GATE Exam 2025  Dates (Out), Application Form, Syllabus, Eligibility Criteria, Pattern, Preparation Tips
Latest Update for GATE
 5 days ago:
 29 Jul 2024:
 29 Jul 2024:
Stay upto date with GATE News
About GATE 2025
GATE Exam 2025: IIT Roorkee has released the GATE 2025 important dates and application fees on the official website, gate2025.iitr.ac.in. The GATE registration 2025 will commence on August 24, 2024. Applicants can submit the application form through the GATE GOAPS portal. The last date to submit the GATE application form 2025 is September 26, 2024. The authority will conclude GATE registration with a late fee on October 7, 2024. Candidates currently studying in the 3rd or higher years of any undergraduate degree program or who have completed any governmentapproved degree program in Engineering/ Technology/ Architecture/ Science/ Commerce/ Arts/ Humanities are eligible to appear for the GATE 2025 exam. The authority has announced the GATE 2025 exam dates online. As per the notification, the GATE 2025 exam will be conducted on February 1, 2, 15 and 16, 2025. The authority announced the GATE 2025 result date on the official website. As per the notivation, the GATE exam result 2025 will be announced on March 19, 2025.
GATE 2025 syllabus and exam pattern are available for all 30 subjects online. Candidates can download the GATE 2025 syllabus in PDF format from the official website. Candidates must check out the GATE paper pattern and syllabus before starting to prepare for the GATE 2025 exam. Moreover, the authority has released the GATE eligibility criteria on the official website. IIT Roorkee will announce the GATE 2025 exam dates online.
Applicants who complete the GATE registration before the last date will be able to sit for the GATE exam. The authority will allow candidates to edit the information provided in the GATE 2025 application form by paying a fee. Applicants will be able to make changes to their name, date of birth, paper choice, exam cities, personal details, and educational qualifications. The authority will issue the GATE admit card to the registered candidates in online mode.
IIT Roorkee will release the GATE mock test 2025 for each test paper on the official website gate2025.iitr.ac.in. The duration of the GATE 2025 exam will be three hours. The GATE question paper will have two types of questions  multiplechoice questions (MCQs) and numerical answer type questions (NATs). Candidates can solve the last 15 years GATE question papers to understand the syllabus and pattern.
GATE 2025 Latest News and Updates
 GATE 20253 result date has been announced.
 GATE 2025 application form dates announced.
 GATE exam date 2025 announced.
 IIT Roorkee has released the GATE eligibility, syllabus and exam pattern online.
 IIT Roorkee has activated the GATE 2025 official website at gate2025.iitr.ac.in. Aspirants are advised to check this page regularly for the GATE latest news and updates 2025.
What is GATE Exam?
GATE is conducted jointly by the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) and seven Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) every year on a rotational basis. The full form of GATE is the Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering. GATE is an online exam that tests the comprehensive understanding of undergraduate engineering and science courses. It is a gateway for admission to postgraduate programs like M.E./M.Tech/Ph.D. at IITs, IISc, and various other universities and colleges across India. It is essential to have a clear understanding of the GATE exam pattern 2024, syllabus, and marking scheme to perform well in the exam. By scoring well in the exam, candidates can enhance their chances of admission to postgraduate programs at premier institutes and secure jobs at various PSUs and admission to M.Tech courses. The GATE entrance exam is also used by various public sector undertakings (PSUs) to recruit engineering professionals.
Also, Check
GATE 2025 Organizing Institute
Every year the organising institute for the GATE entrance exam is chosen among the IITs and IISc Bangalore. Below is a list of the organizing institutes of GATE for various years.
GATE Organizing Institutes: Over the years
Year  Organizing Institutes 
2025  IIT Roorkee 
2024  IISc Bangalore 
2023  IIT Khanpur 
2022  IIT, Kharagpur 
2021  IIT, Bombay 
2020  IIT, Delhi 
2019  IIT, Madras 
2018  IIT, Guwahati 
2017  IIT, Roorkee 
2016  IISc, Bangalore 
2015  IIT, Kanpur 
2014  IIT, Kharagpur 
2013  IIT, Bombay 
2012  IIT, Delhi 
2011  IIT, Madras 
2010  IIT, Guwahati 
Previous Year’s GATE exam statistics
The GATE exam is highly competitive, and here are the previous year's GATE exam statistics, including the number of candidates who registered, and appeared, and the overall qualifying percentage.
GATE 2024 Statistics: How many students appeared for GATE 2024?
Particular  Details 
Total number of students who applied for GATE 2024  8.26 Lakh 
Total number of students appeared for GATE 2024  6.5 Lakh 
Top Entrance Exams to Study Abroad
GATE 2025 Highlights
Full Exam Name  Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering 
Short Exam Name  GATE 
Conducting Body  Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 
Frequency of Conduct  Once a year 
Exam Level  National Level Exam 
Languages  English 
Mode of Application  Online 
Application Fee (General)  1400 Rs [Online] 
Mode of Exam  Online 
Mode of Counselling  Online 
Participating Colleges  863 
Exam Duration  3 Hours 
GATE 2025 Important Dates
GATE (Session 2025)
Upcoming Dates and Events
24 Aug, 2024  26 Sep, 2024
Application  Mode: Online
27 Sep, 2024  07 Oct, 2024
Late Fee Application  Mode: Online
01 Feb, 2025  02 Feb, 2025
Exam  Mode: Online
15 Feb, 2025  16 Feb, 2025
Exam  Mode: Online
19 Mar, 2025
Result  Mode: Online
GATE (Session 2024)
Upcoming Dates and Events
01 Jun, 2024  31 Dec, 2024
(Target 2024)  Score Card  Score cards available for download by paying a fee of Rs. 500 per test paper  Mode: Online ^{Ongoing}
Candidates who are currently studying in the 3rd or higher years of any undergraduate degree program or who have completed any governmentapproved degree program in Engineering/ Technology/ Architecture/ Science/ Commerce/ Arts/ Humanities are eligible to appear for GATE 2025.
It's important to note that candidates with qualifications obtained outside of India will also need to meet specific eligibility criteria to be able to appear for the GATE 2025 exam. Such candidates must be currently in the 3rd or higher years or must have completed their Bachelor’s degree (of at least three years duration) in Engineering/ Technology/ Architecture/ Science/ Commerce/ Arts/ Humanities. Candidates are advised to carefully read through the GATE exam eligibility criteria before applying for the GATE 2025 entrance exam.
Nationality: Nationality is one of the important parameters that are considered in the GATE eligibility criteria 2025. As per the guidelines, Indian as well as foreign candidates can apply for the GATE exam. Candidates from Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Ethiopia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are also eligible candidates to apply for the exam.
Age limit: Candidates have no age limit criteria to submit this exam.
Academic Qualifications: Academic qualifications are an essential aspect of the GATE 2025 eligibility criteria. The academic requirements vary based on the program applied for. Aspirants should have a bachelor’s degree in Engineering/ Technology/ Architecture or a master’s degree in any branch of Science/Mathematics/Statistics/Computer Applications or equivalent. Candidates pursuing the qualifying degree and those who have already completed the degree can apply for the GATE 2025. Additionally, nonscience graduates from arts and commerce fields are also eligible to apply for GATE 2025 with the addition of humanities and social science streams.
GATE Eligibility 2025 Education Qualification
Degree / Program  Qualifying Degree / Examination  Description of Eligible Candidates 
B.E. / B.Tech. / B. Pharm.  Bachelor’s degree in Engineering / Technology (4 years after 10+2 or 3 years after B.Sc. / Diploma in Engineering / Technology)  Currently in the 3rd year or higher or already completed 
B. Arch.  Bachelor’s degree of Architecture (5year course) / Naval Architecture (4year course) / Planning (4year course)  Currently in the 3rd year or higher or already completed 
B.Sc. (Research) / B.S.  Bachelor’s degree in Science (PostDiploma / 4 years after 10+2)  Currently in the 3rd year or higher or already completed 
Pharm. D.(after 10+2)  6 years degree program, consisting of internship or residency training, during third year onwards  Currently in the 3rd/ 4th/ 5th/ 6th year or already completed 
M.B.B.S. / B.D.S. / B.V.Sc.  Degree holders of M.B.B.S. / B.D.S. / B.V.Sc and those who are in the 5th/ 6th/ 7th semester or higher semester of such programme.  5th/ 6th/ 7th or higher semester or already completed 
M. Sc. / M.A. / MCA or equivalent  Master’s degree in any branch of Arts / Science / Mathematics / Statistics / Computer Applications or equivalent  Currently in the first year or higher or already Completed 
Int. M.E. / M.Tech.(PostB.Sc.)  PostB.Sc Integrated Master’s degree programs in Engineering / Technology (4year program)  Currently in the 1st/ 2nd/ 3rd/ 4th year or already completed 
Int. M.E. / M.Tech. / M.Pharm or Dual Degree (after Diploma or 10+2)  Integrated Master’s degree program or Dual Degree program in Engineering / Technology (5year program)  Currently in the 3rd/ 4th/ 5th year or already completed 
B.Sc. / B.A. / B.Com.  Bachelor degree in any branch of Science / Arts / Commerce (3 year program)  Currently in the 3rd year or already completed 
Int. M.Sc. / Int. B.S. / M.S.  Integrated M.Sc. or 5year integrated B.S. M.S. program  Currently in the 3rd year or higher or already completed 
Professional Society Examinations* (equivalent to B.E. / B.Tech. / B.Arch.)  B.E. / B.Tech. / B.Arch. equivalent examinations of Professional Societies, recognized by MoE / UPSC / AICTE (e.g. AMIE by Institution of EngineersIndia, AMICE by the Institute of Civil EngineersIndia and so on)  Completed Section A or equivalent of such professional courses 
B.Sc. (Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry)  4years program  Currently in the 3rd/ 4th year or already completed 
Mode of Application : Online
Mode of Payment : Net Banking  Credit Card  Debit Card
IIT Roorkee has announced the GATE 2025 registration date online. The authority will update the GATE 2025 application form link on the website, gate2025.iitr.ac.in on August 24, 2024. Candidates who meet the eligibility criteria will be able to fill out the GATE application form 2025 without a late fee by September 26, 2024. The last date to submit the GATE application form with a late fee is October 7, 2024. The application process involves registration, filling out the application form, uploading documents, and payment of the application fee. Candidates who complete the GATE application process will be issued an admit card. Applicants must submit the application form for GATE 2025 before the last date.
How to fill GATE Application Form 2025?
IIT Roorkee will conduct the GATE 2025 registration process online. The following is a general overview of the application process.
 Online GATE 2025 Registration: Candidates must register for GATE by providing their email address and a valid mobile number. After registration, candidates will receive an enrollment ID and password to log in to the GATE online application system.
 Filling out GATE 2025 application form: Candidates must fill out the GATE 2025 application form online, providing personal details, educational qualifications, and other required information.
 Uploading documents: Candidates must upload scanned copies of their photograph, signature, and other relevant documents.
 Payment of GATE registration fee: Candidates can pay the GATE 2025 registration fee online through debit card, credit card, or net banking.
 Submission of the application form: After completing the application form, candidates must submit it online.
 Admit card: Candidates who have successfully submitted their application form can download their GATE 2025 admit card from the official website once it is released.
GATE 2025 Registration Fee
The authority has announced the GATE 2025 registration fee along with the official notification.Candidates can check the categorywise application fee below.
Category  Regular Period  During the Extended Period (September 27 to October 7) 
Male (General, OBC and Others)  Rs. 1,800  Rs. 2,300 
SC/ ST/ PwD  Rs. 900  Rs. 1,400 
Female candidates  Rs. 900  Rs. 1,400 
GATE Exam 2025 Combination of two subject papers
Code of the First Paper  Codes of the Second Paper  Code of the First Paper  Codes of the Second Paper 
AE  CE, ME, XE  GE  AR, CE, CS, ES, GG 
AG  CE  GG  GE 
AR  CE, GE  IN  BM, EC, EE, ME 
BM  BT, IN  MA  CS, DA, PH, ST 
BT  BM, XL  ME  AE, DA, IN, NM, PI, XE 
CE  AE, AG, AR, ES, GE, NM, XE  MT  XE 
CH  ES, PE, XE  NM  CE, ME 
CS  DA, EC, GE, MA, PH, ST  PE  CH 
CY  XE, XL  PH  CS, DA, EC, EE, MA, XE 
DA  CS, EC, EE, MA, ME, PH, ST, XE  PI  ME, XE 
EC  CS, DA, EE, IN, PH  ST  CS, DA, MA, XH 
EE  DA, EC, IN, PH  XE  AE, CE, CH, CY, DA, ME, MT, PH, PI 
ES  CE, CH, GE  XH  ST 
EY  XL  XL  BT, CY, EY 
GATE 2025 Application Form Correction Facility
The authority will conduct the GATE application form correction process in online mode. Candidates who wish to edit their GATE application form will be able to access the facility within a stipulated time. The application form correction facility of GATE 2025 will be a chargeable process. The exam authority will also inform the applicants about the correction facility through email. Candidates should correct the GATE 2025 exam form if needed. In case of any incorrect details, the GATE 2025 application form will be rejected.
How to edit the GATE Application Form 2025?
The following steps are typically involved in editing the GATE application form during the correction window:
Visit the GATE official website 2025 gate2025.iitr.ac.in
Log in using your GATE 2025 Enrollment ID and password.
Navigate to the "Application Form" section and click on the "Edit Application Form" button.
Make the necessary changes to the form, such as personal details, exam paper, and exam city. Note that some changes may require additional fees to be paid.
Review the modified form carefully and ensure that all the changes are correct.
Submit the corrected form and take a printout of the revised form for future reference.
Charges for Changes/Modification in GATE 2025 Application
Description of Change/Modification  Fee Charges 
Change in Name  ₹ 500 
Change in Date of Birth  ₹ 500 
Change in choice of examination cities  ₹ 500 
Change of existing paper  ₹ 500 
Add a second paper (from given combinations with respect to the primary paper)  ₹ 500 
Change of gender to female  ₹ 500 
Changes of gender from female to any other gender  ₹ 500 + ₹ 900 = ₹ 1400 
Change of category to SC/ST  ₹ 500 
Change of category from sc/ST to any other  ₹ 500 ₹ 500 + ₹ 900 = ₹ 1400 
Change from NonPwD/Dyslexics to PwD/Dyslexics  
Change from NonPwD/Dyslexics to NonPwD/Dyslexic  ₹ 500 ₹ 500 + ₹ 900 = ₹ 1400 
Any other change in Category (not mentioned above)  ₹ 500 
Details of Parents/Guardian/Correspondence Address  ₹ 500 
College Name and Location, Roll No. Registration No.  ₹ 500 
Application Fees
Category  Quota  Mode  Gender  Amount 

EWS, ST, OBC, General, SC  Online  Female  ₹ 900  
ST, SC  PWD  Online  Transgender, Male  ₹ 900 
OBC, General  Online  Transgender, Male  ₹ 1400 
GATE question papers consist of both theoretical as well as numerical questions. Candidates can check the previous year's GATE exam papers for better preparation. Solving the question paper of GATE helps in understanding the exam syllabus and paper pattern.
GATE 2024 Question Papers
Paper Name  GATE Question Paper 
AE: Aerospace Engineering  GATE 2024 AE Question Paper and Answer Key 
AG: Agricultural Engineering  
AR: Architecture and Planning  
BM: Biomedical Engineering  
BT: Biotechnology  GATE 2024 BT Question Paper and Answer Key 
CE: Civil Engineering  
CH: Chemical Engineering  
CS: Computer Science and Information Technology  
CY: Chemistry  GATE 2024 CY Question Paper and Answer Key 
DA: Data Science and Artificial Intelligence  GATE 2024 DA Question Paper and Answer Key 
EC: Electronics and Communication Engineering  
EE: Electrical Engineering  
ES: Environmental Science and Engineering  
EY: Ecology and Evolution  GATE 2024 EY Question Paper and Answer Key 
GE: Geomatics Engineering  GATE 2024 GE Question Paper and Answer Key 
GG: Geology and Geophysics  
IN: Instrumentation Engineering  
MA: Mathematics  GATE 2024 MA Question Paper and Answer Key 
ME: Mechanical Engineering  
MN: Mining Engineering  
MT: Metallurgical Engineering  GATE 2024 MT Question Paper and Answer Key 
NM: Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering  GATE 2024 NM Question Paper and Answer Key 
PE: Petroleum Engineering  
PH: Physics  GATE 2024 PH Question Paper and Answer Key 
PI: Production and Industrial Engineering  
ST: Statistics  GATE 2024 ST Question Paper and Answer Key 
TF: Textile Engineering and Fibre Science  
XE: Engineering Sciences  GATE 2024 XE Question Paper and Answer Key 
XH: Humanities & Social Sciences  
XL: Life Sciences  GATE 2024 XL Question Paper and Answer Key 
GATE Aerospace Engineering Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Vector algebra, matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, rank of a matrix, eigen values and eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Functions of single variable, limits, continuity and differentiability, mean value theorem, chain rule, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, gradient, divergence and curl, directional derivatives 
Integration, line, surface, and volume integrals 
Theorems of Stokes, Gauss, and Green 
Differential equations 

First order linear and nonlinear differential equations, higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients 
Partial differential equations and separation of variables methods 
Fourier series 

Laplace transforms 

Numerical methods for linear and nonlinear algebraic equations 

Numerical integration and differentiation 

Complex analysis 

Probability and Statistics 

Flight mechanics
Basics 

Atmosphere: Properties, standard atmosphere. Classification of aircraft. Airplane (fixed wing aircraft) configuration and various parts 
Pressure altitude; equivalent, calibrated, indicated air speeds; primary flight instruments: Altimeter, ASI, VSI, turnbank indicator 
Angle of attack, sideslip; roll, pitch and yaw controls 
Aerodynamic forces and moments 
Airplane performance 

Drag polar; takeoff and landing; steady climb and descent; absolute and service ceiling; range and endurance, load factor, turning flight, VN diagram 
Winds: Head, tail, and cross winds 
Static stability 

Stability and control derivatives; longitudinal stick fixed and free stability; horizontal tail position and size; directional stability, vertical tail position, and size; lateral stability 
Wing dihedral, sweep, and position; hinge moments, stick forces 
Dynamic stability 

Euler angles; equations of motion; decoupling of longitudinal and lateraldirectional dynamics; longitudinal modes; lateraldirectional modes 
Space dynamics
Central force motion 

Determination of trajectory and orbital period in simple cases 

Kepler's laws 

Escape velocity 

Aerodynamics
Basic fluid mechanics 

Conservation laws: Mass, momentum, and energy (integral and differential form); dimensional analysis and dynamic similarity; potential flow theory: Sources, sinks, doublets, line vortex, and their superposition 
Elementary ideas of viscous flows including boundary layers 
Airfoils and wings 

Airfoil nomenclature; aerodynamic coefficients: lift, drag, and moment; KuttaJoukowski theorem; thin airfoil theory, Kutta condition, starting vortex; finite wing theory: Induced drag, Prandtl lifting line theory; critical and drag divergence mach number 
Compressible flows 

Basic concepts of compressibility, onedimensional compressible flows, isentropic flows, fanno flow, Rayleigh flow; normal and oblique shocks, PrandtlMeyer flow; flow through nozzles and diffusers 
Wind tunnel testing 

Measurement and visualization techniques 
Shockboundary layer interaction 
Structures
Strength of materials 

Stress and strain: Threedimensional transformations, Mohr's circle, principal stresses, threedimensional Hooke's law, plane stress and strain 
Failure theories: Maximum stress, Tresca and Von Mises 
Strain energy 
Castigliano's principles 
Statically determinate and indeterminate trusses, and beams 
Elastic flexural buckling of columns 
Flight vehicle structures 

Characteristics of aircraft structures and materials 
Torsion, bending, and shear of thinwalled sections 
Loads on aircraft 
Structural dynamics 

Free and forced vibrations of undamped and damped SDOF systems 
Free vibrations of undamped 2DOF systems 
Vibration of beams 

Theory of elasticity 

Equilibrium and compatibility equations, Airy's stress function 
Propulsion
Basics 

Thermodynamics, boundary layers, heat transfer, combustion and thermochemistry 
Aerothermodynamics of aircraft engines 

Thrust, efficiency, range 
Brayton cycle 
Engine performance: Ramjet, turbojet, turbofan, turboprop, and turboshaft engines 
Afterburners 
Turbo machinery 

Axial compressors: Angular momentum, work, and compression, characteristic performance of a single axial compressor stage, efficiency of the compressor and degree of reaction, multistaging 
Centrifugal compressor: Stage dynamics, inducer, impeller, and diffuser 
Axial turbines: Stage performance 
Rockets 

Thrust equation and specific impulse, rocket performance 
Multistaging 
Chemical rockets 
Performance of solid and liquid propellant rockets 
Aerothermodynamics of nonrotating propulsion components such as intakes, combustor, and nozzle 

Turbine blade cooling 

Compressorturbine matching 

Surge and stall 

GATE Agricultural Engineering Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrices and determinants, linear and orthogonal transformations, CayleyHamilton theorem; eigen values and eigen vectors, solutions of linear equations 
Calculus 

Limit, continuity, and differentiability; partial derivatives; homogeneous functionEuler's theorem on homogeneous functions, total differentiation; maxima and minima of function with several independent variables; sequences and seriesinfinite series 
Tests for convergence; Fourier, Taylor, and Maclaurin series 
Vector calculus 

Vector differentiation, scalar and vector point functions, vector differential operatorsdel, gradient; divergence and curl; physical interpretationsline, surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss, and Green's theorems 
Differential equations 

Linear and nonlinear first order ordinary differential equations (ODE); homogeneous differential equations, higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Laplace transforms and their inverse; partial differential equations 
Laplace, heat and wave equations 
Probability and Statistics 

Mean, median, mode, and standard deviation; random variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; correlation and regression analysis 
Numerical methods 

Solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations; numerical integrationtrapezoidal and Simpson's rule; numerical solutions of ODEs 
Farm machinery
Machine design 

Design and selection of machine elementsgears, pulleys, chains and sprockets, and belts; overload safety devices used in farm machinery; measurement of force, stress, torque, speed, displacement and acceleration on machine elementsshafts, couplings 
Keys, bearings, and knuckle joints 
Farm machinery 

