drinking water 
Municipal treatment of water for drinking purpose 
Corrosion 

Introduction, factors influencing corrosion, electrochemical theory of corrosion, composition cell, stress cell and concentration cells, rusting of iron and its mechanism, prevention of corrosion by(a) coating methods 
Prevention of corrosion by(b) cathodic protection (sacrificial and impressive voltage methods) 
Polymers 

Introduction, polymerisation, types of polymerisation–addition, condensation and copolymerisation with examples, plastics, types of plastics, advantages of plastics over traditional materials, disadvantages of using plastics 
Thermo plastics and thermo stetting plastics, differences between thermo plastics and thermo stetting plastics, preparation and uses of the following plastics: (i) Polythene, (ii) PVC, (iii) teflon, (iv) polystyrene, (v) urea formaldehyde, rubber 
Natural rubber, processing from latex, vulcanization, elastomers, BunaS, neoprene rubber and their uses 
Fuels 

Definition and classification of fuels based on physical state and occurrence, characteristics of good fuel, extraction and refining of petroleum, composition and uses of gaseous fuels(a) water gas, (b) producer gas, (c) natural gas, (d) coal gas 
Composition and uses of gaseous fuels(e) bio gas, (f) acetylene 
Environmental chemistry 

Introduction, environment, understand the termslithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere biosphere, biotic component, energy component pollutant, receptor, sink, particulate, DO, BOD, threshold limit value, COD, air pollutioncauses, effects, acid rain 
Green house effect, ozone depletion, control of air pollution, water pollutioncauses, effects, control measures 
Mathematics
Matrices 

Matrices of 3rd order: Types of matrices, algebra of matrices, transpose of a matrix, symmetric, Skew symmetric matrices, minor, cofactor of an element, determinant of a square matrix, properties, Laplace’s expansion, singular and non singular matrices 
Matrices of 3rd order: Adjoint and multiplicative inverse of a square matrix, system of linear equations in 3 variables, solutions by Crammer’s rule, matrix inversion method, GaussJordan methods 
Partial fractions: Resolving a given rational function into partial fractions 
Trigonometry 

Properties of trigonometric functions, ratios of compound angles, multiple angles, sub multiple angles, transformations of products into sum or difference and vice versa, simple trigonometric equations, properties of triangles 
Inverse trigonometric functions 
Complex numbers: Modulus and conjugate, arithmetic operations on complex number, modulus, amplitude form (polar form), Euler form (exponential form), properties, De Movire’s theorem and its applications 
Analytical geometry 

Circlesequation given center and radius, given ends of diameter, general equation, finding center and radius 
Standard forms of equations of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola, simple properties 
Differentiation and its applications 

Functions and limits, standard limits, differentiation from the first principles, differentiation of sum, product, quotient of functions, function of function, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, hyperbolic functions 
Implicit, explicit and parametric functions, derivative of a function with respect to another function, second order derivatives, geometrical applications of the derivative (angle between curves, tangent and normal), increasing and decreasing functions 
Maxima and minima (single variable functions) using second order derivative only, derivative as rate measure, errors and approximations, partial differentiation, partial derivatives up to second order, Euler’s theorem 
Integration and its applications 

Indefinite integral, standard forms, integration by decomposition of the integrand of trigonometric, algebraic, exponential, logarithmic and hyperbolic functions, integration by substitution, integration of reducible and irreducible quadratic factors 
Integration by parts, definite integrals and properties, definite integral as the limit of a sum, application of integration to find areas under plane curves and volumes of solids of revolution, mean and RMS value 
Differential equations 

Definition of a differential equation, order and degree of a differential equation, formation of differential equations, solution of differential equation of the type first order, first degree, variable, separable, homogeneous equations, exact 
Linear differential equation of the form dy/dx + Py = Q, Bernoulli’s equation 
nth order linear differential equation with constant coefficients both homogeneous and non homogeneous and finding the particular integrals for the functions, e ax, x m, Sin ax, Cos ax 
Physics
Units and dimensions 

Physical quantity, fundamental and derived physical quantities, units, fundamental and derived units, SI units, multiples and submultiples in SI units, advantages of SI units, dimensions and dimensional formulae, dimensionless quantities 
Applications and limitations of dimensional analysis, problems 
Elements of vectors 

Scalar and vector quantitiesexamples, graphical representation of a vector, types of vectors, addition and subtraction of vectors, triangle law, parallelogram law and its cases, polygon law, resolution of a vector, unit vectors (i, j, k) 
Dot product and cross product of two vectors, characteristics of dot and cross productsexamples, problems 
Kinematics and friction 

Equations of motion, acceleration due to gravity, equations of motion under gravity, expressions for maximum height, time of ascent, time of descent, time of flight, velocity on reaching the point of projection 
Motion of a body projected from the top of a tower, projectile motionexamples, horizontal and oblique projections, expressions for maximum height, time of ascent, time of flight, horizontal range, magnitude and direction of resultant velocityproblems 
Friction, normal reaction, laws of friction, coefficients of friction, angle of friction, methods of reducing friction, advantages and disadvantages of friction, motion of a body over a smooth inclined plane and a rough inclined plane–problems 
Work, power, and energy 

Work, power and energydefinitions and units, potential and kinetic energies, examples and expressions, law of conservation of energyproblems, renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy (solar, wind, biogas, tidal, nuclear energies, etc) 
Simple harmonic motion and acoustics 

Definition, conditions of S.H.M., examples of S.H.M., expressions for displacement, velocity, acceleration, time period, frequency and phase of S.H.M., time period of a simple pendulum, seconds pendulumproblems 
Sound, musical sound and noise, noise pollution, effects and methods of control of noise pollution, beats and echoeproblems, doppler effect, explanation, cases and applications, acoustics of buildings, reverberation, Sabines’ formula 
Characteristics of a good buildingproblems 
Heat and thermodynamics 

Expansion of gases, Boyle’s law, absolute scale of temperature, Charle’s laws, ideal gas equation, universal gas constant and its value, SI unitsproblems, external work done by a gas, isothermal process, adiabatic process 
First law of thermodynamics and its applications to isothermal process and adiabatic process, two specific heats of a gas, relation between Cp and Cvproblems, second law of thermodynamics and its applications 
Modern physics 

