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Organometallic Compounds - Practice Questions & MCQ

Edited By admin | Updated on Sep 18, 2023 18:35 AM | #JEE Main

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[Co2(CO)8] displays :

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Compounds that contain at least one carbon-metal bond are called organometallic compounds. Zeise, in 1830, prepared the first organometallic compound by the action of ethylene on a solution of potassium chloroplatinate(II). In the last four decades, enormous work has been done in this field and many fascinating compounds have been synthesized and investigated. Grignard reagent, RMgX is a familiar example of organometallic compounds where R is an alkyl group. Diethyl zinc [Zn(C2H5)2], lead tetraethyl [Pb(C2H5)4], ferrocene [Fe(C5H5)2], dibenzene chromium[Cr(C6H6)2], metal carbonyls are other examples of organometallic compounds. The compounds of metalloids such as germanium and antimony and mon-metallic elements such as boron and silicon are also included under this classification.

Organometallic compounds may be classified in three classes:

Sigma(σ) bonded complexes: These complexes contain a metal and carbon atom attached with a sigma bond e.g. Tetramethyl Tin, Trimethyl aluminium etc.

Bonding in Trimethyl aluminium is shown below

Pi(π) bonded complexes:  These complexes contain a metal and carbon atom attached with a Pi bond. e.g. Ferrocene, Dibenzene Chromium etc. Bonding in Ferrocene and Dibenzene Chromium is shown below:

Complexes containing both \sigma and \pi bonding characteristics: These complexes contain both \sigma as well as \pi bonding characteristics. e.g. Metal Carbonyls. The M-C\ \sigma bond is formed by the donation of the lone pair of electrons of carbonyl group into the vacant d orbital of metal while the M-C\ \pi bond is formed by back donation of lone pair of electrons from the metal into vacant antibonding \pi^* molecular orbital of CO. This synergic bonding leads to the formation of stronger bonds and stable metal carbonyl complexes. The bonding in metal carbonyls is shown below:

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