Soil tillage; forces acting on a tillage tool; hitch systems and hitching of tillage implements; functional requirements, principles of working, construction and operation of manual, animal, and power operated equipment for tillage, sowing, planting 
Fertilizer application, intercultivation, spraying, mowing, chaff cutting, harvesting and threshing calculation of performance parametersfield capacity, efficiency 
Application rate and losses; cost analysis of implements and tractors 
Farm power
Sources of power 

Sources of power on the farmhuman, animal, mechanical, electrical, wind, solar and biomass; biofuels 
Farm power 

Thermodynamic principles of IC engines; IC engine cycles; engine components; fuels and combustion; lubricants and their properties; IC engine systemsfuel, cooling, lubrication, ignition, electrical, intake and exhaust; selection, operation 
Maintenance and repair of IC engines; power efficiencies and measurement; calculation of power, torque, fuel consumption, heat load and power losses; performance index, cost analysis of implements and tractors 
Tractors and power tillers 

Type, selection, maintenance and repair of tractors, and power tillers; tractor clutches and brakes; power transmission systemsgear trains, differential, final drives and power takeoff; mechanics of tractor chassis; traction theory; three point hitches 
Free link and restrained link operations; steering and hydraulic control systems used in tractors; tractor tests and performance; human engineering and safety considerations in design of tractor, and agricultural implements 
Soil and water conservation engineering
Fluid mechanics 

Ideal and real fluids, properties of fluids; hydrostatic pressure and its measurement; continuity equation, kinematics, and dynamics of flow; Bernoulli's theorem; laminar and turbulent flow in pipes, DarcyWeisbach and HazenWilliams equations 
Moody's diagram; flow through orifices, weirs and notches; flow in open channels, dimensional analysisconcepts of geometric dimensionless numbers 
Soil mechanics 

Engineering properties of soils; fundamental definitions and relationships; index properties of soils; permeability and seepage analysis; shear strength, Mohr's circle of stress, active and passive earth pressures; stability of slopes 
Terzaghi's one dimensional soil consolidation theory 
Hydrology 

Hydrological cycle and measurement of its components; meteorological parameters and their measurement; analysis of precipitation data; runoff estimation; hydrograph analysis, unit hydrograph theory and application; stream flow measurement; flood routing 
Hydrological reservoir and channel routing, infiltrationindices and equations, drought and its classification 
Surveying and leveling 

Measurement of distance and area; instruments for surveying and leveling; chain surveying, methods of traversing; measurement of angles and bearings, plane table surveying; types of leveling; theodolite traversing; contouring; total station 
Introduction to GPS survey, computation of areas and volume 
Soil and water erosion 

Mechanics of soil erosionwind and water erosion: Soil erosion types, factors affecting erosion; soil loss estimation; biological and engineering measures to control erosion; terraces and bunds; vegetative waterways; gully control structures, drop 
Drop inlet and chute spillways; earthen dams 
Watershed management 

Watershed characterization and land use capability classification; water budgeting in watershed, rainwater harvesting, check dams and farm ponds 
Irrigation and drainage engineering
Soilwaterplant relationship 

Water requirement of crops; consumptive use and evapotranspiration; measurement of infiltration, soil moisture, and irrigation water infiltration 
Irrigation water conveyance and application methods 

Design of irrigation channels and underground pipelines; irrigation scheduling; surface, sprinkler and micro irrigation methods, design and evaluation of irrigation methods; irrigation efficiencies 
Agricultural drainage 

Drainage coefficient; planning, design and layout of surface and subsurface drainage systems; leaching requirement and salinity control; irrigation and drainage water quality and reuse; nonconventional drainage system 
Groundwater hydrology 

Groundwater occurrence; Darcy's law, steady and unsteady flow in confined and unconfined aquifers, groundwater exploration techniques; overview of groundwater recharge estimation and artificial recharge techniques 
Wells and pumps 

Types of wells, steady flow through wells; design and construction of water wells; classification of pumps; pump characteristics; pump selection and installation 
Agricultural process engineering
Engineering properties of agriculture produce 

Physical, thermal, frictional, rheological, and electrical properties 
Evaporation and drying 

Concentration and drying of liquid foodsevaporators, tray, drum, and spray dryers; hydrothermal treatments; drying and milling of cereals, pulses and oilseeds; drying kinetics; psychrometryproperties of airwater vapor mixture 
Size reduction and material handling 

Mechanics and energy requirement in size reduction of agriculture produce; particle size analysis for comminuted solids; size separation by screening; fluidization of granular solidspneumatic, bucket, screw and belt conveying; cleaning and grading 
Effectiveness of separation; centrifugal separation of solids, liquids and gases; homogenization; filtration and membrane separation 
Processing of agriculture produce 

Processing of seeds, spices, fruits, and vegetables; value addition of agriculture produce 
Storage systems 

Controlled and modified atmosphere storage; perishable food storage, godowns, bins and grain silos, packaging material and machines 
Dairy and food engineering
Heat and mass transfer 

Steady state heat transfer in conduction, convection and radiation; transient heat transfer in simple geometry; working principles of heat exchangers; diffusive and convective mass transfer 
Simultaneous heat and mass transfer in agricultural processing operations; material and energy balances in food processing systems; water activity, sorption and desorption isotherms 
Preservation of food 

Kinetics of microbial deathpasteurization and sterilization of milk, and other liquid foods; preservation of food by cooling and freezing; refrigeration and cold storage basics, and applications 
GATE Architecture and Planning Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Architecture, planning, and design
Architectural graphics 

Visual composition in 2D and 3D 

Computer application in architecture and planning 

Anthropometrics 

Organization of space 

Circulationhorizontal and vertical 

Space standards 

Universal design 

Building byelaws 

Codes and standards 

Construction and management
Project management techniques example PERT, CPM, etc 

Estimation and specification 

Professional practice and ethics 

Form and structure 

Principles and design of disaster resistant structures 

Temporary structures for rehabilitation 

Environmental planning and design
Natural and manmade ecosystem 

Ecological principles 

Environmental considerations in planning and design 

Environmental pollutiontypes, causes, controls, and abatement strategies 

Sustainable development, goals, and strategies 

Climate change and built environment 

Climate responsive design 

Urban design, landscape, and conservation
Historical and modern examples of urban design 

Elements of urban built environmenturban form, spaces, structure, pattern, fabric, texture, grain etc 

Concepts and theories of urban design 

Principles, tools, and techniques of urban design 

Public spaces, character, spatial qualities, and sense of place 

Urban design interventions for sustainable development and transportation 

Development controlsFAR, densities, and building byelaws 

Urban renewal and conservation 

Heritage conservation 

Historical public spaces and gardens 

Landscape design 

Site planning 

Planning process
Salient concepts 

Theories and principles of urban planning 

Concepts of citiesecocity, smart city 

Concepts and theories by trendsetting planners, and designers 

Ekistics 

Urban sociology 

Social, economic, and environmental cost benefit analysis 

Methods of nonspatial and spatial data analysis 

Development guidelines such as URDPFI 

Housing
Housing typologies 

Concepts, principles, and examples of neighbourhood 

Residential densities 

Affordable housing 

Real estate valuation 

Services and infrastructure
Firefighting systems 

Building safety and security systems 

Building management systems 

Water treatment 

Water supply and distribution system 

Water harvesting systems 

Principles, planning, and design of storm water drainage system 

Sewage disposal methods 

Methods of solid waste managementcollection, transportation, and disposal 

Recycling and reuse of solid waste 

Land usetransportation, urban form inter relationships 

Design of roads, intersections, grade separators, and parking areas 

Hierarchy of roads and level of service 

Paratransits and other modes of transportation 

Pedestrian and slow moving traffic planning 

History and contemporary architecture
Principles of art and architecture 

World history of architecture 

Egyptian, GrecoRoman classical period, Byzantine, Gothic, Renaissance, BaroqueRococo, etc 
Recent trends in contemporary architecture 

Art nouveau, art Deco, eclecticism, international styles, post modernism, deconstruction in architecture, etc 
Influence of modern art and design in architecture 

Indian vernacular and traditional architecture 

Oriental architecture 

Works of renowned national and international architects 

Building construction and structural systems
Building construction techniques, methods, and details 

Building systems and prefabrication of building elements 

Principles of modular coordination 

Construction planning and equipment 

Building material characteristics and applications 

Principles of strength of materials 

Alternative building materials 

Foundations 

Design of structural elements with different materials 

Elastic and limit state design 

Structural systems 

Principles of prestressing 

High rise and long span structures 

Gravity and lateral load resisting systems 

Building services and sustainability
Solar architecture 

Thermal, visual, and acoustic comfort in built environments 

Natural and mechanical ventilation in buildings 

Airconditioning systems 

Sustainable building strategies 

Building performance simulation and evaluation 

Intelligent buildings 

Water supply 

Sewerage and drainage systems 

Sanitary fittings and fixtures 

Plumbing systems 

Principles of internal and external drainage system 

Principles of electrification of buildings 

Elevators and escalatorsstandards and uses 

Regional and settlement planning
Regional delineation 

Settlement hierarchy 

Types and hierarchy of plans 

Various schemes and programs of central government 

Transit oriented development (TOD), SEZ, SRZ etc 

Public perception and user behaviour 

National housing policies, programs, and schemes 

Slums, squatters, and informal housing 

Standards for housing and community facilities 

Housing for special areas and needs 

Planning techniques and management
Application of GIS and remote sensing techniques in urban, and regional planning 

Tools and techniques of surveysphysical, topographical, land use, and socioeconomic surveys 

Urban economics 

Law of demand and supply of land and its use in planning 

Graphic presentation of spatial data 

Local selfgovernance 

Panchayati raj institutions 

Planning legislation and implementationland acquisition act, PPP, etc 

Decision support system and land information system 

Urban geography and econometrics 

Management of infrastructure projects 

Demography and equity in planning 

Infrastructure planning
Process and principles of transportation planning, and traffic engineering 

Road capacity and travel demand forecasting 

Traffic survey methods 

Traffic flow analysis 

Traffic analyses and design considerations 

Traffic and transport management, and control in urban areas 

Mass transportation planning 

Intelligent transportation systems 

Urban and rural infrastructure system network 

GATE Biotechnology Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrices and determinants; systems of linear equations; eigen values and eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Limits, continuity, and differentiability; partial derivatives, maxima and minima; sequences and series; test for convergence 
Differential equations 

Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs, higher order ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy's and Euler's equations; Laplace transforms 
Probability and Statistics 

Mean, median, mode, and standard deviation; random variables; Poisson, normal, and binomial distributions; correlation and regression analysis 
Numerical methods 

Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations; integration by trapezoidal and Simpson's rule; single step method for differential equations 
General biology
Biochemistry 

Biomoleculesstructure and function; biological membranesstructure, membrane channels, and pumps, molecular motors, action potential and transport processes; basic concepts and regulation of metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids 
Amino acids and nucleic acids; photosynthesis, respiration, and electron transport chain 
Enzymesclassification, catalytic, and regulatory strategies; enzyme kineticsMichaelisMenten equation; enzyme inhibitioncompetitive, noncompetitive, and uncompetitive inhibition 
Microbiology 

Bacterial classification and diversity; microbial ecologymicrobes in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems; microbial interactions; virusesstructure and classification; methods in microbiology; microbial growth and nutrition; nitrogen fixation 
Microbial diseases and hostpathogen interactions; antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance 
Immunology 

Innate and adaptive immunity, humoral and cell mediated immunity; antibody structure and function; molecular basis of antibody diversity; T cell and B cell development; antigenantibody reaction; complement; primary and secondary lymphoid organs 
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC); antigen processing and presentation; polyclonal and monoclonal antibody; regulation of immune response; immune tolerance; hyper sensitivity; autoimmunity; graft versus host reaction; immunization and vaccines 
Genetics, cellular, and molecular biology
Genetics and evolutionary biology 

Mendelian inheritance; gene interaction; complementation; linkage, recombination, and chromosome mapping; extra chromosomal inheritance; microbial geneticstransformation, transduction, and conjugation; horizontal gene transfer and transposable elements 
Chromosomal variation; genetic disorders; population genetics; epigenetics; selection and inheritance; adaptive and neutral evolution; genetic drift; species and speciation 
Cell biology 

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; cell cycle and cell growth control; cellcell communication; cell signaling and signal transduction; posttranslational modifications; protein trafficking; cell death and autophagy; extracellular matrix 
Molecular biology 

Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes; mutations and mutagenesis; regulation of gene expression; nucleic acidreplication, transcription, splicing, translation and their regulatory mechanisms; Noncoding and micro RNA; RNA interference 
DNA damage and repair 
Fundamentals of biological engineering
Engineering principles applied to biological systems 

Material and energy balances for reactive and nonreactive systems; recycle, bypass and purge processes; stoichiometry of growth and product formation; degree of reduction, electron balance, theoretical oxygen demand 
Classical thermodynamics and bioenergetics 

Laws of thermodynamics; solution thermodynamics; phase equilibrium, reaction equilibrium; ligand binding; membrane potential; energetics of metabolic pathways, oxidation, and reduction reactions 
Transport processes 

Newtonian and nonNewtonian fluids, fluid flowlaminar and turbulent; mixing in bioreactors, mixing time; molecular diffusion and film theory; oxygen transfer and uptake in bioreactor, kLa and its measurement; conductive and convective heat transfer, LMTD 
Overall heat transfer coefficient; heat exchangers 
Bioprocess engineering and process biotechnology
Bioreaction engineering 

Rate law, zero, and first order kinetics; ideal reactorsbatch, mixed flow and plug flow; enzyme immobilization, diffusion effectsThiele modulus, effectiveness factor, Damkohler number; kinetics of cell growth 
Substrate utilization and product formation; structured and unstructured models; batch, fedbatch, and continuous processes; microbial and enzyme reactors; optimization and scale up 
Upstream and downstream processing 

Media formulation and optimization; sterilization of air and media; filtrationmembrane filtration, ultra filtration; centrifugationhigh speed and ultra; cell disruption; principles of chromatographyion exchange, gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction 
Affinity, GC, HPLC, and FPLC; extraction, adsorption, and drying 
Instrumentation and process control 

Pressure, temperature, and flow measurement devices; valves; first order and second order systems; feedback and feed forward control; types of controllersproportional, derivative, and integral control, tuning of controllers 
Plant, animal, and microbial biotechnology
Plants 

Totipotency; regeneration of plants; plant growth regulators and elicitors; tissue culture and cell suspension culture systemmethodology, kinetics of growth and nutrient optimization; production of secondary metabolites; hairy root culture 
Plant products of industrial importance; artificial seeds; somaclonal variation; protoplast, protoplast fusionsomatic hybrid and cybrid; transgenic plantsdirect and indirect methods of gene transfer techniques; selection marker and reporter gene 
Plastid transformation 
Animals 

Culture media composition and growth conditions; animal cell and tissue preservation; anchorage and nonanchorage dependent cell culture; kinetics of cell growth; micro and macrocarrier culture; hybridoma technology; stem cell technology; animal cloning 
Transgenic animals; knockout and knockin animals 
Microbes 

Production of biomass and primary/ secondary metabolitesbiofuels, bioplastics, industrial enzymes, antibiotics; large scale production and purification of recombinant proteins and metabolites; clinical, food, and industrial microbiology 
Screening strategies for new products 
Recombinant DNA technology and other tools in biotechnology
Recombinant DNA technology 

Restriction and modification enzymes; vectorsplasmids, bacteriophage, and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, bacterial and yeast artificial chromosomes; expression vectors; cDNA and genomic DNA library; gene isolation and cloning 
Strategies for production of recombinant proteins; transposons and gene targeting 
Molecular tools 

Polymerase chain reaction; DNA/ RNA labelling and sequencing; southern and northern blotting; insitu hybridization; DNA fingerprinting, RAPD, RFLP; sitedirected mutagenesis; gene transfer technologies; CRISPRcas; biosensing and biosensors 
Analytical tools 

Principles of microscopylight, electron, fluorescent, and confocal; principles of spectroscopyUV, visible, CD, IR, fluorescence, FTIR, MS, NMR; electrophoresis; microarrays; enzymatic assays; immunoassaysELISA, RIA, immunohistochemistry 
Immunoblotting; flow cytometry; whole genome and ChIP sequencing 
Computational tools 

Bioinformatics resources and search tools; sequence and structure databases; sequence analysissequence file formats, scoring matrices, alignment, phylogeny; genomics, proteomics, metabolomics; gene prediction; functional annotation 
Secondary structure and 3D structure prediction; knowledge discovery in biochemical databases; metagenomics; metabolic engineering and systems biology 
GATE Civil Engineering Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrix algebra; systems of linear equations; eigen values and eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Functions of single variable; limit, continuity, and differentiability; mean value theorems, local maxima and minima; Taylor series; evaluation of definite and indefinite integrals, application of definite integral to obtain area and volume 
Partial derivatives; total derivative; gradient, divergence and curl, vector identities; directional derivatives; line, surface and volume integrals 
Ordinary differential equation (ODE) 

First order (linear and nonlinear) equations; higher order linear equations with constant coefficients; EulerCauchy equations; initial and boundary value problems 
Partial differential equation (PDE) 

Fourier series; separation of variables; solutions of onedimensional diffusion equation; first and second order onedimensional wave equation and twodimensional Laplace equation 
Probability and Statistics 

Sampling theorems; conditional probability; descriptive statisticsmean, median, mode and standard deviation; random variablesdiscrete and continuous, Poisson and normal distribution; linear regression 
Numerical methods 

Error analysis 
Numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations; Newton's and Lagrange polynomials; numerical differentiation; integration by trapezoidal and Simpson's rule; single and multistep methods for first order differential equations 
Structural engineering
Engineering mechanics 

System of forces, freebody diagrams, equilibrium equations; internal forces in structures; frictions and its applications; centre of mass; free vibrations of undamped SDOF system 
Solid mechanics 

Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams; simple stress and strain relationships; simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses, shear centre; uniform torsion, transformation of stress; buckling of column 
Combined and direct bending stresses 
Structural analysis 

Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods; method of superposition; analysis of trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames; displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods; Influence lines 
Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis 
Construction materials and management 

Construction materials: Structural steelcomposition, material properties and behaviour; concreteconstituents, mix design, shortterm and longterm properties 
Construction management: Types of construction projects; project planning and network analysisPERT and CPM; cost estimation 
Concrete structures 

Working stress and limit state design concepts; design of beams, slabs, columns; bond and development length; prestressed concrete beams 
Steel structures 

Working stress and Limit state design concepts; design of tension and compression members, beams and beamcolumns, column bases; connectionssimple and eccentric, beamcolumn connections, plate girders and trusses 
Concept of plastic analysisbeams and frames 
Geotechnical engineering
Soil mechanics 

Threephase system and phase relationships, index properties; unified and Indian standard soil classification system; permeabilityone dimensional flow, seepage through soilstwodimensional flow, flow nets, uplift pressure, piping, capillarity 
Seepage force; principle of effective stress and quicksand condition; compaction of soils; onedimensional consolidation, time rate of consolidation; shear strength, Mohr's circle, effective and total shear strength parameters 
Stressstrain characteristics of clays and sand; stress paths 
Foundation engineering 

Subsurface investigationsdrilling bore holes, sampling, plate load test, standard penetration and cone penetration tests; Earth pressure theoriesRankine and Coulomb; stability of slopesfinite and infinite slopes, Bishop's method 
Stress distribution in soilsBoussinesq's theory; pressure bulbs, shallow foundationsTerzaghi and Meyerhof's bearing capacity theories, effect of water table; combined footing and raft foundation; contact pressure 
Settlement analysis in sands and clays; deep foundationsdynamic and static formulae, axial load capacity of piles in sands and clays, pile load test, pile under lateral loading, pile group efficiency, negative skin friction 
Water resources engineering
Fluid mechanics 

Properties of fluids, fluid statics; continuity, momentum and energy equations and their applications; potential flow, laminar and turbulent flow; flow in pipes, pipe networks; concept of boundary layer and its growth; concept of lift and drag 
Hydraulics 

Forces on immersed bodies; flow measurement in channels and pipes; dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude; channel hydraulicsenergydepth relationships, specific energy, critical flow, hydraulic jump, uniform flow 
Gradually varied flow and water surface profiles 
Hydrology 

Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, evapotranspiration, watershed, infiltration, unit hydrographs, hydrograph analysis, reservoir capacity, flood estimation and routing, surface runoff models 
Ground water hydrologysteady state well hydraulics and aquifers; application of Darcy's law 
Irrigation 

Types of irrigation systems and methods; crop water requirementsduty, delta, evapotranspiration; gravity dams and spillways; lined and unlined canals, design of weirs on permeable foundation; cross drainage structures 
Environmental engineering
Water and waste water quality and treatment 

Basics of water quality standardsphysical, chemical, and biological parameters; water quality index; unit processes and operations; water requirement; water distribution system; drinking water treatment 
Sewerage system design, quantity of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment 
Effluent discharge standards; sludge disposal; reuse of treated sewage for different applications 
Air pollution 

Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution control, air quality standards, air quality index and limits 
Municipal solid wastes 

Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal) 
Transportation engineering
Transportation infrastructure 

Geometric design of highwayscrosssectional elements, sight distances, horizontal and vertical alignments 
Geometric design of railway Trackspeed and cant 
Concept of airport runway length, calculations and corrections; taxiway and exit taxiway design 
Highway pavements 

Highway materialsdesirable properties and tests; desirable properties of bituminous paving mixes; design factors for flexible and rigid pavements; design of flexible and rigid pavement using IRC codes 
Traffic engineering 

Traffic studies on flow and speed, peak hour factor, accident study, statistical analysis of traffic data; microscopic and macroscopic parameters of traffic flow, fundamental relationships; traffic signs; signal design by Webster's method 
Types of intersections; highway capacity 
Geomatics engineering
Principles of surveying 