Photoelectric effect, explanation and its laws, applications of photoelectric effect (photocell), critical angle and total internal reflection, optical fibersprinciple, working, types and applications 
Concept of super conductivityits properties and applications 
Mining engineering
Elements of mining 

Definitions of terms, mineral based industries, mining operations, modes of entry, shaft, incline, aditapplicable conditions, mining methods used in coal and non coal mining, classification of the mineral deposits based on various factors 
Classification of coal seams based on various factors 
Classification of methods of workingU/G Coal, OCM and metal mining, bore (drill) holes uses, classification and various tools used in boring (drilling), feed mechanism, core recovery, deviation of boreholes 
Explosivescharacteristics, classification, composition, properties, different explosives used in U/G, OCM, metal and coal mines, selection of explosives and initiation of explosives, detonatorstypes, blasting practice in minesterms, tools 
Sequence of shot firing, drill patterns types, misfires, blown out shots, sockets, treatment of misfires, accidents due to explosives and shot firing, preventive measures, mine gasestypes, physical and chemical properties 
Physiological effects and occurrence 
Shaft sinking methodssinking through normal strata, special methods of shaft sinking pilling, drop shaft method, cementation, freezing method 
Temporary, permanent lining of shafts, support systems in mining their applicability and withdrawal of supports 
Mining geology 

Definition of the term geology, scope, uses of geology in mining field, branches of geology, age of the earth, origin of the earth, nebular hypothesis of Kant and Laplace, physical geology, internal structure of earth, weathering, erosion, denudation 
Attrition, abrasion, earthquakes, its propagation, intensity, causes and effects of earthquakes 
Valcanoes and its classification 
Mineralogyphysical characteristics of minerals, important mineral families, industrial uses of important minerals; occurrence and distribution in A.P. and India 
Petrologyclassification of rocks and its characteristics, structures and textures 
Structural geology, folds, faults, joints, unconformities 
Geological time scale, major stratigraphical divisions of india, physiographic divisions of india, economic geologyterms, processes of mineralization and important economic minerals formed by these processes 
Geological prospectingobjectives, guide lines for location of mineral deposits in fields, methods of prospecting 
Gis and remote sensing concepts 
Methods of workingcoal 

Methods of working bord and pillar and long walldevelopment, opening of districts ,different methods of development systems with machines and continuous miners, depillaring 
Longwall mininglong wall advancing, longwall retreating, applicabilities, merits, demerits, limitations 
Special methods of working like inclined slicing, horizontal slicing, blasting gallery, horizon mining 
Stowing practice in mines, manual and mechanized. modern trends of open cast coal methods 
Methods of working metal 

Definitions: Development of mineral deposits, levels, sublevels, winzes and raises, etc. Handling waste rock and mineral, drilling and blasting, arrangement for loading, conventional and mechanized methods of raising, various stopping methods 
Definitions: Sampling, problems associated with deep mining, rock mechanics and strata control measures in deep mines 
Mine environmental engineeringI 

Ventilation, objectives/ purposes of ventilation, systems of ventilationnatural ventilation and mechanical ventilation 
Distribution of mine alr, ventilation devices, construction location and application 
Auxiliary ventilation, booster ventilation, homotropal, antitropal systems, gas detectorstypes, uses, application, principles, determination percentage of gases using conventional methods and using detectors 
Mine environmental engineeringII 

Mine fires, classification, causes preventive measures 
Spontaneous heating of coal, different methods of dealing with fires, collection of air samples and interpretation of mine air samples, ventilation survey, types, instruments, mine explosionstypes, fire damp explosionscauses and preventive measures 
Coal dust explosionscauses and preventive measures, treating coal dust, dust barriers, water barriers 
Rescue and recovery 
Operations, objectives, classification of rescue apparatus, resucitation apparatus, rescue organization 
Inundation in mines, its causes, precautions, design of dams 
Mine lighting, purpose, terms, places to be illuminated in the mines 
Flame safety lampdifferent types, construction details 
Miners diseases, causes and preventive measures 
Mine surveying 

Definitions, principles, classifications, measurement of distances 
Various instruments used in surveying, chain survey, fundamentals of compass survey, limitation of various surveying methods, various methods of leveling, types of levels, instruments, adjustments, computations, theodolite types, adjustments 
Traversing and computations, setting out curves, types, correlation survey, tachometric survey and triangulation Survey 
Mining machineryI 

Wire ropesusage, chemical composition, tests of wires, classification, applicability of different wire ropes, causes of deterioration and precautions, capping, recapping methods and rope splicing 
Transportation in minesclassification different types of rope haulages, their applicability, merits anddemerits limitations 
Safety devices in different rope haulages, locomotive haulagestypes, applicability’s, conveyorstypes, tensioning arrangements, use and applicability in mines, aerial ropeways, man riding applicability’s, pumps their applicability in mines 
Construction details merits, demerits and limitations 
Mining machineryII 

Coal face machinery, different drills, power loaders, longwall face machineryAFC, lump breakers, stage loaders, power pack, SERDS, DERDS, safety devices, power support, mine cablestypes, constructional details 
Flame proof apparatus and intrinsically safe apparatusfield of applications, features, remote control principle, signaling methods used in mines, telephones, windingpurpose, equipment, types of headgear frames, shaft fittings, guides 
Pit top and pit bottom arrangements, keps, suspension gear, types of drums, drum and skip winding, cage winding and friction (Keope winding) speed control and safety contrivances 
Mining legislation and mine management 

Minesact, minerules and regulations provisions of mine act in respect of drinking water, health, hygiene, etc, medical facilities 
Limitations of employment, leave with wages, etc, coal mines/ metal mines regulationsdefinitions duties of manager, over man, safety officer, under manager, etc, transport, mine working ventilation, etc 
Precautions against dangers from fire, dust gas, water, etc, mine lighting and safety 
Industrial dispute act, causes disputes work committee, strikes, lock out 
Mine managementorganization structure, safety in mines and mine accidents 
Entrepreneurship, self employment scheme, market and demand survey, quality systems concepts, quality policy, quality control, quality assurance, ISO 9000, features, draw backs, recruitment, qualifications, training programmes, workstudy 
AP ECET Pharmacy Syllabus
Pharmacypharmaceutics
PharmaceuticsI 

Introduction of different dosage forms 
Their classifications with examplestheir relative applications 
Familiarisation with new drug delivery systems 
Introduction to pharmacopieas with special reference to the Indian pharmacopea 
Metrologysystems of weights and measures 
Calculations including conversion from one to another system 
Percentage calculations and adjustments of products 
Use of allegation method in calculations, isotonic solutions 
Packing of pharmaceuticalsdesirable features of a container, types of containers, study of glass and plastics as materials for containers and rubber as a material for closurestheir merits and demerits 
Introduction to aersol packaging 
Size reduction objectives and factors affecting size reduction, methods of size reduction, study of Hammer mill, ball mill, fluid energy mill and disintegrator 
Size separation, size separation by sifting official standard for powders 
Sedimentation methods of size separation 
Construction and working of cyclone separator 
Mixing and homogenization, liquid, mixing and powder mixing 
Mixing and semisolid, study of siliver, son mixer, homogeniser, planetary mixer, agitated powder mixer 
Triple roller mill, propeller mixer, coiloid mill and hand homogeniser 
Double cone mixer 
Clarification and filtration, theory of filtration 
Filter media; filter aids and selections of filters 
Study of the following filtration equipments filter press, sintered filter, candles, metafilter 
Extraction and galenicals(a) study of percolation and maceration and their modification, continuous hot extraction, applications in the preparation of tinctures and extracts, (b) introduction to ayurvedic dosage forms 
Heat process evaporationdefinition factors affecting evaporation, study of evaporation and evaporating pan 
Distillation, simple distillation and fractional distillation, steam distillation and vaccum distillation, study of vaccum still, preparation of purrified water I.P. and water for injecion I.P., construction and working of the still used for the same 
ntroduction to drying process, study of tray dryers; fluidized bed dryer, vaccum dryer and freezer dryer 
Sterlization, concept of sterilization and its differences from disinfection, thermal resistance of microorganism 
Detailed study of the following sterilization process(i) sterilization with moist heat,(ii) dry heat sterilization, (iii) sterilization by radiation, (iv) sterilization by filtration and, (v) gaseous sterilization, aseptic techniques 
Application of sterilization process in hospitals particularly with reference to surgical dressings and intravenous fluids 
Precautions for safe and effective handling of sterilization enquipments 
Processing of tabletsdefinition; different types of compressed tablets and their properties 
Processing involved in the production of tablets; tablets; physical standards including disintegration and dissolution 
Tablet coatingsugar coating; film coating, enteric coating and, microencapsulation 
Tablet coating may be dealt in an elementary manner 
Processing of capsules, hard and soft gelatin capsules; different sizes capsules; filling of capsules; handling storage of capsules; special application of capsules 
Study of immunological products likes sera vaccines, toxoids and their preparations 
PharmaceuticsII 

Dispensing pharmacy: (i) Prescriptionsreading and understanding of prescription: Latin terms commonly used (detailed study is not necessary), modern methods of prescribing, adoption of metric system. Calcuations involved in dispending 
Dispensing pharmacy: (ii) Incompatabilities in prescriptionsstudy of various types of incompatabilitiesphysical, chemical and therapeutic. (iii) Posologydose and dosage of durgs, factors influencing dose 
Dispensing pharmacy: (iii) Posologycalculations of doses on the basis of age, sex and surface area, veterinary doses 
Dispensed medications: (i) Powderstypes of powders, advantages and disadvantages of powders. Granules. Cachets and tablet triturates. Preparation of different types of powders encountered in prescription, weighing methods, possible erros in weighing 
Dispensed medications: (i) Powdersminimum weighable amounts and weighing of material below the minimum weighable amount, geometric dilution and proper usage and care of dispensing balance 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(a) monophasic: Theoretical aspects including commonly used vehicles, essential adjuvant like stabilizers, colourants and flavours, with examples 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(a) monophasic: Review of the following monophasic Liquids with details of formulation and practical methods: Liquids of internalmixtures and concentrates syrups, elixirs 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(a) monophasic: Review of the following monophasic liquids with details of formulation and practical methods: Liquids for external administration or used on mucus membranesgargles, mouth washes 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(a) monophasic: Review of the following monophasic liquids with details of formulation and practical methods: Liquids for external administration or used on mucus membranesthroat paints douches 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(a) monophasic: Review of the following monophasic liquids with details of formulation and practical methods: Liquids for external administration or used onmucus membranesear drops 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(a) monophasic: Review of the following monophasic liquids with details of formulation and practical methods: Liquids for external administration or used onmucus membranesnasal drops and sprays 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(a) monophasic: Review of the following monophasic liquids with details of formulation and practical methods: Liquids for external administration or used onmucus membranesliniments lotions 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(b) biphasic liquid dosage forms: (i) Suspensions (elementary study)suspensions containing diffusible solids and liquids and their preparations 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(b) biphasic liquid dosage forms: (i) Suspensions (elementary study)study of the adjutants used like thickening agents, wetting agents 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(b) biphasic liquid dosage forms: (i) Suspensionstheir necessity and quantity to be incorporated suspensions of precipitate forming liquids like tinctures, their preparations and stability 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(b) biphasic liquid dosage forms: (i) Suspensionssuspension produced by chemical reaction. An introduction to flocculated, nonflocculated suspension system 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(b) biphasic liquid dosage forms: (ii) Emulsionstypes of emulsions, identification of emulsion system tormulation of emulsions, selection of emulsifying agents, instabilities in emulsions 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(b) biphasic liquid dosage forms: (ii) Emulsionspreservation of emulsions 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(b) biphasic liquid dosage forms: (iii) Semisold dosage forms(a) ointmentstypes of ointments, classification and selection of dermartological vehicles 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(b) biphasic liquid dosage forms: (iii) Semisold dosage forms(a) ointmentspreparation and stability of ointments by the following process: (i) Tritutration (fusion), (iii) chemical reaction 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(b) biphasic liquid dosage forms: (iii) Semisold dosage forms(a) ointmentspreparation and stability of ointments by the following process: (iv) Emulsification 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(b) biphasic liquid dosage forms: (iii) Semisold dosage forms(b) pastes: Difference between ointments and pastes. Bases of pastes. Preparation of pastes and their preservation 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(b) biphasic liquid dosage forms: (iii) Semisold dosage forms(c) jellies: An introduction to the different types of jellies and their preparation. (d) An elementary study of poultice 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(b) biphasic liquid dosage forms: (iii) Semisold dosage forms(e) suppositories and pessaries: Their relative merits and demerits. Types of suppositories, suppository bases, classification, properties 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(b) biphasic liquid dosage forms: (iii) Semisold dosage forms(e) suppositories and pessaries: Preparation and packing of suppositories, use of suposiories for drug absorption 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(b) biphasic liquid dosage forms: (iv) Dental and cosmetic preparationsintroduction to dentrifices, facial cosmertics, deodorants, antiperspirats, shampoos, hair dressings and hair removers 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(b) biphasic liquid dosage forms: (v) Sterile dosage forms(a) parenteral dosage forms: Definitions. General requirements for parenteral dosage forms, types of parenteral formulations, vehicles 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(b) biphasic liquid dosage forms: (v) Sterile dosage forms(a) parenteral dosage forms: Adjuvants, processing personnel, facilities and quality control. Preparation of intravenous fluids and admixtures 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(b) biphasic liquid dosage forms: (v) Sterile dosage forms(a) parenteral dosage forms: Total parenteral nutrition, dialysis fluids 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(b) biphasic liquid dosage forms: (v) Sterile dosage forms(b) sterility testing, particulate matter monitoring faulty. Seal packaging 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(b) biphasic liquid dosage forms: (v) Sterile dosage forms(c) ophthalmic products: Study of essential characteristics of different opthalmic preparations. Formulation additives 
Dispensed medications: (ii) Liquid oral dosage forms(b) biphasic liquid dosage forms: (v) Sterile dosage forms(c) ophthalmic products: Special precautions in handling and storage of ophthalmic products 
Pharmaceutical jurisprudence 