Errors and their adjustment 

Maps 

Scale, coordinate system 
Distance and angle measurement 

Levelling and trigonometric levelling 
Traversing and triangulation survey 

Total station 

Horizontal and vertical curves 

Photogrammetry and remote sensing 

Scale, flying height 
Basics of remote sensing and GIS 

GATE Chemical Engineering Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, eigen values and eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Functions of single variable, limit, continuity, and differentiability, Taylor series, mean value theorems, evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, total derivative, maxima and minima, gradient, divergence and curl 
Vector identities, directional derivatives, line, surface and volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green's theorems 
Differential equations 

First order equations (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms 
Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation 
Complex variables 

Complex number, polar form of complex number, triangle inequality 
Probability and Statistics 

Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode and standard deviation, random variables, Poisson, normal and binomial distributions, linear regression analysis 
Numerical methods 

Numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations 
Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson's rule 
Single and multistep methods for numerical solution of differential equations 
Process calculations and thermodynamics
Steady and unsteady state mass and energy balances including multiphase 

Multicomponent 

Reacting and nonreacting systems 

Use of tie components 

Recycle, bypass, and purge calculations 

Gibb's phase rule and degree of freedom analysis 

First and second laws of thermodynamics 

Applications of first law to close and open systems 

Second law and entropy 

Thermodynamic properties of pure substances 

Equation of state and residual properties 
Properties of mixtures 

Partial molar properties, fugacity, excess properties and activity coefficients 
Phase equilibria 

Predicting VLE of systems; chemical reaction equilibrium 
Fluid mechanics and mechanical operations
Fluid statics 

Surface tension 

Newtonian and nonNewtonian fluids 

Transport properties 

Shellbalances including differential form of Bernoulli equation and energy balance 

Equation of continuity 

Equation of motion 

Equation of mechanical energy 

Macroscopic friction factors 

Dimensional analysis and similitude 

Flow through pipeline systems 

Velocity profiles 

Flow meters 

Pumps and compressors 

Elementary boundary layer theory 

Flow past immersed bodies including packed and fluidized beds 

Turbulent flow 

Fluctuating velocity, universal velocity profile and pressure drop 
Particle size and shape 

Particle size distribution 

Size reduction and classification of solid particles 

Free and hindered settling 

Centrifuge and cyclones 

Thickening and classification 

Filtration 

Agitation and mixing 

Conveying of solids 

Heat transfer
Equation of energy 

Steady and unsteady heat conduction 

Convection and radiation 

Thermal boundary layer and heat transfer coefficients 

Boiling 

Condensation and evaporation 

Types of heat exchangers and evaporators and their process calculations 

Design of double pipe 

Shell and tube heat exchangers, and single and multiple effect evaporators 

Mass transfer
Fick's laws 

Molecular diffusion in fluids 

Mass transfer coefficients 

Film 

Penetration and surface renewal theories 

Momentum 

Heat and mass transfer analogies 

Stagewise and continuous contacting and stage efficiencies 

HTU and NTU concepts 

Design and operation of equipment for distillation 

Absorption 

Leaching 

Liquidliquid extraction 

Drying 

Humidification 

Dehumidification and adsorption 

Membrane separations (microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) 

Chemical reaction engineering
Theories of reaction rates 

Kinetics of homogeneous reactions 

Interpretation of kinetic data 

Single and multiple reactions in ideal reactors 

Kinetics of enzyme reactions (MichaelisMenten and Monod models) 

Nonideal reactors 

Residence time distribution 

Single parameter model 

Nonisothermal reactors 

Kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions 

Diffusion effects in catalysis 

Rate and performance equations for catalyst deactivation 

Instrumentation and process control
Measurement of process variables 

Sensors and transducers 

P and ID equipment symbols 

Process modeling and linearization 

Transfer functions and dynamic responses of various systems 

Systems with inverse response 

Process reaction curve 

Controller modes (P, PI, and PID) 

Control valves 

Transducer dynamics 

Analysis of closed loop systems including stability 

Frequency response 

Controller tuning 

Cascade and feed forward control 

Plant design and economics
Principles of process economics and cost estimation including depreciation and total annualized cost 

Cost indices 

Rate of return 

Payback period 

Discounted cash flow 

Optimization in process design and sizing of chemical engineering equipments such as heat exchangers and multistage contactors 

Chemical technology
Inorganic chemical industries (sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, chloralkali industry) 

Fertilizers (ammonia, urea, SSP and TSP) 

Natural products industries (pulp and paper, sugar, oil, and fats) 

Petroleum refining and petrochemicals 

Polymerization industries (polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC and polyester synthetic fibers) 

GATE Computer Science and Information Technology Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Engineering mathematics
Discrete mathematics 

Propositional and first order logic 
Sets, relations, functions, partial orders and lattices 
Monoids, groups 
Graphs: Connectivity, matching, colouring 
Combinatorics: Counting, recurrence relations, generating functions 
Linear algebra 

Matrices, determinants, system of linear equations, eigen values and eigen vectors, LU decomposition 
Calculus 

Limits, continuity, and differentiability 
Maxima and minima 
Mean value theorem 
Integration 
Probability and Statistics 

Random variables 
Uniform, normal, exponential, poisson and binomial distributions 
Mean, median, mode and standard deviation 
Conditional probability and baye's theorem 
Computer science and information technology
Digital logic 

Boolean algebra 
Combinational and sequential circuits 
Minimization 
Number representations and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point) 
Computer organization and architecture 

Machine instructions and addressing modes 
ALU, data‐path and control unit 
Instruction pipelining, pipeline hazards 
Memory hierarchy: Cache, main memory and secondary storage; I/O interface (interrupt and DMA mode) 
Programming and data structures 

Programming in C. Recursion 
Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, binary search trees, binary heaps, graphs 
Algorithms 

Searching, sorting, hashing 
Asymptotic worst case time and space complexity 
Algorithm design techniques: Greedy, dynamic programming and divide‐and‐conquer 
Graph traversals, minimum spanning trees, shortest paths 
Theory of computation 

Regular expressions and finite automata 
Contextfree grammars and pushdown automata 
Regular and contexfree languages, pumping lemma 
Turing machines and undecidability 
Compiler design 

Lexical analysis, parsing, syntaxdirected translation 
Runtime environments 
Intermediate code generation 
Local optimisation, data flow analyses: Constant propagation, liveness analysis, common subexpression elimination 
Operating system 

System calls, processes, threads, inter‐process communication, concurrency and synchronization 
Deadlock 
CPU and I/O scheduling 
Memory management and virtual memory 
File systems 
Databases 

ER‐model 
Relational model: Relational algebra, tuple calculus, SQL 
Integrity constraints, normal forms 
File organization, indexing (e.g., B and B+ trees) 
Transactions and concurrency control 
Computer networks 

Concept of layering: OSI and TCP/IP protocol stacks; basics of packet, circuit and virtual circuitswitching; data link layer: Framing, error detection, medium access control, ethernet bridging 
Routing protocols: Shortest path, flooding, distance vector and link state routing; fragmentation and IP addressing, IPv4, CIDR notation, basics of IP support protocols (ARP, DHCP, ICMP), network address translation (NAT) 
Transport layer: Flow control and congestion control, UDP, TCP, sockets; application layer protocols: DNS, SMTP, HTTP, FTP, Email 
GATE Chemistry Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Physical chemistry
Structure 

Postulates of quantum mechanics 
Operators 
Time dependent and time independent Schrödinger equations 
Born interpretation 
Dirac braket notation 
Particle in a box: Infinite and finite square wells; concept of tunnelling; particle in 1D, 2D and 3Dbox; applications 
Harmonic oscillator: Harmonic and anharmonic potentials; hermite polynomials 
Rotational motion: Angular momentum operators, rigid rotor 
Hydrogen and hydrogenlike atoms: Atomic orbitals; radial distribution function 
Multielectron atoms: Orbital approximation; electron spin; Pauli exclusion principle; slater determinants 
Approximation methods: Variation method and secular determinants; first order perturbation techniques 
Atomic units 
Molecular structure and chemical bonding: BornOppenheimer approximation; valence bond theory and linear combination of atomic orbitalsmolecular orbital (LCAOMO) theory 
Hybrid orbitals 
Applications of LCAOMO theory to H2 +, H2; molecular orbital theory (MOT) of homo and heteronuclear diatomic molecules 
Hückel approximation and its application to annular π– electron systems 
Group theory: Symmetry elements and operations; point groups and character tables; internal coordinates and vibrational modes; symmetry adapted linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAOMO); construction of hybrid orbitals using symmetry aspects 
Spectroscopy: Atomic spectroscopy; RussellSaunders coupling; term symbols and spectral details; origin of selection rules. Rotational, vibrational, electronic and Raman spectroscopy of diatomic and polyatomic molecules. Line broadening 
Spectroscopy: Einstein's coefficients. Relationship of transition moment integral with molar extinction coefficient and oscillator strength. Basic principles of nuclear magnetic resonance: Gyromagnetic ratio; chemical shift, nuclear coupling 
Equilibrium 

Laws of thermodynamics 
Standard states 
Thermochemistry 
Thermodynamic functions and their relationships: GibbsHelmholtz and Maxwell relations, GibbsDuhem equation, Van't Hoff equation 
Criteria of spontaneity and equilibrium 
Absolute entropy 
Partial molar quantities 
Thermodynamics of mixing 
Chemical potential 
Fugacity, activity and activity coefficients 
Ideal and Nonideal solutions, Raoult's law and Henry's law, chemical equilibria 
Dependence of equilibrium constant on temperature and pressure 
Ionic mobility and conductivity 
DebyeHuckel limiting law 
DebyeHückelOnsager equation 
Standard electrode potentials and electrochemical cells 
Nernst Equation and its application, relationship between electrode potential and thermodynamic quantities, potentiometric and conductometric titrations 
Phase rule 
ClausiusClapeyron equation 
Phase diagram of one component systems: CO2, H2O, S; two component systems: Liquid vapour, liquidliquid, and solidliquid systems 
Fractional distillation 
Azeotropes and eutectics 
Statistical thermodynamics: Microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical ensembles, Boltzmann distribution, partition functions and thermodynamic properties 
Kinetics 

Elementary, parallel, opposing and consecutive reactions 
Steady state approximation 
Mechanisms of complex reactions 
Unimolecular reactions 
Potential energy surfaces and classical trajectories, concept of Saddle points, transition state theory: Eyring equation, thermodynamic aspects 
Kinetics of polymerization 
Catalysis concepts and enzyme catalysis 
Kinetic isotope effects 
Fast reaction kinetics: Relaxation and flow methods 
Diffusion controlled reactions 
Kinetics of photochemical and photophysical processes 
Surfaces and interfaces 

Physisorption and Chemisorption 
Langmuir, Freundlich and BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET) isotherms 
Surface catalysis: LangmuirHinshelwood mechanism 
Surface tension, viscosity 
Selfassembly 
Physical chemistry of colloids, micelles and macromolecules 
Inorganic chemistry
Main group elements 

Hydrides, halides, oxides, oxoacids, nitrides, sulfidesshapes and reactivity 
Structure and bonding of boranes, carboranes, silicones, silicates, boron nitride, borazines and phosphazenes 
Allotropes of carbon, phosphorous and sulphur 
Industrial synthesis of compounds of main group elements 
Chemistry of noble gases, pseudohalogens, and interhalogen compounds 
Acidbase concepts and principles (Lewis, Brønsted, HSAB and acidbase catalysis) 
Transition elements 

Coordination chemistrystructure and isomerism, theories of bonding (VBT, CFT, and MOT) 
Energy level diagrams in various crystal fields, CFSE, applications of CFT, JahnTeller distortion 
Electronic spectra of transition metal complexes: Spectroscopic term symbols, selection rules, Orgel and TanabeSugano diagrams, nephelauxetic effect and Racah parameter, chargetransfer spectra 
Magnetic properties of transition metal complexes 
RayDutt and Bailar twists, reaction mechanisms: Kinetic and thermodynamic stability, substitution and redox reactions 
Metalmetal multiple bond 
Lanthanides and actinides 

Recovery 
Periodic properties, spectra and magnetic properties 
Organometallics 

18Electron rule; metalalkyl, metalcarbonyl, metalolefin and metalcarbene complexes and metallocenes 
Fluxionality in organometallic complexes 
Types of organometallic reactions 
Homogeneous catalysishydrogenation, hydroformylation, acetic acid synthesis, metathesis and olefin oxidation 
Heterogeneous catalysisFischerTropsch reaction, ZieglerNatta polymerization 
Radioactivity 

Detection of radioactivity, decay processes, halflife of radioactive elements, fission and fusion processes 
Bioinorganic chemistry 

Ion (Na+ and K+ ) transport, oxygen binding, transport and utilization, electron transfer reactions, nitrogen fixation, metalloenzymes containing magnesium, molybdenum, iron, cobalt, copper and zinc 
Solids 

Crystal systems and lattices, Miller planes, crystal packing, crystal defects, Bragg's law, ionic crystals, structures of AX, AX2, ABX3 type compounds, spinels, band theory, metals and semiconductors 
Instrumental methods of analysis 

UVvisible, fluorescence and FTIR spectrophotometry, NMR and ESR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectroscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy (Fe and Sn) and Xray crystallography 
Chromatography including GC and HPLC 
Electroanalytical methodspolarography, cyclic voltammetry, ionselective electrodes 
Thermoanalytical methods 
Organic chemistry
Stereochemistry 

Chirality and symmetry of organic molecules with or without chiral centres and determination of their absolute configurations 
Relative stereochemistry in compounds having more than one stereogenic centre 
Homotopic, enantiotopic and diastereotopic atoms, groups and faces 
Stereoselective and stereospecific synthesis 
Conformational analysis of acyclic and cyclic compounds 
Geometrical isomerism and optical isomerism 
Configurational and conformational effects, atropisomerism, and neighbouring group participation on reactivity and selectivity/ specificity 
Reaction mechanisms 

Basic mechanistic conceptskinetic versus thermodynamic control, Hammond's postulate and CurtinHammett principle 
Methods of determining reaction mechanisms through kinetics, identification of products, intermediates and isotopic labelling 
Linear freeenergy relationshiHammett and Taft equations 
Nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution reactions (both aromatic and aliphatic) 
Addition reactions to carboncarbon and carbonheteroatom (N and O) multiple bonds 
Elimination reactions 
Reactive intermediatescarbocations, carbanions, carbenes, nitrenes, arynes and free radicals 
Molecular rearrangements 
Organic synthesis 

Synthesis, reactions, mechanisms and selectivity involving the following classes of compoundsalkenes, alkynes, arenes, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, nitriles, halides, nitro compounds, amines and amides 
Uses of Mg, Li, Cu, B, Zn, P, S, Sn and Si based reagents in organic synthesis 
Carboncarbon bond formation through coupling reactionsHeck, Suzuki, Stille, Sonogoshira, Negishi, Kumada, Hiyama, TsujiTrost, olefin metathesis and McMurry 
Concepts of multistep synthesisretrosynthetic analysis, strategic disconnections, synthons and synthetic equivalents 
Atom economy and green chemistry, umpolung reactivityformyl and acyl anion equivalents 
Selectivity in organic synthesischemo, regio and stereoselectivity 
Protection and deprotection of functional groups 
Concepts of asymmetric synthesisresolution (including enzymatic), desymmetrization and use of chiral auxiliaries, organocatalysis 
Carboncarbon and carbonheteroatom bond forming reactions through enolates (including boron enolates), enamines and silyl enol ethers 
Stereoselective addition to C=O groups (Cram, Prelog and FelkinAnh models) 
Pericyclic reactions and photochemistry 

Electrocyclic, cycloaddition and sigmatropic reactions 
Orbital correlationsFMO and PMO treatments, WoodwardHoffmann rule 
Photochemistry of alkenes, arenes and carbonyl compounds 
Photooxidation and photoreduction 
Diπmethane rearrangement, BartonMcCombie reaction, Norrish typeI and II cleavage reaction 
Heterocyclic compounds 

Structure, preparation, properties and reactions of furan, pyrrole, thiophene, pyridine, indole, quinoline and isoquinoline 
Biomolecules 

Structure, properties and reactions of monoand disaccharides, physicochemical properties of amino acids, chemical synthesis of peptides, chemical structure determination of peptides and proteins 
Structural features of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, steroids, terpenoids, carotenoids, and alkaloids 
Experimental techniques in organic chemistry 

Optical rotation (polarimetry) 
Applications of various chromatographic techniques such as thinlayer, column, HPLC and GC 
Applications of UVvisible, IR, NMR and mass spectrometry in the structural determination of organic molecules 
GATE Electronics and Communication Engineering Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Vector space, basis, linear dependence and independence, matrix algebra, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, rank, solution of linear equationsexistence and uniqueness 
Calculus 

Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, line, surface and volume integrals, Taylor series 
Differential equations 

First order equations (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, methods of solution using variation of parameters, complementary function and particular integral, partial differential equations 
Variable separable method, initial and boundary value problems 
Vector analysis 

Vectors in plane and space, vector operations, gradient, divergence and curl, Gauss's, Green's and Stokes' theorems 
Complex analysis 

Analytic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem, Cauchy's integral formula, sequences, series, convergence tests, Taylor and Laurent series, residue theorem 
Probability and Statistics 

Mean, median, mode, standard deviation, combinatorial probability, probability distributions, binomial distribution, Poisson distribution, exponential distribution, normal distribution, joint and conditional probability 
Networks, signals, and systems
Circuit analysis 

Node and mesh analysis, superposition, Thevenin's theorem, Norton's theorem, reciprocity 
Sinusoidal steady state analysis: Phasors, complex power, maximum power transfer 
Time and frequency domain analysis of linear circuits: RL, RC and RLC circuits, solution of network equations using Laplace transform 
Linear 2port network parameters, Wyedelta transformation 
Continuoustime signals 

Fourier series and Fourier transform, sampling theorem and applications 
Discretetime signals 

DTFT, DFT, ztransform, discretetime processing of continuoustime signals 
LTI systems: Definition and properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeroes, frequency response, group delay, phase delay 
Electronic devices
Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors 

Equilibrium carrier concentration 

Direct and indirect bandgap semiconductors 

Carrier transport 

Diffusion current, drift current, mobility and resistivity, generation and recombination of carriers, Poisson and continuity equations 
PN junction 

Zener diode 

BJT 

MOS capacitor 

MOSFET 

LED 

Photo diode and solar cell 

Analog circuits
Diode circuits 

Clipping, clamping and rectifiers 
BJT and MOSFET amplifiers 

Biasing, ac coupling, small signal analysis, frequency response 
Current mirrors and differential amplifiers 
OPAMP Circuits 

Amplifiers, summers, differentiators, integrators, active filters, Schmitt triggers and oscillators 
Digital circuits
Number representations 

Binary, integer and floatingpointnumbers 
Combinatorial circuits 

Boolean algebra, minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map, logic gates and their static CMOS implementations, arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders 
Sequential circuits 

Latches and flipflops, counters, shiftregisters, finite state machines, propagation delay, setup and hold time, critical path delay 
Data converters 

Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs 
Semiconductor memories 

ROM, SRAM, DRAM 
Computer organization 

Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU, datapath and control unit, instruction pipelining 
Control systems
Basic control system components 

Feedback principle 

Transfer function 

Block diagram representation 

Signal flow graph 

Transient and steadystate analysis of LTI systems 

Frequency response 

RouthHurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria 

Bode and rootlocus plots 

Lag, lead and laglead compensation 

State variable model and solution of state equation of LTI systems 

Communications
Random processes 

Autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems 
Analog communications 

Amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers 
Information theory 

Entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem 
Digital communications 

PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK, QAM), bandwidth, intersymbol interference, MAP, ML detection, matched filter receiver, SNR and BER 
Fundamentals of error correction 

Hamming codes 

CRC 

Electromagnetics
Maxwell's equations 

Differential and integral forms and their interpretation, boundary conditions, wave equation, Poynting vector 
Plane waves and properties 

Reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through various media, skin depth 
Transmission lines 

Equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, Sparameters, Smith chart 
Rectangular and circular waveguides 

Light propagation in optical fibers 

Dipole and monopole antennas 

Linear antenna arrays 

GATE Electrical Engineering Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, eigen values, eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series, vector identities, directional derivatives, line integral, surface integral 
Volume integral, Stokes's theorem, Gauss's theorem, divergence theorem, Green's theorem 
Differential equations 

First order equations (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, method of variation of parameters, Cauchy's equation, Euler's equation, Initial and boundary value problems 
Partial differential equations, method of separation of variables 
Complex variables 

Analytic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem, Cauchy's integral formula, Taylor series, Laurent series, residue theorem, solution integrals 
Probability and Statistics 

Sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode, standard deviation, random variables, discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson distribution, normal distribution, binomial distribution, correlation analysis, regression analysis 
Electric circuits
Network elements 

Ideal voltage and current sources, dependent sources, R, L, C, M elements 
Network solution methods 

KCL, KVL, node and mesh analysis 
Network theorems 

Thevenin's, Norton's, superposition and maximum power transfer theorem; transient response of dc and ac networks, sinusoidal steadystate analysis, resonance, two port networks, balanced three phase circuits, stardelta transformation 
Complex power and power factor in ac circuits 
Electromagnetic fields
Coulomb's law 

Electric field intensity 

Electric flux density 

Gauss's law 

Divergence 

Electric field and potential due to point, line, plane, and spherical charge distributions 

Effect of dielectric medium 

Capacitance of simple configurations 

Biot‐Savart's law 

Ampere's law 

Curl 

Faraday's law 

Lorentz force 

Inductance 

Magnetomotive force 

Reluctance 

Magnetic circuits 

Self and mutual inductance of simple configurations 

Signals and systems
Representation of continuous and discrete time signals 

Shifting and scaling properties 

Linear time invariant and causal systems 

Fourier series representation of continuous and discrete time periodic signals 

Sampling theorem 

Applications of Fourier transform for continuous and discrete time signals 

Laplace transform and Z transform 

Electrical machines
Single phase transformer 

Equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, open circuit and short circuit tests, regulation and efficiency 
Threephase transformers 

Connections, vector groups, parallel operation 
Autotransformer 

Electromechanical energy conversion principles 

DC machines 

Separately excited, series and shunt, motoring and generating mode of operation and their characteristics, speed control of dc motors 
Threephase induction machines 