Origin and nature of pharmaceutical legislation in India, its scope and objectives, evolution of the “concept of pharmacy” as an integral part of the health care system 
Principles and significance of professional ethics, critical study of the code of pharmaceutical ethics drafted by Pharmacy Council in India 
Pharmacy act, 1948: General study of the pharmacy act with special reference to education regulations, working of state and central councils, constitution of these councils and functions, registration procedures under the act 
The drugs and cosmetics act, 1940: General study of the drugs and cosmetics act the rules here under. Definitions and salient features related to retail and wholesale distribution of drugs. The powers of Inspectors 
The drugs and cosmetics act, 1940: The sampling procedures and the procedure and formalities in obtaining licenses under the rule. Facilities to be provided for fuinning a pharmacy effectively 
The drugs and cosmetics act, 1940: General study of the schedules withs special reference of schedules C, C1, F.G, J, H, P and X and salient features of labeling and storages condition of drugs 
The drugs and magic remedies (objectionable advertisement) act, 1954: General study of the act objective, special reference to be laid on advertisements 
The drugs and magic remedies (objectionable advertisement) act, 1954: Magic remedies and objectionable and permitted advertisementsdisease which cannot be claimed to be cured 
Narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances act, 1985: A brief study of the act with special reference to its objectives, offences and punishment 
Brief introduction of the study of the following acts: (i) Latest drugs (price control ) order in force, (ii) poisons act, 1919 (as amended to date), (iii) medicinal and toilet preparations (excise duties) act, 1971 (as amended to date) 
Brief introduction of the study of the following acts: (iv) Medical termination of pregnancy act, 1971 (as amended to date) 
Pharmacypharmaceutical chemistry
Pharmaceutical chemistryI 

General discussions on the following inorganic compounds including important physical and chemical properties, medical and pharmaceutical uses, storage conditions and chemical incompatibility 
(a) Acids, bases and buffers, boric acid, hydrochloric acid, strong ammonium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide. Sodium hydroxide and official buffers 
(b) Antioxidantshypo phosphorous acid, sulphur dioxide, sodium bisulphate, sodium metabisulphite, nitrogen and sodium nitrite 
(c) Gastrointestinal agents: (i) Acidifying agentsdilute hydrochloric acid. (ii) Antacidssodium bicarbontate, aluminium hydroxide gel, aluminium phosphate, calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, magnesium trisilicate, magnesium oxide 
(c) Gastrointestinal agents: (ii) Antacidscombinations of antacid preparations. (iii) Protectives and adsorbentsbismuth subcarbonate and kaolin. (iv) Saline catharticssodium potassium tartate and magnesium sulphate 
(d) Topical agents: (i) Protectivestalc, zinc oxide calamine, zinc stearate, titanium dioxide, silicone polymers. (ii) Antimicrobials and astringentshydrogen peroxide, potassium permagnate, chlorinated lime, iodine, solutions of iodine 
(d) Topical agents: (ii) Antimicrobials and astringentspovidoneiodine, boric acid, borax, silver nitrate, mild silver proein, mercury, yellow mercuric oxice, ammoniated mercury 
(d) Topical agents: (iii) Sulphur and its compoundssublimed sulphur precipitated sulphur, selenium sulphide. (vi) Astringents: Alum and zinc sulphate 
(e) Dental productssodium flouride, stannous flouride, calcium carbonate, sodium metaphosphate, dicalcium phosphate, strontium chloride, zinc chloride 
(f) Inhalantsoxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide 
(g) Respiratory stimulantsammonium carbonate 
(h) Expectorants and emeticsammonium chloride, potassium lodide, antimony potassium tartrate 
(i) Antidotessodium nitrate 
Major intra and extcracellular electrolytes: (a) Electrolytes used for replacement therapysodium chloride and its preparation. Potassium chloride and its preparation.(b) Physiological acidbase balance and electrolytes usedsodium acetate 
Major intra and extcracellular electrolytes: (b) Physiological acidbase balance and electrolytes usedpotassium acetate, sodium bicarbonate injection, ammonium chloride and its injection. (c) Combination of oral electrolytepowder and solutions 
Inorganic official compounds of iron, iodine, and calcium ferrous sulphate and calcium gluconate 
Radio pharmaceuticals and contrast mediaradio activity, alpha, beta, and gamma radiations, biological effects and radiations measurements of radio activity 
G.M. counter radio isotopes their uses, storage and precautions with special reference to the official preparations 
Quality control of drugs and pharmaceuticals: Importance of quality control, significance efforts, methods used for quality control, sources of impurities in pharmeceuticals. Limit tests for arsenic chloride, sulphate, iron and heavy metals 
Identification tests for cations and anions as per Indian pharmacopeia 
Pharmaceutical chemistryII 

Introduction to the nomenclature of organic chemical systems with particular reference to heterocyclic system containing upto 3 rings 
The chemistry of following pharmaceutical organic compoundscovering their nomenclature, chemical structure, uses and the important physical and chemical properties (chemical structure of on those compounds marked with asterisk (*) 
The stability and storage conditions and the different type of pharmaceutical formulations of these drugs and their popular brand names 
Antiseptics and disinfectants: Proflavine* benzalkoniumchloride, cetrimide, chlorocresol* chloroxylene, formaldehyde solution, hexachlorophene, liquified phenol, nitrofurantoin sulfonamides–sulfadiazine sulfaguandine* phthalylsulfathiazole 
Antiseptics and disinfectants: Succinylsulfathizole. Sulfadimethoxazole, cotrimoxazole, sulfacetamide* 
Antileprotic drugs: Clofazime, thaimbutosine, dapsone* solapsone 
Antitubercular drugs: Isoniazed* PAS, streptomycin, rifampicin, ethambutol* thiacetazone, ethionamide, cycloserine, pyrazinamide* 
Antiamoebic and anthelmintic drugs: Emetine, metronidazole* halogenated hydroxyquinolines, diloxanidefuroate, paramomycin piperzine* mebandazole, D.E.C.* 
Antibiotics: Benzyl pencillin*, phenoxy methyl pencillin*, benzathine pencillin, ampicillin*, cloaxocillin, carbencillin, gentamicin, neomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, cephalexin, cephaloridine, cephalothin, griseofuivin, chloramphenical 
Antifungal agents: Undecylenic acid, tolnaftate, nystain, ampthotericin hamycin 
Antimalarial drugs: Chloroquine, amodiaquine, primaquine, triflu perazine, thiothixene, haloperidol. Triperidol, oxypertine, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, lorazepam, meprobamate 
Hypnotics: Phenobarbitone, butobarbitone, cyclobarbitone, nitrazepam, gluthethimide*, methypylone, paraldelnyde, triclofos sodium, general anaesthetics: Halothane*, cyclopropane*, diethlehter*, methohexital sodium, thiopental sodium trichloroethylene 
Antidepressant drugs: Amitriptyline, imipramine* pheneizine, tranylcypromine 
Analeptics: Theophyline, caffeine*, coramine*, coramine*, dextroamphetamine 
Adrenergic drugs: Adrenaline*, noradrenaline, isoprenaline*, phenylephrine, salbutamol, terbutaline, ephedrine*, pseudoephedrine 
Adrenergic antagonist: Tolazoline, propranolol*, practolol 
Cholinergic drugs: Neostigmine*, pyridostigmine, pralidoxime, pilocarpine, physostigmine* 
Cholinergic antagonists: Atropine*, hysocine, homatropine, propantheline*, benztropine, tropicamide, biperiden* 
Diuretic drugs: Furosemide*, chlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide*, benzthiazide, urea*, mannitol*, ethacrynic acid 
Cardiovascular drugs: Ethyl nitrite*, glyceryl trinitrate, alpha methyldopa, guanthidine, chlorpropamide*, tolbutamide, glibencalmide, phenformine*, metformin 
Coagulants and anticoagulants: Heparin, thrombin, menadione*, bishydroxycoumarin, warfarion sodium 
Local anesthetics: Lignocaine procaine, benzocaine histamine and histaminic agentshistamine, diphenhydramine*, promethzine cyproheptadine, mepyramine, pheniramine, chlorpheniramine* 
Analgesics and antipyretics: Morphin, pethidine*, codeine, methadone, aspirin*, paracetamol*, analgin, dextropropoxyphene. Pentazocine 
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents: Indomethacin*, phenyl butazone oxyphenbutezone ibuprofen thyroxine and antithyroidsthyroxine, methimazole methylthiouracil, propylthiouracil 
Diagnostic agensts: Isopanoic acid, propyliodone sulfobromophthalein, sodium indigotindisulfonatae, indigo carmine, evansblue, congo red fluorescein sodiom 
Anticonvulsants*, cardiac glycosides antiarrhythmic antihypertensives and vitamins 
Steroidal drugs: Betamethazone, cortisone, hydrocortisone prednisolone, progesterone, testosterone, oestardiol, nandrolone 
Antineoplasic drugs: Actinomycines, azathioprine, busulphan, chloarambucil. Cisplatin cyclophosphamide, dau norubiein, hydrochloride flurouracil, meracaptopurine, methotrexate, mytomycin 
Biochemistry and clinical pathology 

Introduction to biochemistry 
Brief chemistry and role of proteins, polypeptides and amino acids, classifications, quantitative tests, biological value, deficiency diseases 
Brief chemistry and role of carbohydrates, classification qualitative tests, diseases related to carbohydrate metabolism 
Brief chemistry and role of lipids, classification, qualitative tests, diseases related to lipid metabolism 
Brief chemistry and role of vitamins and coenzymes 
Role of minerals and water in life processes 
Enzymes: Brief concept of enzymic action. Factors affecting it. Therapeutic and pharmaceutical importance 
Brief concept of normal and abnormal metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids 
Introduction to pathology of blood and urine: (a) Lymphocytes and platelets, their role in health and disease. (b) Erythrocytes abnormal cells and their significance. (c) Abnormal constituents of urine and their significance in diseases 
Pharmacypharmacognosy
Pharmacognosy 