Principle of operation, types, performance, torquespeed characteristics, noload and blockedrotor tests, equivalent circuit, starting and speed control 
Operating principle of singlephase induction motors 

Synchronous machines 

Cylindrical and salient pole machines, performance and characteristics, regulation and parallel operation of generators, starting of synchronous motors 
Types of losses and efficiency calculations of electric machines 

Power systems
Basic concepts of electrical power generation 

AC and DC transmission concepts 

Models and performance of transmission lines and cables 

Series and shunt compensation 

Electric field distribution and insulators 

Distribution systems 

Per‐unit quantities 

Bus admittance matrix 

GaussSeidel and NewtonRaphson load flow methods 

Voltage and frequency control 

Power factor correction 

Symmetrical components 

Symmetrical and unsymmetrical fault analysis 

Principles of over‐current 

Differential 

Directional and distance protection 

Circuit breakers 

System stability concepts 

Equal area criterion 

Economic load dispatch (with and without considering transmission losses) 

Control systems
Mathematical modeling and representation of systems 

Feedback principle 

Transfer function 

Block diagrams and signal flow graphs 

Transient and steady‐state analysis of linear time invariant systems 

Stability analysis using RouthHurwitz and Nyquist criteria 

Bode plots 

Root loci 

Lag 

Lead and lead‐lag compensators 

P, PI and PID controllers 

State space model 

Solution of state equations of LTI systems 

R.M.S. value 

Average value calculation for any general periodic waveform 

Electrical and electronic measurements
Bridges and potentiometers 

Measurement of voltage 

Current 

Power 

Energy and power factor 

Instrument transformers 

Digital voltmeters and multimeters 

Phase 

Time and frequency measurement 

Oscilloscopes 

Error analysis 

Analog and digital electronics
Simple diode circuits 

Clipping, clamping, rectifiers 
Amplifiers 

Biasing, equivalent circuit and frequency response 
Oscillators and feedback amplifiers 

Operational amplifiers 

characteristics and applications 
Single stage active filters 

Sallen Key 

Butterworth 

VCOs and timers 

Combinatorial and sequential logic circuits 

Multiplexers 

Demultiplexers 

Schmitt triggers 

Sample and hold circuits 

A/D and D/A converters 

Power electronics
Static VI characteristics and firing/ gating circuits for thyristor 

MOSFET 

IGBT 

DC to DC conversion 

Buck, boost, and buckboost converters 
Single and threephase configuration of uncontrolled rectifiers 

Voltage and current commutated thyristor based converters 

Bidirectional AC to DC voltage source converters 

Magnitude and phase of line current harmonics for uncontrolled and thyristor based converters 

Power factor and distortion factor of AC to DC converters 

Singlephase and threephase voltage and current source inverters 

Sinusoidal pulse width modulation 

GATE Geology and Geophysics Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Common section
Earth and planetary system 

Terrestrial planets and moons of the solar system; size, shape, internal structure and composition of the earth; concept of isostasy; elements of seismologybody and surface waves, propagation of body waves in the earth’s interior 
Heat flow within the earth; gravitational field of the Earth; geomagnetism and paleomagnetism; continental drift; plate tectonicsrelationship with earthquakes, volcanism and mountain building; continental and oceanic crust 
Composition, structure, and thickness 
Weathering and soil formation 

Landforms created by river, wind, glacier, ocean, and volcanoes 

Basic structural geology 

Stress, strain and material response; brittle and ductile deformation; nomenclature and classification of folds and faults 
Crystallography 

Basic crystal symmetry and concept of point groups 
Mineralogysilicate crystal structure and determinative mineralogy of common rock forming minerals 
Petrology of common igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks 

Geological time scale 

Geochronology and absolute time 

Stratigraphic principles 

Major stratigraphic divisions of India 

Mineral, coal, and petroleum resources of India 

Introduction to remote sensing 

Engineering properties of rocks and soils 

Elements of hydrogeology 

Principles and applications of gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic, seismic, and radiometric methods of prospecting for oil, mineral, and ground water 

Introductory well logging 

Geology
Geomorphology 

Geomorphic processes and agents; development and evolution of landforms in continental, and oceanic settings; tectonic geomorphology 
Structural geology 

Forces and mechanism of rock deformation; primary and secondary structures; geometry and genesis of planar, and linear structures (bedding, cleavage, schistosity, lineation); folds, faults, joints, and unconformities; stereographic projection; shear zones 
Thrusts and superposed folding; basementcover relationship 
Interpretation of geological maps 
Crystallography and mineralogy 

Elements of crystal symmetry, form and twinning; crystallographic projection; crystal chemistry; classification of minerals, physical and optical properties of rockforming minerals 
Geochemistry 

Cosmic abundance of elements; meteorites; geochemical evolution of the earth; geochemical cycles; distribution of major, minor, and trace elements in crust and mantle; elements of high temperature and low temperature geochemical thermodynamics 
Isotopic evolution of the crust and the mantle, mantle reservoirs; geochemistry of water and waterrock interaction 
Igneous petrology 

Classification, forms, textures, and genesis of common igneous rocks; magmatic differentiation; binary and ternary phase diagrams; major and trace elements as monitors of partial melting and magma evolutionary processes 
Mantle plumes, hotspots, and large igneous provinces 
Sedimentology 

Texture, structure, and sedimentary processes; petrology of common sedimentary rocks; sedimentary facies and environments, cyclicities in sedimentary succession; provencance and basin analysis 
Important sedimentary basins of India 
Metamorphic petrology 

Structures and textures of metamorphic rocks 
Physicochemical conditions of metamorphism and concept of metamorphic facies, grade and baric types; chemographic projections; metamorphism of pelitic, mafic and impure carbonate rocks; role of bulk composition including fluids in metamorphism 
Thermobarometry and metamorphic PTt paths, and their tectonic significance 
Paleobiology 

Diversity of life through time, mass extinctionscauses and effects; taphonomyprocesses of fossilization 
Taxonomy 
Morphology and functional morphology of invertebrates (bivalves, brachiopods, gastropods, echinoids, ammonites); microfossils (foraminifera, ostracoda, conodonts, bryozoa); vertebrate paleonology (equus, probicidea, human) 
Paleobotany (plant, spores, pollens) 
Basic concepts of ecology/ paleoecology; classificationecological and taxonomic schemes (diversity and richness) 
Fossils and paleoenvironments 
Stratigraphy 

Principles of stratigraphy and concepts of correlation; lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and chronostratigraphy 
Principles of sequence stratigraphy and applications 
Stratigraphy of peninsular and extrapeninsular India 
Boundary problems in Indian stratigraphy 
Resource geology 

Oremineralogy; ore forming processes visàvis orerock association (magmatic, hydrothermal, sedimentary, supergene and metamorphogenic ores); fluid inclusions as ore genetic tools 
Coal and petroleum geology; marine mineral resources 
Prospecting and exploration of economic mineral depositssampling, ore reserve estimation, geostatistics, mining methods 
Ore dressing and mineral economics 
Distribution of mineral, fossil, and nuclear fuel deposits in India 
Global tectonics 

Plate motions, driving mechanisms, plate boundaries, supercontinent cycles 
Applied geology 

Physicomechanical properties of rocks and soils; rock index tests; rock failure criteria (MohrCoulomb, Griffith, and HoekBrown criteria); shear strength of rock discontinuities; rock mass classifications (RMR and Q Systems); insitu stresses 
Rocks as construction materials; geological factors in the construction of engineering structures including dams, tunnels, and excavation sites 
Analysis of slope stability 
Natural hazards (landslide, volcanic, seismogenic, coastal) and mitigation 

Principles of climate change Hydrogeology 

Groundwater flow and exploration, well hydraulics and water quality 
Basic principles of remote sensing 

Energy sources and radiation principles, atmospheric absorption, interaction of energy with earth's surface, aerialphoto interpretation, multispectral remote sensing in visible, infrared, thermal IR and microwave regions 
Digital processing of satellite images 
GISbasic concepts, raster and vector mode operations 
Geophysics
Solidearth geophysics 

The earth as a planet; different motions of the earth; gravity field of the earth, Clairaut's theorem, size and shape of earth; geomagnetic field, paleomagnetism; geothermics and heat flow; seismology and interior of the earth; variation of density 
Velocity, pressure, temperature, electrical and magnetic properties of the earth 
Geodesy 

Gravitational field of the earth; geoid; ellipsoid; geodetic reference systems; datum; Everest (1830) and WGS 84 (1984) systems; GPS and DGPS; levelling and surveying 
Earthquake Seismology 

Elements of elasticity theorystress and strain tensors, generalized Hooke's law; body and surface waves; rotational, dilatational, irrotational, and equivolumnal waves 
Reflection and refraction of elastic waves; inhomogeneous and evanescent waves, and bounded waves; Eikonal equation and ray theory; earthquakes causes and measurements, magnitude and intensity, focal mechanisms; earthquake quantification 
Source characteristics, seismotectonics, and seismic hazards; digital seismographs, earthquake statistics, wave propagation in elastic media, quantifying earthquake source from seismological data 
Elements of seismic tomography 
Potential and time varying fields 

Scalar and vector potential fields; Laplace, Maxwell, and Helmholtz equations for solution of different types of boundary value problems in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates; Green's theorem; image theory 
Integral equations in potential and timevarying field theory 
Gravity methods 

Absolute and relative gravity measurements; gravimeters; land, airborne, shipborne, and borehole gravity surveys; tensorial gravity sensors and surveys; various corrections for gravity data reductionfree air, Bouguer, and isostatic anomalies 
Density estimates of rocks; regional and residual gravity separation; principle of equivalent stratum; data enhancement techniques, upward and downward continuation; derivative maps, wavelength filtering; preparation and analysis of gravity maps 
Gravity anomalies and their interpretationanomalies due to geometrical and irregular shaped bodies, depth rules, calculation of mass 
Magnetic methods 

Elements of Earth's magnetic field, units of measurement, magnetic susceptibility of rocks and measurements, magnetometers, and magnetic gradiometers, land, airborne and marine magnetic, and magnetic gradiometer surveys 
Various corrections applied to magnetic data, IGRF, reduction to Pole transformation, Poisson's relation of gravity, and magnetic potential field, preparation of magnetic maps, upward and downward continuation 
Magnetic anomalies due to geometrical and irregular shaped bodies; image processing concepts in processing of magnetic anomaly maps; depth rules; interpretation of processed magnetic anomaly data; derivative 
Analytic signal and Euler depth solutions 
Applications of gravity and magnetic methods for mineral, and oil exploration 
Electrical methods 

Conduction of electricity through rocks, electrical conductivities of metals, nonmetals, rock forming minerals and different rocks, concepts of DC resistivity measurement and depth of investigation; apparent resistivity and apparent chargeability 
Concept of negative apparent resistivity and negative apparent chargeability; theory of reciprocity, sounding and profiling, various electrode arrangements, application of linear filter theory, sounding curves over multilayered earth 
DarZarrouk parameters, reduction of layers, triangle of anisotropy, interpretation of resistivity field data, principles of equivalence and suppression, selfpotential method and its origin; electrical resistivity tomography (ERT); induced polarization 
Time and frequency domain IP measurements; interpretation and applications of SP, resistivity and IP data sets for groundwater exploration, mineral exploration, environmental and engineering applications 
Electromagnetic methods 

Geoelectromagnetic spectrum; Biot Savart's law; Maxwell's equation, Helmholtz equation, basic concept of EM induction in the earth, skindepth, elliptic polarization, inphase and quadrature components, phasor diagrams 
Response function and response parameters; ground and airborne methods, measurements in different sourcereceiver configurations; Earth's natural electromagnetic methodstellurics, geomagnetic depth sounding and magnetotellurics 
Electromagnetic profiling and sounding, time domain EM method; EM scale modelling, processing of EM data and interpretation; ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods; effect of conducting overburden; geological applications including groundwater 
Mineral environmental and hydrocarbon exploration 
Seismic methods 

Elastic properties of earth materials; reflection, refraction, and CDP surveys; land and marine seismic sources, generation, and propagation of elastic waves, velocitydepth models, geophones, hydrophones, digital recording systems, digital formats 
Field layouts, seismic noise, and noise profile analysis, optimum geophone grouping, noise cancellation by shot and geophone arrays, 2D, 3D, and 4D seismic data acquisition, processing and interpretation; CDP stacking charts, binning, filtering 
Static and dynamic corrections, digital seismic data processing, seismic deconvolution and migration methods, attribute analysis, bright and dim spots, seismic stratigraphy, high resolution seismics, VSP, AVO, multi 
Component seismics and seismic interferometry 
Reservoir geophysicsrock physics and petrophysics 
Geophysical survey design 
Geophysical signal processing 

Sampling theorem, Nyquist frequency, aliasing, Fourier series, periodic waveform, Fourier and Hilbert transform, Ztransform and wavelet transform; power spectrum, delta function, auto correlation, cross correlation, convolution, deconvolution 
Principles of digital filters, windows, poles, and zeros 
Geophysical well logging 

Principles and techniques of geophysical welllogging, SP, resistivity, induction, gamma ray, neutron, density, sonic, temperature, dip meter, caliper, nuclear magnetic resonancelongitudinal and transverse relaxation, CPMG sequence 
Porosity characterization, cement bond logging, micrologs 
Pulsed neutron devices and spectroscopy; multiarray and triaxial induction devices; quantitative evaluation of formations from well logs; logging while drilling; high angle and horizontal wells; clay quantification; lithology and porosity estimation 
Saturation and permeability estimation; application of bore hole geophysics in ground water, mineral, and oil exploration 
Radioactive methods 

Prospecting and assaying of mineral (radioactive and nonradioactive) deposits, halflife, decay constant, radioactive equilibrium, GM counter, scintillation detector, semiconductor devices, application of radiometric for exploration 
Assaying and radioactive waste disposal 
Geophysical Inversion 

Basic concepts of forward and inverse problems, illposedness of inverse problems, condition number, nonuniqueness and stability of solutions; L1, L2, and Lp norms, overdetermined, underdetermined, and mixed determined inverse problems 
Quasilinear and nonlinear methods including Tikhonov's regularization method, singular value decomposition, BackusGilbert method, simulated annealing, genetic algorithms, swarm intelligence, machine learning, and artificial neural networks 
Statistics of misfit and likelihood, Bayesian construction of posterior probabilities, sparsity promoting L1 optimization 
Ambiguity and uncertainty in geophysical interpretation 
GATE Instrumentation Engineering Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, consistency and rank, eigen values and eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series, vector identities, line, surface and volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green's theorems 
Differential equations 

First order equation (linear and nonlinear), second order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, method of variation of parameters, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, initial and boundary value problems 
Solution of partial differential equations: variable separable method 
Analysis of complex variables 

Analytic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor's and Laurent's series, residue theorem, solution of integrals 
Probability and Statistics 

Sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode, standard deviation and variance; random variables: Discrete and continuous distributions: Normal, Poisson and binomial distributions 
Numerical methods 

Matrix inversion, solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations, iterative methods for solving differential equations, numerical integration, regression and correlation analysis 
Instrumentation engineering
Electricity and magnetism 

Coulomb's law, electric field intensity, electric flux density, Gauss's law, divergence, electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions, effect of dielectric medium, capacitance of simple configurations 
Biot‐Savart's law, Ampere's law, Curl, Faraday's law, Lorentz force, inductance, magnetomotive force, reluctance, magnetic circuits, self and mutual inductance of simple configurations 
Electrical circuits and machines 

Voltage and current sources: Independent, dependent, ideal and practical; VI relationships of resistor, inductor, mutual inductance and capacitor; transient analysis of RLC circuits with DC excitation 
Kirchhoff's laws, mesh and nodal analysis, superposition, Thevenin, Norton, maximum power transfer and reciprocity theorems 
Peak, average and RMS values of ac quantities; apparent, active and reactive powers; phasor analysis, impedance and admittance; series and parallel resonance, locus diagrams, realization of basic filters with R, L and C elements 
Transient analysis of RLC circuits with AC excitation 
Oneport and twoport networks, driving point impedance and admittance, open, and short circuit parameters 
Single phase transformer: Equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, open circuit and short circuit tests, regulation and efficiency 
Three phase induction motors: Principle of operation, types, performance, torquespeed characteristics, noload and blocked rotor tests, equivalent circuit, starting and speed control; types of losses and efficiency calculations of electric machines 
Signals and systems 

Periodic, aperiodic and impulse signals; Laplace, Fourier and ztransforms; transfer function, frequency response of first and second order linear time invariant systems, impulse response of systems; convolution, correlation 
Discrete time system: Impulse response, frequency response, pulse transfer function; DFT and FFT; basics of IIR and FIR filters 
Control systems 

Feedback principles, signal flow graphs, transient response, steadystateerrors, Bode plot, phase and gain margins, Routh and Nyquist criteria, root loci, design of lead, lag and leadlag compensators, statespace representation of systems 
Timedelay systems; mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system components, synchro pair, servo and stepper motors, servo valves; onoff, P, PI, PID, cascade, feedforward, and ratio controllers, tuning of PID controllers and sizing of control valves 
Analog electronics 

Characteristics and applications of diode, Zener diode, BJT and MOSFET; small signal analysis of transistor circuits, feedback amplifiers 
Characteristics of ideal and practical operational amplifiers; applications of opamps: Adder, subtractor, integrator, differentiator, difference amplifier, instrumentation amplifier, precision rectifier, active filters, oscillators, signal generators 
Voltage controlled oscillators and phase locked loop, sources and effects of noise and interference in electronic circuits 
Digital electronics 

Combinational logic circuits, minimization of boolean functions 
IC families: TTL and CMOS 
Arithmetic circuits, comparators, Schmitt trigger, multivibrators, sequential circuits, flipflops, shift registers, timers and counters; sampleandhold circuit, multiplexer 
Analogtodigital (successive approximation, integrating, flash and sigmadelta) and digitaltoanalog converters (weighted R, R2R ladder and current steering logic) 
Characteristics of ADC and DAC (resolution, quantization, significant bits, conversion/ settling time); basics of number systems, embedded Systems: Microprocessor and microcontroller applications, memory and inputoutput interfacing 
Basics of data acquisition systems, basics of distributed control systems (DCS) and programmable logic controllers (PLC) 
Measurements 

SI units, standards (R,L,C, voltage, current and frequency), systematic and random errors in measurement, expression of uncertainty  accuracy and precision, propagation of errors, linear and weighted regression 
Bridges: Wheatstone, Kelvin, Megohm, Maxwell, Anderson, Schering and Wien for measurement of R, L, C and frequency, Qmeter 
Measurement of voltage, current and power in single and three phase circuits; AC and DC current probes; true RMS meters, voltage and current scaling, instrument transformers, timer/counter, time, phase and frequency measurements, digital voltmeter 
Digital multimeter; oscilloscope, shielding and grounding 
Sensors and industrial instrumentation 

Resistive, capacitive, inductive, piezoelectric, Hall effect sensors and associated signal conditioning circuits; transducers for industrial instrumentation: Displacement (linear and angular), velocity, acceleration, force, torque, vibration, shock 
Pressure (including low pressure), flow (variable head, variable area, electromagnetic, ultrasonic, turbine and open channel flow meters) temperature (thermocouple, bolometer, RTD (3/4 wire), thermistor, pyrometer and semiconductor); liquid level, Ph 
Conductivity and viscosity measurement 
420 mA twowire transmitter 
Communication and optical instrumentation 

Amplitude and frequency modulation and demodulation; Shannon's sampling theorem, pulse code modulation; frequency and time division multiplexing, amplitude, phase, frequency, quadrature amplitude, pulse shift keying for digital modulation 
Optical sources and detectors: LED, laser, photodiode, light dependent resistor, square law detectors and their characteristics; interferometer: Applications in metrology; basics of fiber optic sensing 
UVVIS spectro photometers, mass spectrometer 
GATE Mathematics Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Mathematics
Calculus 

Functions of two or more variables, continuity, directional derivatives, partial derivatives, total derivative, maxima and minima, saddle point, method of Lagrange’s multipliers; double and triple integrals and their applications to area 
Volume and surface area; vector calculus: Gradient, divergence, and curl, line integrals and surface integrals, Green's theorem, Stokes' theorem, and Gauss divergence theorem 
Linear algebra 

Finite dimensional vector spaces over real or complex fields; linear transformations and their matrix representations, rank and nullity; systems of linear equations, characteristic polynomial, eigen values and eigen vectors, diagonalization 
Minimal polynomial, CayleyHamilton theorem, finite dimensional inner product spaces, GramSchmidt orthonormalization process, symmetric, skewsymmetric, Hermitian, skewHermitian, normal, orthogonal and unitary matrices 
Diagonalization by a unitary matrix, Jordan canonical form; bilinear and quadratic forms 
Real analysis 

Metric spaces, connectedness, compactness, completeness; sequences and series of functions, uniform convergence, AscoliArzela theorem; weier strass approximation theorem; contraction mapping principle, power series 
Differentiation of functions of several variables, inverse and Implicit function theorems; Lebesgue measure on the real line, measurable functions; Lebesgue integral, Fatou’s lemma, monotone convergence theorem, dominated convergence theorem 
Complex analysis 

Functions of a complex variable: Continuity, differentiability, analytic functions, harmonic functions; Complex integration: Cauchy's integral theorem and formula; Liouville's theorem, maximum modulus principle, Morera's theorem; zeros and singularities 
Power series, radius of convergence, Taylor's series and Laurent's series; residue theorem and applications for evaluating real integrals; Rouche's theorem, argument principle, Schwarz lemma; conformal mappings, Mobius transformations 
Ordinary differential equations 

First order ordinary differential equations, existence and uniqueness theorems for initial value problems, linear ordinary differential equations of higher order with constant coefficients 
Second order linear ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients; CauchyEuler equation, method of Laplace transforms for solving ordinary differential equations, series solutions (power series, Frobenius method) 
Legendre and Bessel functions and their orthogonal properties; systems of linear first order ordinary differential equations, Sturm's oscillation and separation theorems, SturmLiouville eigen value problems 
Planar autonomous systems of ordinary differential equations: Stability of stationary points for linear systems with constant coefficients, linearized stability, Lyapunov functions 
Algebra 