Definintion, history and scope of pharmacognosy including indiaenous system of medicine 
Various systems of classification of drugs of natural origin 
Adultration and drug evaluation; significance of pharmacopial standards 
Brief outline of occurrence, distribution, outline of isolation, identification tests, therapeutic and pharmaceutical applications of alkaloids, terpenoids, glycosides, volatile oils, tannins and resins 
Occurrence, distribution, organoleptic evaluation, chemical constituents including tests wherever applicable and therapeutic efficacy of following categories of drugs: (a) Laxativesaloes, rhubarb, castor oil, ispaghula. Senna 
Occurrence, distribution, organoleptic evaluation, chemical constituents including tests wherever applicable and therapeutic efficacy of following categories of drugs: (b) Cardiotonicsdigitalis, arujna 
Occurrence, distribution, organoleptic evaluation, chemical constituents including tests wherever applicable and therapeutic efficacy of following categories of drugs: (c) Carminatives and G.I. regulatorsumbelliferous fruits, coriander, fennel, ajowan 
Occurrence, distribution, organoleptic evaluation, chemical constituents including tests wherever applicable and therapeutic efficacy of following categories of drugs: (c) Carminatives and G.I. regulatorscardamom, ginger. Black pepper, asafoetida 
Occurrence, distribution, organoleptic evaluation, chemical constituents including tests wherever applicable and therapeutic efficacy of following categories of drugs: (c) Carminatives and G.I. regulatorsnutrneg, cinnamon, clove. (d) Astringentscatechu 
Occurrence, distribution, organoleptic evaluation, chemical constituents including tests wherever applicable and therapeutic efficacy of following categories of drugs: (e) Drugs acting on nervous systemhyoscyamus, belladona, aconite, ashwagandha; ephedra 
Occurrence, distribution, organoleptic evaluation, chemical constituents including tests wherever applicable and therapeutic efficacy of following categories of drugs: (e) Drugs acting on nervous systemopium, cannabis, nuxvomica 
Occurrence, distribution, organoleptic evaluation, chemical constituents including tests wherever applicable and therapeutic efficacy of following categories of drugs: (f) Antihypertensivesrauwolfia. (g) Antitussivevasaka, tolu balsam, tulsi 
Occurrence, distribution, organoleptic evaluation, chemical constituents including tests wherever applicable and therapeutic efficacy of following categories of drugs: (h) Antirheumaticsguggul, colchicum. (i) Antitumourvinca 
Occurrence, distribution, organoleptic evaluation, chemical constituents including tests wherever applicable and therapeutic efficacy of following categories of drugs: (j) Antileproticschaulmoogra oil. (k) Antidiabeticspterocarpus, gymnema, sylestro 
Occurrence, distribution, organoleptic evaluation, chemical constituents including tests wherever applicable and therapeutic efficacy of following categories of drugs: (l) Diureticsgokhru, purnarnava. (m) Antidysentriesipecacuanha 
Occurrence, distribution, organoleptic evaluation, chemical constituents including tests wherever applicable and therapeutic efficacy of following categories of drugs: (n) Antiseptics and disinfectantsbenzion, myrrh, nim, curcuma 
Occurrence, distribution, organoleptic evaluation, chemical constituents including tests wherever applicable and therapeutic efficacy of following categories of drugs: (o) Antimalarialscinchona. (p) Oxytocicsergot. (q) Vitaminsshark liver oil and amla 
Occurrence, distribution, organoleptic evaluation, chemical constituents including tests wherever applicable and therapeutic efficacy of following categories of drugs: (r) Enzymespapaya, diastase, yeast. (s) Perfumes and flavouring agentspeppermint oil 
Occurrence, distribution, organoleptic evaluation, chemical constituents including tests wherever applicable and therapeutic efficacy of following categories of drugs: (s) Perfumes and flavouring agentslemon oil, orange, grass oils, sandalwood 
Occurrence, distribution, organoleptic evaluation, chemical constituents including tests wherever applicable and therapeutic efficacy of following categories of drugs: (t) Pharmaceutical aidshoney arachis oil, strach, kaolin, pectin, olive oil, lanolin 
Occurrence, distribution, organoleptic evaluation, chemical constituents including tests wherever applicable and therapeutic efficacy of following categories of drugs: (t) Pharmaceutical aidsbeeswax, acacia, tragacanth, sodium alginate, agar, guar gum 
Occurrence, distribution, organoleptic evaluation, chemical constituents including tests wherever applicable and therapeutic efficacy of following categories of drugs: (t) Pharmaceutical aidsgelatin. (u) Miscellaneousliquorice, garlic, picrorhiza 
Occurrence, distribution, organoleptic evaluation, chemical constituents including tests wherever applicable and therapeutic efficacy of following categories of drugs: (u) Miscellaneousdioscorea, linseed. Shatavari, shanknapushpi, pyrcthrum, tobacco 
Collection and preparation of crude drug for the market as exemplified by ergot opium; rauwolfia, digitalis, senna 
Study of source preparation and identification of fibres used in sutures and surgical dressingscotton, silk, wool and regenerated fibre 
Gross anatomical studies of senna, datura, cinnamon, cinchona, fennel, clove, ginger, nuxvomica and ipecacuanha 
Drug store and business management 

Introductiontrade, industry and commerce, functions and subdivision of commerce, introduction of elements of economics and management 
Forms of business organizations 
Channels of Distribution 
Drug house management: Selection of site, space layout and legal requirements. Importance and objectives of purchasing, selection of suppliers, credit information, tenders contract and price determination and legal requirements there to 
Drug house management: Codification, handling of drug stores and other hospital supplies 
Inventory controlobjects and importance, modern techniques like ABC, VED analysis, the lead time, inventory carrying cost, safety stock, minimum and maximum stock levels, economic order quantity, scrap and surplus disposal 
Sales promotion, market research salesmanship, qualities of salesman, advertising and window display 
Recruitment, training, evaluation and compensation of the pharmacist 
Banking and finance service and functions of bank 
Finance planning and sources of finance 
PartII accountancy: (i) Introduction to the accounting concepts and conventions. Double entry book keeping different kinds of account. (ii) Cash Book. (iii) General ledger and trial balance sheet. (iv) Profit and loss account and balance sheet 
PartII accountancy: (v) Simple technique of analyzing financial statements. Introduction to budgeting 
Health education and community pharmacy subjects 

Concept of health: Definition of physical health, mental health, social health, spiritual health determinants of health, indicator of health, concept of disease, natural history of diseases, the disease agents, concept of prevention of diseases 
Nutrition and health: Classification of foods requirements, disease induced due to deficiency of proteins, vitamins and minerals treatment and prevention 
Demography and family planning: Demography cycle, fertility, family planning, contraceptive methods, behavioral methods, natural family planning method, chemical method, mechanical methods, hormonal contraceptives, population problem of India 
First aid: Emergency treatments in shock, snake bite, burns poisoning heart disease, fractures and resustication methods. Elements of minor surgery and dressings 
Environments and health: Sources of water supply, water pollution, purification of water, health and air, noise light soild waste disposal and control, medical entomology, arthropod borne disease and their control, rodents, animals and diseases 
Fundamental principles of microbiology classification of microbes, isolation, staining techniques of organisms of common diseases 
Communicable diseases: Causative agents, modes of transmission and prevention(a) respiratory infectionchicken pox, measles, influenza, diphtheria whooping cough and tuberculosis. (b) Intestinal infections; poliomyitis, hepatitis, cholera, typhoid 
Communicable diseases: Causative agents, modes of transmission and prevention(b) intestinal infectionsfood poisioning, hookworm infection. (c) Arthropod borne infectionsplague, malaria; filariasis. (d) Surface infectionrabies, trichoma, tetanus 
Communicable diseases: Causative agents, modes of transmission and prevention(d) surface infectionleprosy. (e) Sexually transmitted disasessyphilis, gonorrhoea, AIDS 
Noncommunicable diseases: Causative agents, prevention, care and control. Cancer, diabetes; blindness, cardiovasodlar diseases 
Epidimiology its scope, methods uses dynamics of diseases of transmission immunity and immunization; immunological products and their dose schedule, principles of disease control and prevention 
Hospital acquired infection, prevention and control, disinfection, types of disinfection, disfection procedures, faeces urine, sputum, Icomlinen, deadbodies, instruments 
Pharmacypharmacology
Human anatomy and physiology 

Scope of anatomy and physiology, definition of various terms used in anatomy 
Structure of cell, function of its components with special reference to mitochondria and micorsomes 
Elementary tissues of body i.e. epithelial tissue, muscular tissue, connective tissue and nervous tissue 
Structure and function of skeleton, classification of joints and their function, joint disorder 
Composition of blood, functions of blood elements 
Blood groups and coagulation of blood 
Brief information regarding disorders of blood 
Name and functions of lymph glands 
Structure and functions of various parts of the heart 
Arterial and venous system with special reference to the names and positions of main arteries and viens 
Blood pressure and its recording 
Brief information about cardiovascular disorders 
Various parts of respiratory system and their functions, physiology of respiration 
Various parts of urinary system and their functions, structure and functions of kidney, physiology of urine formation, pathophysiology of renal diseases and oedema 
Structure of skeletal muscle 
Physiology of muscle contraction, names position, attachments and functions of various skeletal muscles physilogy of neuromuscular junction 
Various part of central nervous system, brain and its parts functions and reflex action 
Anatomy and physiology of automatic nervous system 
Elementary knowledge of structure and functions of the organs of taste, smell, ear, eye and skin, physiology of pain 
Digestive system; names of the various parts of digestive system and their functions of liver, physiology of digestions and absorption 
Endocrine glands and hormones 
Locations of the glands, their hormones and functions 
Pitutary, thyroid, adrenal and pancreas 
Reproductive systemsphysiology and anatomy and reproductive system 
Pharmacology and toxicology 

Introduction to pharmacology, scope of pharmacology 
Routes of administration of drugs their advantages and disadvantages 
Various processes of absorption of drugs and the factors affecting them, metabolism, distribution and excretion of drugs 
General mechanism of drugs action and the factors which modify drug action 
Pharmacological classification of drugs 
The discussion of drugs should emphasise the following aspect: (i) Drugs acting on the central nervous system(a) general anaesthetics, adjunction to anaestheasia intravenuous anaesthetics 
The discussion of drugs should emphasise the following aspect: (i) Drugs acting on the central nervous system(b) analgestic antipyretics and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, narcotic analgestics, antirheumatic and antigout remedies 
The discussion of drugs should emphasise the following aspect: (i) Drugs acting on the central nervous system(b) sedatives and hypnotics. (c) Centrally acting, muscle relaxants and antiparkinsonism agents 
The discussion of drugs should emphasise the following aspect: (ii) Local anaesthetics. (iii) Drug acting on autonomic nervous system: (a) Cholinergic drug, anticholinergic drugs, anticholinerserase drugs 
The discussion of drugs should emphasise the following aspect: (iii) Drug acting on autonomic nervous system(b) adrenergic drugs and adrenergic receptor blockers. (c) Neurone blockers and ganglion blockers 
The discussion of drugs should emphasise the following aspect: (iii) Drug acting on autonomic nervous system (d) neuromuscular blockers, drugs used in myasthenia gravis 
The discussion of drugs should emphasise the following aspect: (iv) Drugs acting on eye, mydriatics, drugs used in glaucoma. (v) Drugs acting on respiratory systemrespiratory stimulants bronchodilators, nasal decongestants 
The discussion of drugs should emphasise the following aspect: (v) Drugs acting on respiratory systemexpectorants and antitussive agents 
The discussion of drugs should emphasise the following aspect: (vi) Antacids, physiological role of histamine and serotonin, histamine and drugs used in atherosclerosis. (vii) Cardio vascular drugs, cardio tonics, antiarrhyhmic agents, antianginal agents 
The discussion of drugs should emphasise the following aspect: (vii) Antihypertensive agents, peripheral vasodilators and drugs used in atherosclerosis. (viii) Drugs acting on the blood forming organs, haematinics, coagulants and anticoagulants 
The discussion of drugs should emphasise the following aspect: (viii) Haemostatics, blood substitutes and plasma expanders 
The discussion of drugs should emphasise the following aspect: (ix) Drugs affecting, renal functiondiuretics and antidiuretics. (x) Hormones and hormone antagonistshypoglycemic agents, antithyroid durgs 
The discussion of drugs should emphasise the following aspect: (x) Hormones and hormone antagonistssex hormones and oral contraceptives and laxatives, antidiarrhoeals, emetics, antiemetics, antispasmodics 
Chemotherapy of microbial disease: Urinary antiseptics, sulphonamides. Emocooms. Streptomycin. Tetracylines and other antibiotics, antitubercular agents, anti fungal agents, anti viral drugs, antileprotic drugs 
Chemotherapyor protozoal diseases 
Anthelmintic drugs 
Chemotherapy of cancer 
Disinfectants and antiseptics 
Hospital pharmacy and clinical pharmacyPartI (hospital pharmacy) 