Groups, subgroups, normal subgroups, quotient groups, homomorphisms, automorphisms; cyclic groups, permutation groups, group action, Sylow's theorems and their applications; rings, ideals, prime and maximal ideals, quotient rings 
Unique factorization domains, principle ideal domains, euclidean domains, polynomial rings, Eisenstein's irreducibility criterion; fields, finite fields, field extensions, algebraic extensions, algebraically closed fields 
Functional analysis 

Normed linear spaces, banach spaces, HahnBanach theorem, open mapping and closed graph theorems, principle of uniform boundedness; innerproduct spaces, Hilbert spaces, orthonormal bases, projection theorem, Riesz representation theorem 
Spectral theorem for compact selfadjoint operators 
Numerical analysis 

Systems of linear equations: Direct methods (Gaussian elimination, LU decomposition, Cholesky factorization), iterative methods (GaussSeidel and Jacobi) and their convergence for diagonally dominant coefficient matrices 
Numerical solutions of nonlinear equations: Bisection method, secant method, NewtonRaphson method, fixed point iteration; interpolation: Lagrange and Newton forms of interpolating polynomial, error in polynomial interpolation of a function 
Numerical differentiation and error, numerical integration: Trapezoidal and Simpson rules, NewtonCotes integration formulas, composite rules, mathematical errors involved in numerical integration formulae 
Numerical solution of initial value problems for ordinary differential equations: Methods of Euler, RungeKutta method of order 2 
Partial differential equations 

Method of characteristics for first order linear and quasilinear partial differential equations; second order partial differential equations in two independent variables: Classification and canonical forms 
Second order partial differential equations in two independent variables: Method of separation of variables for Laplace equation in Cartesian and polar coordinates, heat and wave equations in one space variable 
Wave equation: Cauchy problem and D' Alembert formula, domains of dependence and influence, nonhomogeneous wave equation; heat equation: Cauchy problem; Laplace and Fourier transform methods 
Topology 

Basic concepts of topology, bases, subbases, subspace topology, order topology, product topology, quotient topology, metric topology, connectedness, compactness, countability and separation axioms, Urysohn's Lemma 
Linear programming 

Linear programming models, convex sets, extreme points; basic feasible solution, graphical method, simplex method, two phase methods, revised simplex method ; infeasible and unbounded linear programming models, alternate optima; duality theory 
Weak duality and strong duality; balanced and unbalanced transportation problems, initial basic feasible solution of balanced transportation problems (least cost method, northwest corner rule, Vogel’s approximation method); optimal solution 
Modified distribution method; solving assignment problems, hungarian method 
GATE Mechanical Engineering Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, eigen values and eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Functions of single variable, limit, continuity, and differentiability, mean value theorems, indeterminate forms; evaluation of definite and improper integrals; double and triple integrals; partial derivatives, total derivative 
Taylor series (in one and two variables), maxima and minima, Fourier series; gradient, divergence, and curl, vector identities, directional derivatives, line, surface and volume integrals, applications of Gauss, Stokes, and Green's theorems 
Differential equations 

First order equations (linear and nonlinear); higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients; EulerCauchy equation; initial and boundary value problems; Laplace transforms; solutions of heat, wave and Laplace's equations 
Complex variables 

Analytic functions; CauchyRiemann equations; Cauchy's integral theorem and integral formula; Taylor and Laurent series 
Probability and Statistics 

Definitions of probability, sampling theorems, conditional probability; mean, median, mode, and standard deviation; random variables, binomial, Poisson, and normal distributions 
Numerical methods 

Numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations; integration by trapezoidal and Simpson's rules; single and multistep methods for differential equations 
Applied mechanics and design
Engineering mechanics 

Freebody diagrams and equilibrium; friction and its applications including rolling friction, beltpulley, brakes, clutches, screw jack, wedge, vehicles, etc; trusses and frames; virtual work; kinematics and dynamics of rigid bodies in plane motion 
Impulse and momentum (linear and angular), and energy formulations; Lagrange's equation 
Mechanics of materials 

Stress and strain, elastic constants, Poisson's ratio; Mohr's circle for plane stress and plane strain; thin cylinders; shear force and bending moment diagrams; bending and shear stresses; concept of shear centre; deflection of beams 
Torsion of circular shafts; Euler's theory of columns; energy methods; thermal stresses; strain gauges and rosettes; testing of materials with universal testing machine; testing of hardness and impact strength 
Theory of machines 

Displacement, velocity, and acceleration analysis of plane mechanisms; dynamic analysis of linkages; cams; gears and gear trains; flywheels and governors; balancing of reciprocating and rotating masses; gyroscope 
Vibrations 

Free and forced vibration of single degree of freedom systems, effect of damping; vibration isolation; resonance; critical speeds of shafts 
Machine design 

Design for static and dynamic loading; failure theories; fatigue strength and the SN diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such as bolted, riveted and welded joints; shafts, gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings 
Brakes and clutches, springs 
Fluid mechanics and thermal sciences
Fluid mechanics 

Fluid properties; fluid statics, forces on submerged bodies, stability of floating bodies; controlvolume analysis of mass, momentum, and energy; fluid acceleration; differential equations of continuity and momentum; Bernoulli's equation 
Dimensional analysis; viscous flow of incompressible fluids, boundary layer, elementary turbulent flow, flow through pipes, head losses in pipes, bends, and fittings; basics of compressible fluid flow 
Heattransfer 

Modes of heat transfer; one dimensional heat conduction, resistance concept and electrical analogy, heat transfer through fins; unsteady heat conduction, lumped parameter system, Heisler's charts; thermal boundary layer 
Dimensionless parameters in free and forced convective heat transfer, heat transfer correlations for flow over flat plates and through pipes, effect of turbulence; heat exchanger performance, LMTD and NTU methods; radiative heat transfer 
StefanBoltzmann law, Wien's displacement law, black and grey surfaces, view factors, radiation network analysis 
Thermodynamics 

Thermodynamic systems and processes; properties of pure substances, behaviour of ideal and real gases; zeroth and first laws of thermodynamics, calculation of work and heat in various processes; second law of thermodynamics 
thermodynamic property charts and tables, availability and irreversibility; thermodynamic relations 
Applications 

Power engineering: Air and gas compressors; vapour and gas power cycles, concepts of regeneration and reheat 
IC engines: Airstandard Otto, diesel, and dual cycles 
Refrigeration and airconditioning: Vapour and gas refrigeration and heat pump cycles; properties of moist air, psychrometric chart, basic psychrometric processes 
Turbomachinery: Impulse and reaction principles, velocity diagrams, peltonwheel, Francis and Kaplan turbines; steam and gas turbines 
Materials, manufacturing and industrial engineering
Engineering materials 

Structure and properties of engineering materials, phase diagrams, heat treatment, stressstrain diagrams for engineering materials 
Casting, forming, and joining processes 

Different types of castings, design of patterns, moulds and cores; solidification and cooling; riser and gating design 
Plastic deformation and yield criteria; fundamentals of hot and cold working processes; load estimation for bulk (forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing) and sheet (shearing, deep drawing, bending) metal forming processes; principles of powder metallurgy 
Principles of welding, brazing, soldering, and adhesive bonding 
Machining and machine tool operations 

Mechanics of machining; basic machine tools; single and multipoint cutting tools, tool geometry and materials, tool life and wear; economics of machining; principles of nontraditional machining processes; principles of work holding, jigs, and fixtures 
Abrasive machining processes; NC/ CNC machines and CNC programming 
Metrology and inspection 

Limits, fits, and tolerances; linear and angular measurements; comparators; interferometry; form and finish measurement; alignment and testing methods; tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly; concepts of coordinatemeasuring machine (CMM) 
Computer integrated manufacturing 

Basic concepts of CAD/ CAM and their integration tools; additive manufacturing 
Production planning and control 

Forecasting models, aggregate production planning, scheduling, materials requirement planning; lean manufacturing 
Inventory control 

Deterministic models; safety stock inventory control systems 
Operations research 

Linear programming, simplex method, transportation, assignment, network flow models, simple queuing models, PERT and CPM 
GATE Metallurgical Engineering Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrices and determinants; systems of linear equations; eigen values and eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Limit, continuity, and differentiability; partial derivatives; maxima and minima; sequences and series; test for convergence; Fourier series 
Vector calculus 

Gradient; divergence and curl; line; surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss, and Green's theorems 
Differential equations 

Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs; higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy's and Euler's equations; Laplace transforms; PDEsLaplace, one dimensional heat, and wave equations 
Probability and Statistics 

Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode, and standard deviation; random variables; Poisson, normal, and binomial distributions; analysis of experimental data; linear least squares method 
Numerical methods 

Solutions of linear and nonlinear (bisection, secant, NewtonRaphson methods) algebraic equations; integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; single and multistep methods for differential equations 
Metallurgical thermodynamics
Laws of thermodynamics 

First lawenergy conservation, second lawentropy; enthalpy, Gibbs and Helmholtz free energy; Maxwell's relations; chemical potential; applications to metallurgical systems, solutions, ideal and regular solutions; Gibbs phase rule, phase equilibrium 
Binary phase diagram and lever rule, freeenergy vs. composition diagrams; equilibrium constant, activity, Ellingham, and phase stability diagrams; thermodynamics of point defects, surfaces and interfaces, adsorption and segregation phenomena 
Electrochemistry 

Single electrode potential, electrochemical cells, Nernst equation, potentialpH diagrams 
Transport phenomena and rate processes
Momentum transfer 

Concept of viscosity, shell balances, Bernoulli's equation, mechanical energy balance equation, flow past plane surfaces and through pipes 
Heat transfer 

Conduction, Fourier's law, 1D steady state conduction 
Convection 

Heat transfer coefficient relations for forced convection 
Radiation 

Black body radiation, StefanBoltzmann law, Kirchhoff's law 
Mass transfer 

Diffusion and Fick's laws, mass transfer coefficients 
Dimensional analysis 

Buckingham Pi theorem, significance of dimensionless numbers 
Basic laws of chemical kinetics 

First order reactions, reaction rate constant, Arrhenius relation, heterogeneous reactions, oxidation kinetics 
Electrochemical kinetics 

Polarization 
Mineral processing and extractive metallurgy
Comminution techniques 

Size classification 

Flotation 

Gravity and other methods of mineral beneficiation 

Agglomeration 

Sintering, pelletizing, and briquetting 
Material and energy balances in metallurgical processes 

Principles and processes for the extraction of nonferrous metalsaluminium, copper, and titanium 

Iron and steel making 

Material and heat balance in blast furnace; structure and properties of slags, and molten saltsbasicity of slags, sulphide, and phosphate capacity of slags; production of metallurgical coke 
Other methods of iron making (COREX, MIDRE) 

Primary steel making 

Basic oxygen furnace, process dynamics, oxidation reactions, electric arc furnace 
Secondary steel making 

Ladle processdeoxidation, argon stirring, desulphurization, inclusion shape control, principles of degassing methods; basics of stainless steel manufacturing 
Continuous casting 

Fluid flow in the tundish and mould, heat transfer in the mould, segregation, inclusion control 
Physical metallurgy
Chemical bonding 

Ionic, covalent, metallic, and secondary bonding in materials, crystal structure of solidsmetals and alloys, ionic and covalent solids, and polymers 
Xray diffraction 

Bragg's law, optical metallography, principles of SEM imaging 
Crystal imperfections 

Point, line, and surface defects; coherent, semicoherent, and incoherent interfaces 
Diffusion in solids 

Diffusion equation, steady state, and error function solutions; exampleshomogenenization and carburization; Kirkendall effect; uphill diffusion; atomic models for interstitial and substitutional diffusion; pipe diffusion and grain boundary diffusion 
Phase transformation 

Driving force, homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation, growth kinetics 
Solidification in isomorphous 

Eutectic and peritectic systems 

Cast structures and macrosegregation 

Dendritic solidification and constitutional supercooling 

Coring and microsegregation 

Solid state transformations 

Precipitation, spinoidal decomposition, ordering, massive transformation, discontinuous precipitation, eutectoid transformation, diffusionless transformations; precipitate coarsening, GibbsThomson effect 
Principles of heat treatment of steels, TTT and CCT diagrams 

Surface hardening treatments 

Recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth 

Heat treatment of cast iron and aluminium alloys 

Electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of materials 

Basic forms of corrosion and its prevention 

Mechanical metallurgy
Strain tensor and stress tensor 

Representation by Mohr's circle 

Elasticity 

Stiffness and compliance tensor 

Yield criteria 

Plastic deformation by slip and twinning 

Dislocation theory 

Edge, screw, and mixed dislocations, source and multiplication of dislocations, stress fields around dislocations; partial dislocations, dislocation interactions, and reactions 
Strengthening mechanisms 

Work/ strain hardening, strengthening due to grain boundaries, solid solution, precipitation and dispersion 
Fracture behaviour 

Griffith theory 

Linear elastic fracture mechanics 

Fracture toughness 

Fractography 

Ductile to brittle transition 

Fatigue 

Cyclic stress strain behaviourlow and high cycle fatigue, crack growth 
Mechanisms of high temperature deformation and failure 

Creep and stress rupture 

Stress exponent and activation energy 

Manufacturing processes
Metal casting 

Mould design involving feeding, gating, and risering, casting practices, casting defects 
Hot, warm, and cold working of metals 

Metal formingfundamentals of metal forming processes of rolling, forging, extrusion, wire drawing, and sheet metal forming, defects in forming 
Metal joining 

Principles of soldering, brazing, and welding, welding metallurgy, defects in welded joints in steels and aluminium alloys 
Powder metallurgy 

production of powders, compaction, and sintering 
Nondestructive testing (NDT) 

Dyepenetrant, ultrasonic, radiography, eddy current, acoustic emission and magnetic particle inspection methods 
GATE Mining Engineering Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrices and determinants; inverse and rank of matrix; systems of linear equations; eigen values and eigen vectors 
CayleyHamilton theorem 
Calculus 

Limit, continuity, and differentiability; partial derivatives; mean value theorems; indeterminate forms and L’ hospital's rule; maxima and minima; Taylor's theorem; sequences and series; test for convergence; Fourier series 
Vector calculus 

Gradient; divergence and curl; line; surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss, and Green's theorems 
Differential equations 

Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs; higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy's and Euler's equations 
Probability and Statistics 

Measures of central tendency and dispersion; hypothesis testing; binomial, Poisson, exponential, and normal distributions; correlation and regression analysis 
Numerical methods 

Solutions of linear algebraic equations; interpolation; integration of trapezoidal and Simpson's rule; single and multistep methods for differential equations 
Mining geology, mine development, and surveying
Mining geology 

Minerals, rocks, and their origin, classification, ore genesis; structural geology 
Mine development 

Methods of access to deposits; underground drivages; drilling methods and machines; explosives and energetics, blasting devices, blast design practices; rocktool interaction applicable to mechanical cutting systems and their selection 
Mine surveying 

Levels and levelling, theodolite, tacheometry, triangulation; contouring; errors and adjustments; correlation; underground surveying; curves; photogrammetry; EDM, total station, GPS, basics of GIS and remote sensing 
Geomechanics and ground control
Engineering mechanics 

Equivalent force systems; equations of equilibrium; two dimensional frames and trusses; free body diagrams; friction forces; particle kinematics and dynamics; beam analysis 
Geomechanics 

Geotechnical properties of rocks; rock mass classification; instrumentation and insitu stress measurement techniques; theories of rock failure; ground vibrations; stress distribution around mine openings; subsidence; slope stability 
Ground control 

Design of pillars; roof supporting systems; mine filling 
Strata control and monitoring plan 
Mining methods and machinery
Mining methods 

Surface mining: Layout, development, loading, transportation and mechanization, continuous surface mining systems; highwall mining; underground coal mining: Bord and pillar systems, room and pillar mining, longwall mining, thick seam mining methods 
Underground metal mining: Open, supported, and caved stoping methods, stope mechanization, ore handling systems 
Mining machinery 

Generation and transmission of mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic power; materials handling: wire ropes, haulages, conveyors, face and development machinery, hoisting systems, pumps; comminution methods and machinery 
Surface environment, mine ventilation, and underground hazards
Surface environment 

Air, water, and soil pollution: Standards of quality, causes and dispersion of contamination, and control; noise pollution and control; land reclamation; EIA 
Mine ventilation 

Underground atmosphere; heat load sources and thermal environment; air cooling; mechanics of airflow, distribution, natural and mechanical ventilation; mine fans and their usage; auxiliary ventilation; ventilation survey and planning; ventilation networks 
Underground hazards 

Mine gases, methane drainage; underground hazards from fires, explosions, dust and inundation; rescue apparatus and practices; safety management plan; accident data analysis; assessment; mine lighting; mine legislation; occupational health and safety 
Mineral, economics, mine planning, systems engineering
Mineral economics 

Mineral resource classification; discounted cash flow analysis; mine valuation; mineral taxation 
Mine planning 

Sampling methods, practices, and interpretation; reserve estimation techniques: Basics of geostatistics and quality control; optimization of facility location; mine planning and its components, determination of mine size and mine life 
Ultimate pit configuration and its determination, optimum mill cutoff grade and its determination, stop planning, design of haul road, selection of mining system visàvis equipment system 
Systems engineering 

Concepts of reliability; reliability of simple systems; maintainability and availability; linear programming, transportation, and assignment problems; network analysis; inventory models; queuing theory; decision trees 
GATE Petroleum Engineering Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Petroleum engineering
Linear algebra 

Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, eigen values and eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Functions of single variable, limit, continuity, and differentiability, Taylor series, mean value theorems, evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, total derivative, maxima and minima, gradient, divergence, and curl 
Vector identities, directional derivatives, line, surface, and volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss, and Green's theorems 
Differential equations 

First order equations (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms 
Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations, and Laplace equation 
Complex variables 

Complex number, polar form of complex number, triangle inequality 
Probability and Statistics 

Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode, and standard deviation, random variables, Poisson, normal, and binomial distributions, linear regression analysis 
Numerical methods 

Numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations 
Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson's rule 
Single and multistep methods for numerical solution of differential equations 
Petroleum exploration 

Classification and description of some common rocks with special reference to clastic, and nonclastic reservoir rocks 
Origin, migration, and accumulation of petroleum 
Petroleum exploration methods 
Oil and gas well drilling technology 

Well planning 
Drilling method 
Drilling rigs rig operating systems 
Drilling fluids function and properties 
Drilling fluid maintenance equipment 
Oil and gas well cementing operations 
Drill bit types and their applications 
Drill string and casing string function, operations, selection, and design 
Drilling problems, their control, and remedies 
Directional drilling tools 
Directional survey 
Application of horizontal, multilateral, extended reach, slim wells 
Reservoir engineering 

Petrophysical properties of reservoir rocks 
Coring and core analysis 
Reservoir fluid properties 
Phase behaviour of hydrocarbon system 
Flow of fluids through porous media 
Water and gas coning 
Reservoir pressure measurements 
Reservoir drives, drive mechanics, and recovery factors 
Reserve estimation and techniques 
Petroleum production operations 

Well equipments 
Well completion techniques 
Well production problems and mitigation 
Well servicing and work over operations 
Work over and completion fluids 
Formation damage 
Well stimulation techniques 
Artificial lift techniques 
Field processing of oil and gas 
Storage and transportation of petroleum, and petroleum products 
Metering and measurements oil, and gas 
Production system analysis and optimization 
Production testing 
Multiphase flow in tubing and flowlines 
Nodal system analysis 
Pressure vessels, storage tanks, shell and tube heat exchangers, pumps and compressors, LNG value chain 
Offshore drilling and production practices 

Offshore oil and gas operations, and ocean environment 
Offshore fixed platforms, offshore mobile units, station keeping methods like mooring and dynamic positioning system 
Offshore drilling from fixed platform, jackup, ships, and semi submersibles 
Use of conductors and risers 
Offshore well completion 
Deep water applications of subsea technology 
Offshore production: Oil processing platforms, water injection platforms, storage, SPM and SBM transportation, and utilities 
Deep water drilling rig 
Deep water production system 
Emerging deep water technologies 
Petroleum formation evaluation 

Evaluation of petrophysical of subsurface formations: Principles applications, advantages and disadvantages of SP, resistivity, radioactive, acoustic logs, and types of tools used 
Evaluation of CBL/ VDL, USIT, SFT, RFT 
Production logging tools, principles, limitations, and applications 
Special type of logging tools 
Casing inspection tools (principles, applications, and limitations), formations micro scanner (FMS), NMR logging principles 
Standard log interpretation methods 
Crossplotting methods 
Oil and gas well testing 

Diffusivity equation, derivation, and solutions 
Radius of investigation 
Principle of superposition 
Horner's approximation 
Drill stem testing 
Pressure transient tests: Drawdown and build uptest analysis 
Wellbore effects 
Multilayer reservoirs 
Injection well testing 
Multiple well testing 
Interference testing, pulse testing, welltest analysis by use of type curves 
Gas well testing 
Health safety and environment in petroleum industry 

Health hazards in petroleum industry: toxicity, physiological, asphyxiation, respiratory and skin effect of petroleum hydrocarbons, sour gases 
Safety system: Manual and automatic shutdown system, blow down systems 
Gas detection system 
Fire detection and suppression systems 
Personal protection system and measures 
HSE policies 
Disaster and crisis management in petroleum industry 
Environment: Environment concepts, impact on ecosystem, air, water, and soil 
The impact of drilling and production operations on environment, environmental transport of petroleum wastes 
Offshore environmental studies 
Offshore oil spill and oil spill control 
Waste treatment methods 
Enhanced oil recovery techniques 

Basic principles and mechanism of EOR, screening of EOR process 
Concept of pattern flooding, recovery efficiency, permeability heterogeneity 
Macroscopic and microscopic displacement efficiency 
EOR methods: Chemical flooding, miscible flooding, thermal recoveries (steam stimulation, hot water, and steam flooding, insitu combustion), microbial EOR 
Latest trends in petroleum engineering 

Coal bed methane, shale gas, oil shale, gas hydrate, and heavy oil 
GATE Physics Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Mathematical physics
Vector calculus 

Linear vector space: basis, orthogonality, and completeness; matrices; similarity transformations, diagonalization, eigen values and eigen vectors 
Linear differential equations: Second order linear differential equations and solutions involving special functions; complex analysis: CauchyRiemann conditions, Cauchy's theorem, singularities, residue theorem and applications; Laplace transform 
Fourier analysis; elementary ideas about tensors: Covariant and contravariant tensors 
Classical mechanics
Lagrangian formulation 

D' Alembert's principle, EulerLagrange equation, Hamilton's principle, calculus of variations; symmetry and conservation laws; central force motion: Kepler problem and Rutherford scattering; small oscillations: Coupled oscillations and normal modes 
Rigid body dynamics: Interia tensor, orthogonal transformations, Euler angles, torque free motion of a symmetric top; Hamiltonian and Hamilton's equations of motion; Liouville's theorem; canonical transformations: Actionangle variables, Poisson brackets 
Canonical transformations: HamiltonJacobi equation 
Special theory of relativity 

Lorentz transformations, relativistic kinematics, massenergy equivalence 
Electromagnetic theory
Solutions of electrostatic and magnetostatic problems including boundary value problems 

Method of images 

Separation of variables 

Dielectrics and conductors 

Magnetic materials 

Multipole expansion 

Maxwell's equations 

Scalar and vector potentials 

Coulomb and Lorentz gauges 

Electromagnetic waves in free space 

Nonconducting and conducting media 

Reflection and transmission at normal, and oblique incidences 

Polarization of electromagnetic waves 

Poynting vector 

Poynting theorem 

Energy and momentum of electromagnetic waves 

Radiation from a moving charge 

Quantum mechanics
Postulates of quantum mechanics 

Uncertainty principle 

Schrodinger equation 

Dirac BraKet notation 

Linear vectors and operators in Hilbert space 

One dimensional potentials 

Step potential, finite rectangular well, tunneling from a potential barrier, particle in a box, harmonic oscillator 
Two and three dimensional systems 

Concept of degeneracy 
Hydrogen atom 

Angular momentum and spin 

Addition of angular momenta 

Variational method and WKB approximation 

Time independent perturbation theory 

Elementary scattering theory 

Born approximation 

Symmetries in quantum mechanical systems 

Thermodynamics and statistical physics
Laws of thermodynamics 

Macrostates and microstates 

Phase space 

Ensembles 

Partition function 

Free energy 

Calculation of thermodynamic quantities 

Classical and quantum statistics 

Degenerate fermi gas 

Black body radiation and Planck's distribution law 

BoseEinstein condensation 

First and second order phase transitions 

Phase equilibrium 

Critical point 

Atomic and molecular physics
Spectra of oneand manyelectron atoms 

Spinorbit interaction 

Ls and jj couplings 
Fine and hyperfine structures 

Zeeman and stark effects 

Electric dipole transitions and selection rules 

Rotational and vibrational spectra of diatomic molecules 

Electronic transitions in diatomic molecules 

FranckCondon principle 

Raman effect 

EPR, NMR, ESR, Xray spectra 

Lasers 

Einstein coefficients, population inversion, two and three level systems 
Solid state physics
Elements of crystallography 

Diffraction methods for structure determination 

Bonding in solids 

Lattice vibrations and thermal properties of solids 

Free electron theory 

Band theory of solids 

Nearly free electron and tight binding models 
Metals, semiconductors, and insulators 

Conductivity, mobility, and effective mass 

Optical properties of solids 

Kramer'sKronig relation 

Intraand interband transitions 

Dielectric properties of solid 

Dielectric function 

Polarizability 

Ferroelectricity 

Magnetic properties of solids 

Dia, para, ferro, antiferro, and ferrimagnetism 

Domains and magnetic anisotropy 

Superconductivity 

TypeI and Type II super conductors, Meissner effect, London equation, BCS theory, flux quantization 
Electronics
Semiconductors in equilibrium 

Electron and hole statistics in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors; metalsemiconductor junctions; Ohmic and rectifying contacts; PN diodes, bipolar junction transistors, field effect transistors; negative and positive feedback circuits; oscillators 
Operational amplifiers, active filters; basics of digital logic circuits, combinational and sequential circuits, flipflops, timers, counters, registers, A/ D and D/ A conversion 
Nuclear and particle physics
Nuclear radii and charge distributions 

Nuclear binding energy 

Electric and magnetic moments 

Semiempirical mass formula 

Nuclear models 

Liquid drop model 

Nuclear shell model 

Nuclear force and two nucleon problem 

Alpha decay 

Betadecay 

Electromagnetic transitions in nuclei 

Rutherford scattering 

Nuclear reactions 

Conservation laws 

Fission and fusion 

Particle accelerators and detectors 

Elementary particles 

Photons, baryons, mesons, and leptons 

Quark model 

Isospin symmetry 

Charge conjugation 

Parity and timereversal invariance 

GATE Production and Industrial Engineering Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, eigen values and eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Functions of single variable, limit, continuity, and differentiability, mean value theorems, evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, total derivative, maxima and minima, gradient, divergence and curl, vector identities 
Directional derivatives; line, surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green's theorems 
Differential equations 

First order equations (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms 
Complex variables 

Analytic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem, Taylor series 
Probability and Statistics 

Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode and standard deviation, linear regression, random variables, Poisson, normal, binomial and exponential distributions 
Numerical methods 

Numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations, integration by trapezoidal and Simpson's rules, single and multistep methods for differential equations 
General engineering
Engineering materials 

Structure, physical, and mechanical properties, and applications of common engineering materials (metals and alloys, semiconductors, ceramics, polymers, and compositesmetal, polymer and ceramic based); ironcarbon equilibrium phase diagram 
Heat treatment of metals and alloys and its influence on mechanical properties; stressstrain behavior of metals and alloys 
Applied mechanics 

Engineering mechanicsequivalent force systems, free body concepts, equations of equilibrium; trusses; strength of materialsstress, strain, and their relationship; failure theories; Mohr's circle (stress); deflection of beams, bending and shear stresses 
Euler's theory of columns; thick and thin cylinders; torsion 
Theory of machines and design 

Analysis of planar mechanisms, cams and followers; governors and fly wheels; design of bolted, riveted and welded joints; interference/ shrink fit joints; friction and lubrication; design of shafts, keys, couplings, spur gears, belt drives 
Brakes and clutches; pressure vessels 
Thermal and fluids engineering 

Fluid mechanicsfluid statics, Bernoulli's equation, flow through pipes, laminar and turbulent flows, equations of continuity and momentum, capillary action; dimensional analysis; thermodynamicszeroth, first and second laws of thermodynamics 
Thermodynamic systems and processes, calculation of work and heat for systems and control volumes; air standard cycles; heat transferbasic applications of conduction, convection and radiation 
Manufacturing processesI
Casting 

Types of casting processes and applications; sand casting: Patternstypes, materials and allowances; molds and coresmaterials, making, and testing; design of gating system and riser 
Casting techniques of cast iron, steels, and nonferrous metals and alloys; analysis of solidification and microstructure development; other casting techniques: pressure die casting, centrifugal casting, investment casting, shell mold casting 
Casting defects and their inspection by nondestructive testing 
Metal forming 

Stressstrain relations in elastic and plastic deformation; Von Mises and Tresca yield criteria, concept of flow stress; hot, warm, and cold working; bulk forming processesforging, rolling, extrusion and wire drawing 
Sheet metal working processesblanking, punching, bending, stretch forming, spinning and deep drawing; ideal work and slab analysis; defects in metal working and their causes 
Joining of materials 

Classification of joining processes; principles of fusion welding processes using different heat sources (flame, arc, resistance, laser, electron beam), heat transfer and associated losses; arc welding processesSMAW, GMAW, GTAW, plasma arc 
Submerged arc welding processes; principles of solid state welding processesfriction welding, friction stir welding, ultrasonic welding; welding defectscauses and inspection; principles of adhesive joining, brazing and soldering processes 
Powder processing 

Production of metal/ ceramic powders, compaction and sintering of metals and ceramic powders, cold and hot isostatic pressing 
Polymers and composites 

Polymer processinginjection, compression and blow molding, extrusion, calendaring and thermoforming; molding of composites 
Manufacturing processesII
Machining 

Orthogonal and oblique machining, single point cutting tool and tool signature, chip formation, cutting forces, Merchant's analysis, specific cutting energy and power; machining parameters and material removal rate; tool materials, tool wear and tool life 
Thermal aspects of machining, cutting fluids, machinability; economics of machining; machining processesturning, taper turning, thread cutting, drilling, boring, milling, gear cutting, thread production 
Finishing processesgrinding, honing, lapping and superfinishing 
Machine tools 

Lathe, milling, drilling and shaping machinesconstruction and kinematics; jigs and fixturesprinciples, applications, and design 
Advanced manufacturing 

Principles and applications of USM, AJM, WJM, AWJM, EDM and Wire EDM, LBM, EBM, PAM, CHM, ECM; effect of process parameters on material removal rate, surface roughness and power consumption; additive manufacturing techniques 
Computer integrated manufacturing 

Basic concepts of CAD and CAM, geometric modeling, CNC; automation in manufacturing; industrial robotsconfigurations, drives and controls; cellular manufacturing and FMSgroup technology, CAPP 
Quality and reliability
Metrology and inspection 

Accuracy and precision; types of errors; limits, fits and tolerances; gauge design, interchangeability, selective assembly 
Linear, angular, and form measurements (straightness, flatness, roundness, runout and cylindricity) by mechanical and optical methods; inspection of screw threads and gears; surface roughness measurement by contact and noncontact methods 
Quality management 

Qualityconcept and costs; statistical quality controlprocess capability analysis, control charts for variables and attributes and acceptance sampling; six sigma; total quality management; quality assurance and certificationISO 9000, ISO14000 
Reliability and maintenance 

Reliability, availability and maintainability; distribution of failure and repair times; determination of MTBF and MTTR, reliability models; determination of system reliability; preventive and predictive maintenance and replacement 
Total productive maintenance 
Industrial engineering
Product design and development 

Principles of product design, tolerance design; quality and cost considerations; product life cycle; standardization, simplification, diversification; value engineering and analysis; concurrent engineering; design for “X” 
Work system design 

Taylor's scientific management, Gilbreths's contributions; productivityconcepts and measurements; method study, micromotion study, principles of motion economy; work measurementtime study, work sampling, standard data, PMTS; ergonomics 
Job evaluation and merit rating 
Facility design 

Facility location factors and evaluation of alternate locations; types of plant layout and their evaluation; computer aided layout design techniques; assembly line balancing; materials handling systems 
Operations research and operations management
Operation research 

Linear programmingproblem formulation, simplex method, duality and sensitivity analysis; transportation and assignment models; integer programming; constrained and unconstrained nonlinear optimization; Markovian queuing models 
Simulationmanufacturing applications 
Engineering economy and costing 

Elementary cost accounting and methods of depreciation; breakeven analysis; techniques for evaluation of capital investments; financial statements; activity based costing 
Production control 

Forecasting techniquescausal and time series models, moving average, exponential smoothing, trend and seasonality; aggregate production planning; master production scheduling; MRP, MRPII and ERP; routing, scheduling and priority dispatching 
Push and pull production systems, concepts of Lean and JIT manufacturing systems; logistics, distribution, and supply chain management; inventoryfunctions, costs, classifications, deterministic inventory models, quantity discount 
Perpetual and periodic inventory control systems 
Project management 

Scheduling techniquesGantt chart, CPM, PERT and GERT 
GATE Statistics Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Statistics
Calculus 

Finite, countable and uncountable sets; real number system as a complete ordered field, Archimedean property; sequences of real numbers, convergence of sequences, bounded sequences, monotonic sequences, Cauchy criterion for convergence 
Series of real numbers, convergence, tests of convergence, alternating series, absolute and conditional convergence; power series and radius of convergence; functions of a real variable: Limit, continuity, monotone functions, uniform continuity 
Differentiability, Rolle's theorem, mean value theorems, Taylor's theorem, L’ hospital rules, maxima and minima, Riemann integration and its properties, improper integrals; functions of several real variables: Limit, continuity, partial derivatives 
Directional derivatives, gradient, Taylor's theorem, total derivative, maxima and minima, saddle point, method of Lagrange multipliers, double and triple integrals and their applications 
Matrix theory 

Subspaces of Rⁿ and Cⁿ, span, linear independence, basis and dimension, row space and column space of a matrix, rank and nullity, row reduced echelon form, trace, and determinant, inverse of a matrix, systems of linear equations 
Inner products in Rⁿ and Cⁿ, GramSchmidt orthonormalization; eigen values and eigen vectors, characteristic polynomial, CayleyHamilton theorem, symmetric, skewsymmetric, Hermitian, skewHermitian, orthogonal 
Unitary matrices and their eigen values, change of basis matrix, equivalence and similarity, diagonalizability, positive definite and positive semidefinite matrices and their properties, quadratic forms, singular value decomposition 
Probability 

Axiomatic definition of probability, properties of probability function, conditional probability, Baye's theorem, independence of events; random variables and their distributions, distribution function, probability mass function 
Probability density function and their properties, expectation, moments and moment generating function, quantiles, distribution of functions of a random variable, Chebyshev, Markov, and Jensen inequalities 
Standard discrete and continuous univariate distributions: Bernoulli, binomial, geometric, negative binomial, hypergeometric, discrete uniform, Poisson, continuous uniform, exponential, gamma, beta, Weibull, normal 
Jointly distributed random variables and their distribution functions, probability mass function, probability density function, and their properties, marginal and conditional distributions, conditional expectation and moments, product moments 
Simple correlation coefficient, joint moment generating function, independence of random variables, functions of random vector and their distributions, distributions of order statistics, joint and marginal distributions of order statistics 
Multinomial distribution, bivariate normal distribution, sampling distributions: Central, chisquare, central t, and central F distributions 
Convergence in distribution, convergence in probability, convergence almost surely, convergence in rth mean and their interrelations, Slutsky's lemma, BorelCantelli lemma; weak and strong laws of large numbers 
Central limit theorem for IID random variables, delta method 
Stochastic processes 

Markov chains with finite and countable state space, classification of states, limiting behaviour of nstep transition probabilities, stationary distribution, Poisson process, birthanddeath process, purebirth process, puredeath process 
Brownian motion and its basic properties 
Estimation 

Sufficiency, minimal sufficiency, factorization theorem, completeness, completeness of exponential families, ancillary statistic, Basu's theorem and its applications, unbiased estimation, uniformly minimum variance unbiased estimation 
RaoBlackwell theorem, LehmannScheffe theorem, CramerRao inequality, consistent estimators, method of moments estimators, method of maximum likelihood estimators, and their properties 
Interval estimation: Pivotal quantities and confidence intervals based on them, coverage probability 
Testing of hypotheses 

NeymanPearson lemma, most powerful tests, monotone likelihood ratio (MLR) property, uniformly most powerful tests, uniformly most powerful tests for families having MLR property, uniformly most powerful unbiased tests 
Uniformly most powerful unbiased tests for exponential families, likelihood ratio tests, large sample tests 
Nonparametric statistics 

Empirical distribution function and its properties, goodness of fit tests, chisquare test, KolmogorovSmirnov test, sign test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, MannWhitney Utest, rank correlation coefficients of Spearman and Kendall 
Multivariate analysis 

Multivariate normal distribution: Properties, conditional, and marginal distributions, maximum likelihood estimation of mean vector and dispersion matrix, hotelling’s T² test, Wishart distribution and its basic properties 
Multiple and partial correlation coefficients, and their basic properties 
Regression analysis 

Simple and multiple linear regression, R² and adjusted R², and their applications, distributions of quadratic forms of random vectors: FisherCochran theorem, GaussMarkov theorem, tests for regression coefficients, confidence intervals 
GATE Textile Engineering and Fibre Science Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrices and determinants; systems of linear equations; eigen values and eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Limit, continuity, and differentiability; successive differentiation; partial differentiation; maxima and minima; errors and approximations; definite and improper integrals; sequences and series; test for convergence; power series; Taylor series 
Differential equations 

First order linear and nonlinear differential equations; higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients; EulerCauchy equation; partial differential equations; wave and heat equations; Laplace’s equation 
Probability and Statistics 

Random variables; Poisson, binomial, and normal distributions; mean, mode, median, standard deviation; confidence interval; test of hypothesis; correlation analysis; regression analysis; analysis of variance; control charts 
Numerical methods 

Numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations; numerical integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rules; singlestep and multistep numerical methods for differential equations 
Textile engineering and fibre science
Textile fibers 

Classification of textile fibres; essential requirements of fibre forming polymers; gross and fine structures of natural fibres like cotton, wool, silk; introduction to bastfibres 
Properties and uses of natural and manmade fibres including carbon, aramid and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene fibres; physical and chemical methods of fibre and blend identification and blend analysis 
Molecular architecture, amorphous and crystalline phases, glass transition, plasticization, crystallization, melting, factors affecting Tg and Tm; polymerization of nylon6, nylon66, poly (ethylene terephthalate), polyacrylonitrile and polypropylene 
Melt spinning processes for PET, polyamide and polypropylene; preparation of spinning dope; principles of wet spinning, dry spinning, dryjetwet spinning and gel spinning; spinning of acrylic 
Viscose and other regenerated cellulosic fibres such as polynosic and lyocell; post spinning operations such as drawing, heat setting, towtotop conversion; spin finish composition and applications; different texturing methods 
Methods of investigating fibre structure such as density, Xray diffraction, birefringence, optical and electron microscopy such as SEM and TEM, I.R. spectroscopy, thermal methods such as DSC, DMA, TMA and TGA; structure and morphology of manmade fibres 
Mechanical properties of fibres; moisture sorption of fibres; fibre structureproperty correlation 
Yarn manufacture, yarn structure, and properties 

Principles of ginning; principles of opening, cleaning and blending; working principles of modern blowroom machines; fundamentals of carding; conventional vs. modern carding machine; card setting; card clothing; periodic mass variation in card sliver 
Card autoleveller; principles of roller drawing; roller arrangements in drafting systems; periodic mass variation in drawn sliver; draw frame auto leveller; principles of cotton combing; combing cycle and mechanisms; recent developments in combing machine 
Principles of drafting, twisting, and bobbin building in roving formation; modern developments in roving machine; principles of drafting, twisting and cop building in ring spinning; causes of end breakages; modern developments in ring spinning machine 
Working principles of ring doubler and twoforone twister; relationship between single yarn twist and folded yarn twist; principles of compact, rotor, airjet, airvortex, friction, core, wrap and twistless spinning processes 
Influence of fibre geometry, fibre configuration and fibre orientation in yarn; fibre packing density of yarn; yarn diameter; yarn twist and its relation to yarn strength; helical arrangement of fibres in yarns; yarn contraction; fibre migration in yarns 
Stressstrain relation in yarn; mass irregularity of yarn; structureproperty relationship in ring, compact, rotor, airjet and friction spun yarns 
Fabric manufacture, structure, and properties 

Principles of winding processes; classification of winding methods; patterning mechanism; yarn clearers and tensioners; different systems of yarn splicing; warping objectives and classification; different types of warping creels 
Features of beam and sectional warping machines; different sizing systems; sizing of spun and filament yarns; drawingin process; principles of pirn winding 
Primary and secondary motions of loom; shedding motion; positive and negative shedding mechanisms; type of sheds; tappet, dobby and jacquard shedding; weft insertion; mechanics of weft insertion with shuttle; shuttle picking and checking; beatup 
Kinematics of sley; loom timing diagram; cam designing; effect of sley setting and cam profile on fabric formation; takeup and letoff motions; warp and weft stop motions; warp protection; weft replenishment 
Principles of weft insertion systems of shuttleless weaving machinessuch as projectile, rapier, waterjet and airjet; principles of functioning of multiphase and circular looms; types of selvedges 
Basic woven fabric constructions and their derivatives; crepe, cord, terry, gauze, leno and double cloth constructions; drawing and lifting plans 
Fundamentals of weft knitting; classification of weft knitting technologies; weft knitted constructions such as plain, rib, interlock and purl; different knit stitches such as loop, tuck and float 
Principle of warp knitting; classification of warp knitting technologies; swinging and shogging motion of guide bar; basic warp knit construction such aspillar, tricot, atlas, inlay and nets 
Fibre preparation processes for non wovens; web formation and bonding processes; spunbonding and meltblowing technologies; applications of nonwoven fabrics 
Principles of braiding; type of braids; Maypole braiding technology 
Peirce's equations for plain woven fabric geometry; elastica model of plainwoven fabric; thickness, cover and maximum set of woven fabrics; geometry of plain weft knitted loop; Munden's constants and tightness factor for plain weft knitted fabrics 
Geometry of tubular braids 
Textile testing 

Sampling techniques for fibres, yarns and fabrics; sample size and sampling errors 
Moisture in textiles; fibre length, fineness, crimp, maturity and trash content; tensile testing of fibres; high volume fibre testing 
Linear density of sliver, roving and yarn; twist and hairiness of yarn; tensile testing of yarns; evenness testing; fault measurement and analysis of yarns 
Fabric thickness, compressibility, stiffness, shear, drape, crease recovery, tear strength, bursting strength, pilling and abrasion resistance; tensile testing of fabrics; objective evaluation of low stress mechanical characteristics; air permeability 
Wetting and wicking; watervapour transmission through fabrics; thermal resistance of fabrics 
Chemical processing 

Impurities in natural fibre; singeing; chemistry and practice of preparatory processes for cotton; preparatory processing of wool and silk; mercerization of cotton; preparatory processes for manmade fibres and their blends; optical brightening agent 
Classification of dyes; dyeing of cotton, wool, silk, polyester, nylon and acrylic with appropriate classes of dyes; dyeing of polyester/ cotton and polyester/ wool blends; dyeing machines; dyeing processes and machines for cotton knitted fabrics 
Dyefibre interaction; introduction to thermodynamics and kinetics of dyeing; brief idea about the relation between colour and chemical constitution; BeerLambert's law; KubelkaMunk theory and its application in colour measurement 
Methods for determination of wash, light and rubbing fastness 
Methods of printing such as roller printing and screen printing; preparation of printing paste; various types of thickeners; printing auxiliaries 
Direct styles of printing of(i) cotton with reactive dyes, (ii) wool, silk, nylon with acid and metal complex dyes, (iii) polyester with disperse dyes; resist and discharge printing of cotton, silk and polyester; pigment printing 
Transfer printing of polyester; inkjet printing; printing faults 
Mechanical finishing of cotton; stiff, soft, wrinkle resistant, water repellent, flame retardant and enzyme (biopolishing) finishing of cotton; milling, decatizing and shrink resistant finishing of wool; antistatic and soil release finishing 
Heat setting of synthetic fabrics; minimum application techniques 
Pollution control and treatment of effluents 
GATE Ecology and Evolution Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Ecology
Fundamental concepts 