Hospitals definitions, function, classifications based on various criteria, organization, management and health delivery system in India 
Hospital pharmacy: (a) Definitions. (b) Functions and objectives of hospital pharmaceutical services. (c) Location, layout, flowchart of material and men. (d) Personnel and facilities requirements based on individual and basic needs 
Hospital pharmacy: (e) Requirements and abilities required for hospital pharmacists 
Drug distribution system in hospitals: (a) Outpatient service. (b) Inpatient services(i) types of services, (ii) detailed discussion of unit system. Floor and ward stock system, satellite pharmacy service, central services, bedside pharmacy 
Manufacturing: (a) Economical considerations, estimation of demand. (b) Sterile manufacturelarge and small volume parenterals, facilities, requirements layout production planning, manpower requirements 
Manufacturing: (c) Non sterile manufactureliquid orals, externalsbulk concentrates. (d) Procurement of stores and testing of raw materials 
Nomenclature and used of surgical instruments and hospital equipments and health accessories 
P.T.C. (pharmacy therapeutic committee), hospital formulary system and their organization, functioning, composition 
Drug information service and drug information bulletin 
Surgical dressing like cotton, gauze, bandages and adhesive tape including their pharmacopocial tests of quality 
Other hospital supply e.g. I.V. sets, B.G. sets, ryals tubes, catheters, syringesm, etc 
Application of computers in maintenance of records, inventory control medication monitoring, drug information and data storage and retrieval in hospital and retail pharmacy establishments 
Hospital pharmacy and clinical pharmacyPartII (clinical pharmacy) 

Introduction to clinical pharmacy practicedefinition, scope 
Modern dispensingpharmacists and patient counseling advice for the use of common drugs, medication history 
Common daily terminology used in the practice of medicine 
Disease, manifestation and pathophysiology including salient symptoms to understand the disease like tuberculosis, hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, diabetes, peptic ulcer, hypertension 
Physiological parameters with their significance 
Drug interactions: (a) Definition and introduction. (b) Mechanism of drug interaction. (c) Drugdrug interaction with reference to analgesics diuretics, cardiovascular drugs. Gastrointestinal agents, vitamins and hypoglycemic agents 
Drug interactions: (d) Drugfood interaction 
Adverse drug reaction: (a) Definition and significance. (b) Druginduced disease and teratogencity 
Drugs in clinical toxicityintroduction, general treatment of poisoning, systemic antidotes, treatment of insecticide poisoning, heavy metal poison, narcotic drugsbarbiturate, organophosphours poisons 
Drug dependence, drug abuse, addictive drugs and their treatment complications 
Bioavailability of drugs, including factors affecting it 
AP ECET 2021 Exam Pattern
Before starting off the preparation process, the candidates are advised to check the exam pattern of AP ECET 2021. Details about the entrance examination will be present in the AP ECET exam pattern so that the candidates will be able to refer and adapt to the features and process of the entrance examination.
AP ECET 2021 Exam Pattern
S.No  Particulars  Details 
1  Mode of Examination  Online 
2  Duration of Exam  3 hours 
3  Medium of Examination  English 
4  Type of Questions  200 Objective Type Questions 
5  Sections for Engineering Stream 

6  Sections for B.Sc Mathematics Stream 

7  Total Number of Questions  200 Questions 
AP ECET 2021 Mock Test
The authorities will release the mock test of AP ECET 2021 for all candidates on the official website. It must be noted that AP ECET 2021 mock test will be available for each engineering course. No login will be required to attempt the AP ECET mock test; candidates will just have to click on the subjectwise mock test link and attempt the test. Since the AP ECET mock test 2021 will positively help in the preparation, the candidates are advised to attempt it on a regular basis. The structure of the mock test will be similar to the examination.
The hall ticket of AP ECET 2021 will be released in online mode. Only the registered candidates will be able to download the AP ECET hall ticket 2021. Details about the exam centre and date will be available in the AP ECET 2021 hall ticket. Without the AP ECET 2021 hall ticket, the candidates will not be able to enter the examination hall to attempt the exam,
How to download AP ECET 2021 Hall Ticket?
Visit the official website.
Click on the admit card link.
Enter AP ECET 2021 registration number and date of birth.
Click on “Download Hall Ticket”
The hall ticket will be reflected on the screen. Check for any discrepancy in information and download.
AP ECET 2021 Exam Centers
State  City 

Andhra Pradesh  Ananthapur 
Gooty  
Hindupur  
Chittoor  
Madanapalle  
Puttur  
Tirupati  
Kakinada  
Rajahmundry  
Amalapuram  
Bapatla  
Guntur  
Narasaraopeta Rural  
Gudlavalleru  
Kanchikacherla  
Mylavaram  
Vijayawada  
Machilipatnam  
Kurnool  
Nandyal  
Chirala  
Markapuram  
Ongole  
Gudur  
Kavali  
Nellore  
Razam  
Srikakulam  
Tekkali  
Anakapalle  
Anandapuram  
Gajuwaka part  
Visakhapatnam  
Bobbili  
Vizianagaram  
Bhimavaram  
Eluru  
T.Narasapuram  
Tadepalligudem  
Kadapa  
Proddatur  
Rajampeta  
Telangana  Hyderabad 
Documents Required at Exam
 AP ECET 2020 hall ticket
AP ECET 2021 Answer Key
JNTU Ananthapur will release the AP ECET answer key 2021 on the official website. AP ECET answer key will contain the correct answers to all the questions asked in the exam. Candidates can check the answer key to compare the correct responses to their recorded answers. Using the AP ECET answer key, the candidates will also be able to calculate their scores before the results are announced. Candidates will also be allowed to raise objections against the provisional AP ECET 2021 answer key. The authorities will then release the final AP ECET answer key 2021 after considering objections if any.