Abiotic and biotic components; scales (population, species, community, ecosystems, biomes); niches and habitats 
Population ecology 

Population growth rates (density dependent/ independent); metapopulation ecology (colonization, persistence, extinction, patches, sources, sinks); agestructured populations 
Interactions 

Types (mutualism, symbiosis, commensalism, competition, parasitism, predation, etc); ecophysiology (physiological adaptations to abiotic environment); preypredator interactions (LotkaVoltera equation etc) 
Community ecology 

Community assembly, organization, and succession; species richness, evenness, and diversity indices, speciesarea relationships; theory of island biogeography 
Ecosystems structure and function 

Trophic levels and their interactions; nutrient cycles; primary and secondary productivity 
Evolution
History of evolutionary thought 

Lamarckism; Darwinism; modern synthesis 
Fundamentals 

Variation; heritability; natural selection; fitness and adaptation; types of selection (stabilizing, directional, disruptive) 
Diversity of life 

Origin and history of life on earth; diversity and classification of life; systems of classification (cladistics and phenetics) 
Life history strategies 

Allocation of resources; tradeoffs; r/K selection; semelparity and iteroparity 
Interactions 

Coevolution (coadaptations, arms race, red queen hypothesis, cospeciation); preypredator interactions (mimicry, crypsis, etc) 
Population and quantitative genetics 

Origins of genetic variation; Mendelian genetics; HardyWeinberg equilibrium; drift; selection (onelocus twoalleles model); population genetic structure (panmixia, gene flow, FST); polygenic traits; geneenvironment interactions (phenotypic plasticity) 
Heritability 
Molecular evolution and phylogenetics 

Neutral theory; molecular clocks; rates of evolution; phylogenetic reconstruction; molecular systematics 
Macroevolution 

Species concepts and speciation; adaptive radiation; convergence; biogeography 
Mathematics and quantitative ecology
Mathematics and statistics in ecology 

Simple functions (linear, quadratic, exponential, logarithmic, etc); concept of derivatives and slope of a function; permutations and combinations; basic probability (probability of random events; sequences of events, etc) 
Frequency distributions and their descriptive statistics (mean, variance, coefficient of variation, correlation, etc) 
Statistical hypothesis testing 

Concept of pvalue; type I and type II error, test statistics like ttest and chisquare test; basics of linear regression and ANOVA 
Behavioural ecology
Classical ethology 

Instinct; fixed action patters; imprinting; learnt behaviour; proximate and ultimate questions 
Sensory ecology 

Neuroethology; communication (chemical, acoustic, and visual signaling); recognition systems 
Foraging ecology 

Foraging behaviour; optimal foraging theory 
Reproduction 

Cost of sex; sexual dimorphism; mate choice; sexual selection (runaway selection, goodgenes, handicap principle, etc); sexual conflict; mating systems; parental care 
Social living 

Costs and benefits of groupliving (including responses to predators); effect of competition (scramble and contest) on group formation; dominance relationships; eusociality; kin selection; altruism; reciprocity; human behaviour 
Applied ecology and evolution
Biodiversity and conservation 

Importance of conserving biodiversity; ecosystem services; threats to biodiversity; invasive species; insitu conservation (endemism, biodiversity hotspots, protected areas); exsitu conservation 
Conservation genetics (genetic diversity, inbreeding depression); DNA fingerprinting and DNA barcoding 
Disease ecology and evolution 

Epidemiology; zoonotic diseases; antibiotic resistance; vector control 
Plant and animal breeding 

Marker assisted breeding; genetic basis of economically important traits 
Global climate change 

Causes; consequences; mitigation 
GATE XE Engineering Mathematics Syllabus
Linear algebra
Algebra of real matrices 

Determinant, inverse, and rank of a matrix; system of linear equations (conditions for unique solution, no solution, and infinite number of solutions); eigen values and eigen vectors of matrices 
Properties of eigen values and eigen vectors of symmetric matrices, diagonalization of matrices; CayleyHamilton theorem 
Calculus
Functions of single variable 

Limit, indeterminate forms and L' hospital's rule; continuity and differentiability; mean value theorems; maxima and minima; Taylor's theorem; fundamental theorem and mean value theorem of integral calculus; evaluation of definite and improper integrals 
Applications of definite integrals to evaluate areas and volumes (rotation of a curve about an axis) 
Functions of two variables 

Limit, continuity, and partial derivatives; directional derivative; total derivative; maxima, minima, and saddle points; method of Lagrange multipliers; double integrals and their applications 
Sequences and series 

Convergence of sequences and series; tests of convergence of series with nonnegative terms (ratio, root, and integral tests); power series; Taylor's series; Fourier series of functions of period 2π 
Vector calculus
Gradient, divergence, and curl 

Line integrals and Green's theorem 

Complex variables
Complex numbers 

Argand plane and polar representation of complex numbers 

De Moivre's theorem 

Analytic functions 

CauchyRiemann equations 

Ordinary differential equations
First order equations (linear and nonlinear) 

Second order linear differential equations with constant coefficients 

CauchyEuler equation 

Second order linear differential equations with variable coefficients 

Wronskian 

Method of variation of parameters 

Eigen value problem for second order equations with constant coefficients 

Power series solutions for ordinary points 

Partial differential equations
Classification of second order linear partial differential equations 

Method of separation of variables 

One dimensional heat equation and two dimensional Laplace equation 
Probability and statistics
Axioms of probability 

Conditional probability 

Baye's theorem 

Mean, variance, and standard deviation of random variables 

Binomial, Poisson, and normal distributions 

Correlation and linear regression 

Numerical methods
Solution of systems of linear equations using LU decomposition 

Gauss elimination method 

Lagrange and Newton's interpolations 

Solution of polynomial and transcendental equations by NewtonRaphson method 

Numerical integration by trapezoidal rule and Simpson's rule 

Numerical solutions of first order differential equations by explicit Euler's method 

GATE XE Fluid Mechanics Syllabus
Flow and fluid properties
Fluid properties 

Density, viscosity, surface tension, relationship between stress and strainrate for Newtonian fluids 
Classification of flows 

Viscous versus inviscid flows, incompressible versus compressible flows, internal versus external flows, steady versus unsteady flows, laminar versus turbulent flows, 1D, 2D, and 3D flows, Newtonian versus nonNewtonian fluid flow 
Hydrostatics 

Buoyancy, manometry, forces on submerged bodies and its stability 
Kinematics of fluid motion
Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of fluid motion 

Concept of local, convective, and material derivatives 

Streamline, streakline, pathline, and timeline 

Integral analysis for a control volume
Reynolds transport theorem (RTT) for conservation of mass 

Linear and angular momentum 

Differential analysis
Differential equations of mass and momentum for incompressible flows 

Inviscid flows 

Euler equations and viscous flows 

NavierStokes equations 

Concept of fluid rotation 

Vorticity 

Stream function and circulation 

Exact solutions of NavierStokes equations for Couette flow and Poiseuille flow 

Thin film flow 

Dimensional analysis
Concept of geometric, kinematic, and dynamic similarity 

Buckingham Pi theorem and its applications 

Nondimensional parameters and their physical significance 

Reynolds number, Froude number, and Mach number 
Internal flows
Fully developed pipe flow 

Empirical relations for laminar and turbulent flows 

Friction factor, DarcyWeisbach relation, and Moody's chart 
Major and minor losses 

Bernoulli's equation and its applications, potential flows
Bernoulli's equation 

Assumptions and applications 
Flow measurementsVenturi meter, Pitotstatic tube, and orifice meter 
Elementary potential flows 

Velocity potential function 
Uniform flow, source, sink and vortex, and their superposition for flow past simple geometries 
External flows
Prandtl boundary layer equations 

Concept and assumptions 
Boundary layer characteristics 

Boundary layer thickness, displacement thickness, and momentum thickness 
Qualitative idea of boundary layer separation 

Streamlined and bluff bodies, and drag, and lift forces 

GATE XE Materials Science Syllabus
Classification and structure of materials
Classification of materials 

Metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites 
Nature of bonding in materials 

Metallic, ionic, covalent, and mixed bonding; structure of materials: Fundamentals of crystallography, symmetry operations, crystal systems, Bravais lattices, unit cells, primitive cells, crystallographic planes and directions; structures of metals 
Ceramics, polymers, amorphous materials, and glasses 
Defects in crystalline materials 

0D, 1D and 2D defects; vacancies, interstitials, solid solutions in metals and ceramics, Frenkel and Schottky defects; dislocations; grain boundaries, twins, stacking faults; surfaces and interfaces 
Thermodynamics, kinetics, and phase transformations
Extensive and intensive thermodynamic properties 

Laws of thermodynamics 

Phase equilibrium 

Phase rule 

Phase diagrams (unary and binary) 

Basic electrochemistry 

Reaction kinetics 

Fundamentals of diffusion 

Fick's laws, their solutions and applications 

Solidification of pure metals and alloys 

Nucleation and growth 

Diffusional solidstate phase transformations (precipitation and eutectoid) 

Martensitic transformation 

Properties and applications of materials
Mechanical properties of metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites at room temperature 

Stressstrain response (elastic, anelastic, and plastic deformation) 

Electronic properties 

Free electron theory, Fermi energy, density of states, elements of band theory, semiconductors, Hall effect, dielectric behaviour, piezo and ferroelectric behaviour 
Magnetic properties 

Origin of magnetism in materials, para, dia, ferro, and ferrimagnetism 
Thermal properties 

Specific heat, heat conduction, thermal diffusivity, thermal expansion, and thermoelectricity 
Optical properties 

Refractive index, absorption and transmission of electromagnetic radiation 
Examples of materials exhibiting the above properties, and their typical/ common applications 

Characterization and measurements of properties
Xray diffraction 

Spectroscopic techniques such as UVVis, IR, and Raman 

Optical microscopy 

Electron microscopy 

Composition analysis in electron microscopes 

Tensile test 

Hardness measurement 

Electrical conductivity 

Carrier mobility and concentrations 

Thermal analysis techniques 

Thermogravimetry and calorimetry 
Processing of materials
Heat treatment of ferrous and aluminium alloys 

Preparation of ceramic powders, sintering 

Thin film deposition 

Evaporation and sputtering techniques, and chemical vapour deposition, thin film growth phenomena 
Degradation of materials
Corrosion and its prevention 

Embrittlement of metals 

Polymer degradation 

GATE XE Solid Mechanics Syllabus
Mechanics of rigid bodies
Equivalent force systems 

Freebody diagrams 

Equilibrium equations 

Analysis of determinate trusses and frames 

Friction 

Principle of minimum potential energy 

Particle kinematics and dynamics 

Dynamics of rigid bodies under planar motion 

Law of conservation of energy 

Law of conservation of momentum 

Mechanics of deformable bodies
Stresses and strains 

Transformation of stresses and strains 

Principal stresses and strains 

Mohr's circle for plane stress and plane strain 

Free vibration of undamped single degree of freedom systems 
Generalized Hooke's law 

Elastic constants 

Thermal stresses 

Theories of failure 

Axial force, shear force, and bending moment diagrams 

Axial, shear, and bending stresses 

Combined stresses 

Deflection (for symmetric bending) 

Torsion in circular shafts 

Thin walled pressure vessels 

Energy methods (Castigliano's theorems) 

Euler buckling 

Vibrations
Free vibration of undamped single degree of freedom systems 

GATE XE Thermodynamics Syllabus
Basic concepts
Continuum and macroscopic approach 

Thermodynamic systems (closed and open) 

Thermodynamic properties and equilibrium 

State of a system 

State postulate for simple compressible substances 

State diagrams 

Paths and processes on state diagrams 

Concepts of heat and work 

Different modes of work 

Zeroth law of thermodynamics 

Concept of temperature 

First law of thermodynamics
Concept of energy and various forms of energy 

Internal energy 

Enthalpy 

Specific heats 

First law applied to elementary processes 

Closed systems and control volumes 

Steady and unsteady flow analysis 

Second law of thermodynamics
Limitations of the first law of thermodynamics 

Concepts of heat engines and heat pumps/ refrigerators 

KelvinPlanck and Clausius statements and their equivalence 

Reversible and irreversible processes 

Carnot cycle and Carnot principles/ theorems 

Thermodynamic temperature scale 

Clausius inequality and concept of entropy 

Microscopic interpretation of entropy 

The principle of increase of entropy 

Ts diagrams 

Second law analysis of control volume 

Availability and irreversibility 

Third law of thermodynamics 

Properties of pure substances
Thermodynamic properties of pure substances in solid, liquid, and vapour phases 

PvT behaviour of simple compressible substances 

Phase rule 

Thermodynamic property tables and charts 

Ideal and real gases 

Ideal gas equation of state and Van Der Waals equation of state 

Law of corresponding states 

Compressibility factor and generalized compressibility chart 

Thermodynamic relations
Tds relations 

Helmholtz and Gibbs functions 

Gibbs relations 

Maxwell relations 

JouleThomson coefficient 

Coefficient of volume expansion 

Adiabatic and isothermal compressibilities 

Clapeyron and ClapeyronClausius equations 

Thermodynamic cycles
Carnot vapour cycle 

Ideal Rankine cycle 

Rankine reheat cycle 

Airstandard Otto cycle 

Airstandard diesel cycle 

Airstandard Brayton cycle 

Vapourcompression refrigeration cycle 

Ideal gas mixtures
Dalton's and Amagat's laws 

Properties of ideal gas mixtures 

Airwater vapour mixtures and simple thermodynamic processes involving them 

Specific and relative humidities 

Dew point and wet bulb temperature 

Adiabatic saturation temperature 

Psychrometric chart 

GATE XE Polymer Science and Engineering Syllabus
Polymer science and engineering
Chemistry of high polymers 

Monomers, functionality, degree of polymerizations, classification of polymers, glass transition, melting transition, criteria for rubberiness, polymerization methods: Addition and condensation; their kinetics 
Metallocene polymers and other newer methods of polymerization, copolymerization, monomer reactivity ratios and its significance, kinetics, different copolymers, random, alternating, azeotropic copolymerization, block and graft copolymers 
Techniques for polymerizationbulk, solution, suspension, emulsion 
Concept of intermolecular order (morphology)amorphous, crystalline, orientation states 
Factor affecting crystallinity 
Crystalline transition 
Effect of morphology on polymer properties 
Polymer characterization 

Solubility and swelling, concept of molecular weight distribution and its significance, concept of average molecular weight, determination of number average, weight average, viscosity average and Zaverage molecular weights, polymer crystallinity 
Analysis of polymers using IR, XRD, thermal (DSC, DMTA, TGA), microscopic (optical and electronic) techniques, Molecular wt. distribution: Broad and Narrow, GPC, Mooney viscosity 
Synthesis, manufacturing, and properties 

Commodity and general purpose thermoplastics: PE, PP, PS, PVC, polyesters, acrylic, PU polymers 
Engineering plastics: Nylon, PC, PBT, PSU, PPO, ABS, fluoropolymers thermosetting polymers: Polyurethane, PF, MF, UF, Epoxy, unsaturated polyester, alkyds 
Natural and synthetic rubbers: Recovery of NR hydrocarbon from latex; SBR, nitrile, CR, CSM, EPDM, IIR, BR, silicone, TPE, speciality plastics: PEK, PEEK, PPS, PSU, PES etc 
Biopolymers such as PLA, PHA/ PHB 
Polymer blends and composites 

Difference between blends and composites, their significance, choice of polymers for blending, blend miscibilitymiscible and immiscible blends, thermodynamics, phase morphology, polymer alloys, polymer eutectics, plasticplastic 
Rubberplastic and rubberrubber blends, FRP, particulate, long and short fibre reinforced composites 
Polymer reinforcement, reinforcing fibersnatural and synthetic, base polymer for reinforcement (unsaturated polyester), ingredients/ recipes for reinforced polymer composite 
Polymer technology 

Polymer compoundingneed and significance, different compounding ingredients for rubber and plastics (antioxidants, light stabilizers, UV stabilizers, lubricants, processing aids, impact modifiers, flame retardant, antistatic agents 
PVC stabilizers and plasticizers) and their function, use of carbon black, polymer mixing equipments, crosslinking and vulcanization, vulcanization kinetics 
Polymer rheology 

Flow of Newtonian and nonNewtonian fluids, different flow equations, dependence of shear modulus on temperature, molecular/ segmental deformations at different zones and transitions 
Measurements of rheological parameters by capillary rotating, parallel plate, coneplate rheometer 
Viscoelasticitycreep and stress relaxations, mechanical models, control of rheological characteristics through compounding, rubber curing in parallel plate viscometer, ODR and MDR 
Polymer processing 

Compression molding, transfer molding, injection molding, blow molding, reaction injection molding, filament winding, SMC, BMC, DMC, extrusion, pultrusion, calendaring, rotational molding, thermoforming, powder coating 
Rubber processing in tworoll mill, internal mixer, twin screw extruder 
Polymer testing 

Mechanicalstatic and dynamic tensile, flexural, compressive, abrasion, endurance, fatigue, hardness, tear, resilience, impact, toughness 
Conductivitythermal and electrical, dielectric constant, dissipation factor, power factor, electric resistance, surface resistivity, volume resistivity, swelling, ageing resistance, environmental stress cracking resistance, limiting oxygen index 
Heat deflection temperatureVicat softening temperature, brittleness temperature, glass transition temperature, coefficient of thermal expansion, shrinkage, flammability, dielectric constant, dissipation factor, power factor, optical properties 
Refractive index, luminous transmittance and haze, melt flow index 
Polymer recycling and waste management 

Polymer waste, and its impact on environment, sources, identification, and separation techniques, recycling classification, recycling of thermoplastics, thermosets and rubbers, applications of recycled materials 
Life cycle assessment of polymer products (case studies like PET bottles, packaging bags) 
GATE XE Food Technology Syllabus
Food chemistry and nutrition
Carbohydrates 

Structure and functional properties of mono, oligo, and polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre, gelatinization and retrogradation of starch 
Proteins 

Classification and structure of proteins in food, biochemical changes in post mortem and tenderization of muscles 
Lipids 

Classification and structure of lipids, rancidity, polymerization and polymorphism 
Pigments 

Carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, tannins, and myoglobin 
Food flavours 

Terpenes, esters, aldehydes, ketones, and quinines 
Enzymes 

Specificity, simple, and inhibition kinetics, coenzymes, enzymatic and nonenzymatic browning 
Nutrition 

Balanced diet, essential amino acids and essential fatty acids, protein efficiency ratio, water soluble and fat soluble vitamins, role of minerals in nutrition, cofactors, antinutrients, nutraceuticals, nutrient deficiency diseases 
Chemical and biochemical changes 

Changes occur in foods during different processing 
Food microbiology
Characteristics of microorganisms 

Morphology of bacteria, yeast, mold, and actinomycetes, spores and vegetative cells, gramstaining 
Microbial growth 

Growth and death kinetics, serial dilution technique 
Food spoilage 

Spoilage micro organisms in different food products including milk, fish, meat, egg, cereals and, their products 
Toxins from microbes 

Pathogens and nonpathogens including staphylococcus, salmonella, Shebelle, escherichia, bacillus, clostridium, and aspergillums genera 
Fermented foods and beverages 

Curd, yoghurt, cheese, pickles, soyasauce, sauerkraut, idly, dose, vinegar, alcoholic beverages and sausage 
Food products technology
Processing principles 

Thermal processing, chilling, freezing, dehydration, addition of preservatives and food additives, irradiation, fermentation, hurdle technology, intermediate moisture food 
Food pack aging and storage 

Packaging materials, aseptic packaging, controlled and modified atmosphere storage 
Cereal processing and products 

Milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling of paddy, bread, biscuits, extruded products and ready to eat breakfast cereals 
Oil processing 

Expelling, solvent extraction, refining, and hydrogenation 
Fruits and vegetables processing 

Extraction, clarification, concentration, and packaging of fruit juice, jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, tomato sauce, ketchup, and puree, potato chips, pickles 
Plantation crops processing and products 

Tea, coffee, cocoa, spice, extraction of essential oils, and oleoresins from spices 
Milk and milk products processing 

Pasteurization and sterilization, cream, butter, ghee, icecream, cheese, and milk powder 
Processing of animal products 

Drying, canning, and freezing of fish and meat; production of egg powder 
Waste utilization 

Pectin from fruit wastes, uses of byproducts from rice milling 
Food standards and quality maintenance 

FPO, PFA, AMark, ISI, HACCP, food plant sanitation and cleaning in place (CIP) 
Food engineering
Mass and energy balance 

Momentum transfer 

Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe, Reynolds number 
Heat transfer 

Heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, heat exchangers 
Mass transfer 

Molecular diffusion and Flick's law, conduction and convective mass transfer, permeability through single and multilayer films 
Mechanical operations 

Size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration, centrifugation, settling, sieving, mixing and agitation of liquid 
Thermal operations 

Thermal sterilization, evaporation of liquid foods, hot air drying of solids, spray and freezedrying, freezing and crystallization 
Mass transfer operations 

Psychometric, humidification, and dehumidification operations 
GATE XE Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Syllabus
Atmospheric and Ocean science
Atmospheric science 

Vertical structure and composition of the atmosphere 
Blackbody radiation and radiation balance 
Modes of heat transfer in the atmosphere 
Greenhouse effect 
Cloud types 
Laws of thermodynamics 
Gas laws 
Hydrostatic equation 
Clausius Clapeyron equation 
Adiabatic processes 
Humidity in the atmosphere 
Atmospheric stability 
Weather and climate 
NavierStokes and Continuity equations 
Compressible and incompressible fluids 
Pressure gradient 
Centripetal, centrifugal, and Coriolis forces 
Geostrophic 
Gradient and cyclostrophic balances 
Circulations and vorticity 
General circulation of the atmosphere 
Broad features of Indian monsoons 
Monsoon depressions 
Tropical convergence zones 
Tropical cyclones 
Ocean science 

Vertical profiles of temperature and salinity 
Stability and double diffusion 
Equation of state 
Equations for conservation of mass 
Momentum 
Heat and salt 
Inertial currents 
Geostrophic motion 
Airsea surface fluxes 
Winddriven circulation 
Ekman and Sverdrup transports 
Storm surges 
Tides 
Tsunamis and wind waves 
Eddies and gyres 
Eastern and western boundary currents 
Equatorial currents 
Indian ocean current systems 
Thermohaline circulation 
Chemical properties of seawater 
Major and minor elements 
Ocean acidification 
Biochemical cycling of nutrients 
Trace metals and organic matter 
Biological pump 
Primary and secondary biological productivity 
Airsea exchange of biogenic dissolved gases 
Marine ecology 
GATE XL Chemistry Syllabus
Atomic structure and periodicity
Planck's quantum theory 

Wave particle duality 

Uncertainty principle 

Comparison between Bohr's model and quantum mechanical model of hydrogen atom 

Electronic configuration of atoms and ions 

Hund's rule and Pauli's exclusion principle 

Periodic table and periodic properties 

Ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity, and atomic size 
Structure and bonding
Ionic and covalent bonding 

MO and VB approaches for diatomic molecules 

VSEPR theory and shape of molecules 

Hybridization 

Resonance 

Dipole moment 

Structure parameters such as bond length, bond angle, and bond energy 

Hydrogen bonding and Van Der Waals interactions 

Ionic solids, ionic radii, and lattice energy (Born‐Haber cycle) 

HSAB principle 

s, p, and d block elements
Oxides 

Halides and hydrides of alkali 

Alkaline earth metals 

B, Al, Si, N, P, and S 

General characteristics of 3D elements 

Coordination complexes 

Valence bond and crystal field theory, colour, geometry, magnetic properties and isomerism 
Chemical equilibrium
Osmotic pressure 

Elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point 

Ionic equilibrium in solution 

Solubility product 

Common ion effect 

Hydrolysis of salts 

Ph 

Buffer and their applications 

Equilibrium constants (Kc, Kp, and Kx) for homogeneous reactions 

Electrochemistry
Conductance 

Kohlrausch's law 

Cell potentials 

EMF 

Nernst equation 

Thermodynamic aspects and their applications 

Reaction kinetics
Rate constant 

Order of reaction 

Molecularity 

Activation energy 

Zero, first, and second order kinetics 

Catalysis and elementary enzyme reactions 

Reversible and irreversible inhibition of enzymes 

Thermodynamics
Qualitative treatment of state and path functions 

First law of thermodynamics 

Reversible and irreversible processes 

Internal energy 

Enthalpy 

Kirchhoff equation 

Heat of reaction 

Hess's law 

Heat of formation 

Second law of thermodynamics 

Entropy and free energy 

Gibbs‐Helmholtz equation 

Free energy change and spontaneity 

Free energy changes from equilibrium constant 

Structurereactivity correlations and organic reaction mechanisms
Acids and bases 

Electronic and steric effects 

Stereochemistry 

Optical and geometrical isomerism 

Tautomerism 

Conformers and concept of aromaticity 

Elementary treatment of SN1, SN2, E1, E2, and radical reactions 

Hoffmann/ Saytzeff rules 

Addition reactions 

Markovnikov's rule and Kharasch effect 

Elementary hydroboration reactions 

Grignard's reagents and their uses 

Aromatic electrophilic substitutions 

Orientation effect as exemplified by various functional groups 

Identification of common functional groups by chemical tests 

Chemistry of biomolecules
Amino acids 

Proteins 

Nucleic acids and nucleotides 

Peptide sequencing by chemical and enzymatic proteolytic methods 

DNA sequencing by chemical and enzymatic methods 

Carbohydrates (up to hexoses only) 

Lipids (triglycerides only) 

Principles of biomolecule purificationion exchange and gel filtration chromatography 

Identification of these biomolecules and BeerLambert's law 

GATE XL Biochemistry Syllabus
Biochemistry
Section1 

Organization of life 
Importance of water 
Structure and function of biomolecules: Amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids 
Protein structure 
Folding/ misfolding and function 
Myoglobin 
Haemoglobin 
Lysozyme 
Ribonuclease A 
Carboxypeptidase and chymotrypsin 
Section2 

Enzyme kinetics including its regulation and inhibition 
Vitamins and coenzymes 
Metabolism and bioenergetics 
Generation and utilization of ATP 
Metabolic pathways and their regulation: Glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, oxidative phosphorylation, gluconeogenesis, glycogen and fatty acid metabolism 
Metabolism of nitrogen containing compounds: Nitrogen fixation, amino acids and nucleotides 
Photosynthesis 
Calvin cycle 
Section3 

Biochemical separation techniques: Ion exchange, size exclusion and affinity chromatography, centrifugation 
Characterization of biomolecules by electrophoresis 
DNAprotein and proteinprotein interactions 
UVvisible and fluorescence spectroscopy 
Mass spectrometry 
Section4 

Cell structure and organelles 
Biological membranes 
Action potential 
Transport across membranes 
Membrane assembly and protein targeting 
Signal transduction 
Receptorligand interaction 
Hormones and neurotransmitters 
Section5 

DNA replication 
Transcription and translation 
DNA damage and repair 
Biochemical regulation of gene expression 
Recombinant DNA technology and applications: PCR, site directed mutagenesis, DNAmicroarray 
Next generation sequencing 
Gene silencing and editing 
Section6 

Immune system: Innate and adaptive 
Cell of the immune system 
Active and passive immunity 
Complement system 
Antibody structure, function and diversity 
B cell and T cell receptors 
B cell and T cell activation 
Major histocompatibilty complex 
Immunological techniques: Immunodiffusion, immuneelectrophoresis, RIA and ELISA, flow cytometry 
monoclonal antibodies and their applications 
GATE XL Botany Syllabus
Botany
Plant systematics 

Botanical nomenclature, history of plant taxonomy, diversity and classification of plants, APG system of plant classification; phylogenetics and cladistics, molecular taxonomy and DNA barcoding; centers for plant taxonomy and herbaria in India 
Plant anatomy 

Anatomy of root, stem, and leaves, floral organs, embryo and young seedlings, primary and secondary meristems, stellar organization, vascular system and their ontogeny, xylem and phloem structure, secondary growth in plants and wood anatomy 
Plant cell structure and differences from animal cells 
Plant development; cell and tissue morphogenesis 

Life cycle of an angiosperm, development of male and female gametophyte; cell fate determination and tissue patterning; spacing mechanisms in trichomes and stomata 
Embryogenesis, organization and function of shoot, and root apical meristems 
Transition to flowering: Photoperiodism and vernalization, ABC model of floral organ patterning, pollen germination, double fertilization, seed development; xylem and phloem cell differentiation, photomorphogenesis; phytochrome, cryptochrome, phototropin 
Role of auxin, cytokinin, gibberellins, and brassinosteroids on plant development 
Plant physiology and biochemistry 

Plant water relations, mechanisms of uptake and transport of water, ions, solutes from soil to plants, apoplastic and symplastic transport mechanisms 
Mechanism of stomatal movements, nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis; C3, C4, and CAM cycles, photorespiration, respiration: Glycolysis, TCA cycle, and electron transport chain 
Plant responses and mechanisms of abiotic stresses including drought, salinity, freezing, and heat stress, metal toxicity; role of abscisic acid in abiotic stresses 
Structure and function of biomolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid), enzyme kinetics 
Structure and biosynthesis of major plant secondary metabolites (alkaloids, terpenes, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids) 
Biosynthesis, mechanism of action, and physiological effects of auxin, cytokinin, gibberellic acids, brassinosteroid, ethylene, strigolactone, abscisic acid, salicylic and jasmonic acid 
Senescence and programmed cell death 
Genetics and genomics 

Cell cycle and cell division 
Principles of Mendelian inheritance, linkage, recombination, genetic mapping; extra chromosomal inheritance; introduction to epigenetics; gene silencingtransgene silencing, post transcriptional gene silencing, miRNA and siRNA 
Evolution and organization of eukaryotic genome structure, gene expression, gene mutation, and repair, chromosomal aberrations (numerical: Euploidy and aneuploidy, and structural: Deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation), transposons 
Model organisms for functional genetics and genomics; introduction to transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics 
Plant breeding, genetic modification, genome editing 

Principles, methodsselection, hybridization, heterosis; male sterility, genetic maps, and molecular markers, embryo rescue, haploid and doubled haploids, plant tissue culture: Micropropagation, embryo culture, and in vitro regeneration 
Plant tissue culture: Somatic embryogenesis, artificial seed, cryopreservation, somaclonal variation, somatic cell hybridization, markerassisted selection, gene transfer methods viz. direct and vectormediated, generation of transgenic plants 
Introduction to genome editing: CRISPR/ Cas9, crelox system to generate chimeras; plastid transformation; chemical mutagenesis 
Economic and applied botany 

A general account of economically and medicinally important plantscereals, pulses, plants yielding fibers, timber, sugar, beverages, oils, rubber, pigments, dyes, gums, drugs and narcotics 
Economic importance of algae, fungi, lichen, and bacteria 
Major Indian cash crops 
Effect of industrialization on agricultural botany such as plastic on fiber economy 
Genetically modified crops and its regulation example Bt cotton, Bt brinjal, golden rice etc 
Plant pathology 

Nature and classification of plant diseases, diseases of important crops caused by fungi, bacteria, nematodes, and viruses, and their control measures (chemical and biological) mechanism (s) of pathogenesis 
Resistance: Basal, systemic, induced systemic resistance, gene for gene concept 
Molecular detection of pathogens; plantmicrobe interactions: Symbionts and mycorrhiza, pathogens and pests 
Signaling pathways in plant defence response; salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in plantpathogen and plantherbivore interaction, necrosis; hostparasitic plant interaction (such as cuscuta) 
Ecology and environment 

Ecosystemstypes, dynamics, degradation, biogeochemical cycles, ecological succession; food webs and energy flow through ecosystem; vegetation types of the world, Indian vegetation types and biogeographical zones, climate, and flora endemism 
Pollution and global climate change, speciation and extinction, biodiversity and conservation strategies, ecological hotspots, afforestation, habitat restoration; plant interactions with other organisms; epiphytes, parasites, and endophytes 
GATE XL Microbiology Syllabus
Microbiology
Historical perspective 

Discovery of microbial world 
Landmark discoveries relevant to the field of microbiology 
Controversy over spontaneous generation 
Role of microorganisms in transformation of organic matter and in the causation of diseases 
Methods in microbiology 

Pure culture techniques 
Principles of microbial nutrition 
Enrichment culture techniques for isolation of microorganisms 
Antigen and antibody detection methods for microbial diagnosis 
Light, phase contrast, fluorescence, and electronmicroscopy 
PCR, realtime PCR for quantitation of microbes 
Next generation sequencing technologies in microbiology 
Microbial taxonomy and diversity 

Bacteria, archea, and their broad classification 
Eukaryotic microbes: Yeasts, molds, and protozoa 
Viruses and their classification 
Molecular approaches to microbial taxonomy and phylogeny 
Prokaryotic cells: Structure and function 

Prokaryotic cells: Cell walls, cell membranes and their biosynthesis, mechanisms of solute transport across membranes, flagella and pili, capsules, cell inclusions like endospores and gas vesicles 
Bacterial locomotion, including positive and negative chemotaxis 
Microbial growth 

Definition of growth 
Growth curve 
Mathematical expression of exponential growth phase 
Measurement of growth and growth yields 
Synchronous growth 
Continuous culture 
Effect of environmental factors on growth 
Bacterial biofilm and biofouling 
Control of microorganisms 

Disinfection and sterilization: Principles, methods, and assessment of efficacy 
Microbial metabolism 

Energetics: Redox reactions and electron carriers 
Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation 
An overview of metabolism 
Glycolysis 
Pentosephosphate pathway 
EntnerDoudoroff pathway 
Glyoxalate pathway 
The citric acid cycle 
Fermentation 
Aerobic and anaerobic respiration 
Chemolithotrophy 
Photosynthesis 
Calvin cycle 
Biosynthetic pathway for fatty acids synthesis 
Common regulatory mechanisms in synthesis of amino acids 
Regulation of major metabolic pathways 
Microbial diseases and host pathogen interaction 

Normal microbiota 
Classification of infectious diseases 
Reservoirs of infection 
Nosocomial infection 
Opportunistic infections 
Emerging infectious diseases 
Mechanism of microbial pathogenicity 
Nonspecific defense of host; antigens and antibodies 
Humoral and cell mediated immunity 
Vaccines 
Passive immunization 
Immune deficiency 
Human diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, and pathogenic fungi 
Chemotherapy/ antibiotics 

General characteristics of antimicrobial drugs 
Antibiotics: Classification molecular mechanism of mode of action and resistance 
Antifungal and antiviral drugs 
Microbial genetics 

Types of mutation 
UV and chemical mutagens 
Selection of mutants 
Ames test for mutagenesis 
Bacterial genetic system: Transformation, conjugation, transduction, recombination, plasmids, transposons 
DNA repair 
Regulation of gene expression: Repression and induction 
Operon model 
Bacterial genome with special reference to E. coli 
Phage λ and its life cycle 
RNA phages 
Mutation in virus genomes, virus recombination and reassortment 
Basic concept of microbial genomics 
Microbial ecology 

Microbial interactions 
Carbon, sulphur, and nitrogen cycles 
Soil microorganisms associated with vascular plants 
Bioremediation 
Uncultivable microorganisms 
Basic concept of metagenomics and metatranscriptomics 
GATE XL Zoology Syllabus
Zoology
Animal diversity 

Distribution 
Systematics and classification of animals 
Phylogenetic relationships (based on classical and molecular phylogenetic tools) 
Evolution 

Origin and history of life on earth 
Theories of evolution 
Natural selection 
Adaptation 
Speciation 
Genetics 

Basic principles of inheritance 
Molecular basis of heredity 
Sex determination and sexlinked characteristics 
Cytoplasmic inheritance 
Linkage 
Recombination and mapping of genes in eukaryotes 
Population genetics 
Genetic disorders 
Roles of model organisms in understanding genetic principles 
Biochemistry and molecular biology 

Nucleic acids 
Proteins 
Lipids and carbohydrates 
Replication 
Transcription and translation 
Krebs cycle 
Glycolysis 
Enzyme Catalysis 
Hormones and their actions 
Roles of vitamins and minerals 
Cell biology 

Basic principles of cellular microscopy 
Structure of cell 
Cytoskeletal organization 
Cellular organelles and their structure and function 
Cell cycle 
Cell division 
Chromosomes and chromatin structure 
Gene expression in Eukaryotes 

Eukaryotic genome organization and regulation of gene expression 
Transposable elements 
Animal anatomy and physiology 

Comparative physiology 
The respiratory system 
Muscular system 
Circulatory system 
Digestive system 
The nervous system 
The excretory system 
The endocrine system 
The reproductive system 
The skeletal system 
Parasitology and immunology 

Nature of parasite 
Hostparasite relation 
Protozoan and helminthic parasites 
The immune response 
Cellular and humoral immune response 
Development biology 

Gametogenesis 
Embryonic development 
Cellular differentiation 
Organogenesis 
Metamorphosis 
Model organisms used in developmental biology 
Genetic and molecular basis of development 
Stem cells 
Ecology 

The ecosystem 
Animal distribution 
Ecological niche and its contribution to ecological diversity 
The food chain 
Population dynamics 
Species diversity 
Zoogeography 
Biogeochemical cycles 
Conservation biology 
Ecotoxicology 
Animal behaviour 

Type of behaviours 
Courtship 
Mating and territoriality 
Instinct 
Learning and memory 
Social behaviour across the animal taxa 
Communication 
Pheromones 
Evolution of behaviour in animals 
GATE XL Food Technology Syllabus
Food chemistry and nutrition
Carbohydrates 

Structure and functional properties of mono, oligo, and polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre, gelatinization and retrogradation of starch 
Proteins 

Classification and structure of proteins in food, biochemical changes in post mortem and tenderization of muscles 
Lipids 

Classification and structure of lipids, rancidity, polymerization and polymorphism 
Pigments 

Carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, tannins, and myoglobin 
Food flavours 

Terpenes, esters, aldehydes, ketones, and quinines 
Enzymes 

Specificity, simple, and inhibition kinetics, coenzymes, enzymatic and nonenzymatic browning 
Nutrition 

Balanced diet, essential amino acids and essential fatty acids, protein efficiency ratio, water soluble and fat soluble vitamins, role of minerals in nutrition, cofactors, antinutrients, nutraceuticals, nutrient deficiency diseases 
Chemical and biochemical changes 

Changes occur in foods during different processing 
Food microbiology
Characteristics of microorganisms 

Morphology of bacteria, yeast, mold, and actinomycetes, spores and vegetative cells, gramstaining 
Microbial growth 

Growth and death kinetics, serial dilution technique 
Food spoilage 

Spoilage micro organisms in different food products including milk, fish, meat, egg, cereals and, their products 
Toxins from microbes 

Pathogens and nonpathogens including staphylococcus, salmonella, Shebelle, escherichia, bacillus, clostridium, and aspergillums genera 
Fermented foods and beverages 

Curd, yoghurt, cheese, pickles, soyasauce, sauerkraut, idly, dose, vinegar, alcoholic beverages and sausage 
Food products technology
Processing principles 

Thermal processing, chilling, freezing, dehydration, addition of preservatives and food additives, irradiation, fermentation, hurdle technology, intermediate moisture food 
Food pack aging and storage 

Packaging materials, aseptic packaging, controlled and modified atmosphere storage 
Cereal processing and products 

Milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling of paddy, bread, biscuits, extruded products and ready to eat breakfast cereals 
Oil processing 

Expelling, solvent extraction, refining, and hydrogenation 
Fruits and vegetables processing 

Extraction, clarification, concentration, and packaging of fruit juice, jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, tomato sauce, ketchup, and puree, potato chips, pickles 
Plantation crops processing and products 

Tea, coffee, cocoa, spice, extraction of essential oils, and oleoresins from spices 
Milk and milk products processing 

Pasteurization and sterilization, cream, butter, ghee, icecream, cheese, and milk powder 
Processing of animal products 

Drying, canning, and freezing of fish and meat; production of egg powder 
Waste utilization 

Pectin from fruit wastes, uses of byproducts from rice milling 
Food standards and quality maintenance 

FPO, PFA, AMark, ISI, HACCP, food plant sanitation and cleaning in place (CIP) 
Food engineering
Mass and energy balance 

Momentum transfer 

Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe, Reynolds number 
Heat transfer 

Heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, heat exchangers 
Mass transfer 

Molecular diffusion and Flick's law, conduction and convective mass transfer, permeability through single and multilayer films 
Mechanical operations 

Size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration, centrifugation, settling, sieving, mixing and agitation of liquid 
Thermal operations 

Thermal sterilization, evaporation of liquid foods, hot air drying of solids, spray and freezedrying, freezing and crystallization 
Mass transfer operations 

Psychometric, humidification, and dehumidification operations 
GATE Biomedical Engineering Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, eigen values and eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series, vector identities, line, surface and volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green's theorems 
Differential equations 

First order linear and nonlinear differential equations, higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, method of separation of variables, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, initial and boundary value problems 
Solution of partial differential equations 
Analysis of complex variables 

Analytic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor's and Laurent's series, residue theorem 
Probability and Statistics 

Sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode and standard deviation, random variables, discrete and continuous distributions: Normal, Poisson, and binomial distributions 
Tests of Significance, statistical power analysis, and sample size estimation 
Linear regression and correlation analysis 
Numerical methods 

Matrix inversion, numerical solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations, iterative methods for solving differential equations, numerical integration 
Electrical Circuits
Voltage and current sources 

Independent, dependent, ideal and practical; vi relationships of resistor, inductor and capacitor; transient analysis of RLC circuits with de excitation; Kirchhoff's laws, superposition, Thevenin, Norton, maximum power transfer and reciprocity theorems 
Peak, average and RMS values of ac quantities; apparent, active and reactive powers; phasor analysis, impedance and admittance; series and parallel resonance, realization of basic filters with R, L and C elements, Bode plot 
Signals and systems
Continuous and discrete signal and systems 

Periodic, aperiodic and impulse signals; sampling theorem; Laplace and Fourier transforms; impulse response of systems; transfer function, frequency response of first and second order linear time invariant systems, convolution, correlation 
Discrete time systemsimpulse response, frequency response, DFT, Z  transform; basics of IIR and FIR filters 
Analog and digital electronics
Basic characteristics and applications of diode, BJT and MOSFET 

Characteristics and applications of operational amplifiers 

Difference amplifier, adder, subtractor, integrator, differentiator, instrumentation amplifier, buffer, filters and waveform generators 
Number systems 

Boolean algebra 

Combinational logic circuits 

Arithmetic circuits, comparators, Schmitt trigger, encoder/ decoder, MUX/ DEMUX, multivibrators 
Sequential circuits 

Latches and flip flops, state diagrams, shift registers and counters 
Principles of ADC and DAC 

Microprocessor 

Architecture, interfacing memory and input output devices 
Measurements and control systems
SI units 

Systematic and random errors in measurement, 

Expression of uncertainty 

Accuracy and precision index, propagation of errors 
PMMC 

MI and dynamometer type instruments 

De potentiometer 

Bridges for measurement of R, L and C, Qmeter 

Basics of control systemtransfer function 

Sensors and bioinstrumentation
Sensors 

Resistive, capacitive, inductive, piezoelectric, Hall effect, electro chemical, optical; sensor signal conditioning circuits; application of LASER in sensing and therapy 
Origin of biopotentials and their measurement techniques 

ECG, EEG, EMG, ERG, EOG, GSR, PCG, principles of measuring blood pressure, body temperature, volume and flow in arteries, veins and tissues, respiratory measurements and cardiac output measurement 
Operating principle of medical equipment 

Sphygmomanometer, ventilator, cardiac pacemaker, defibrillator, pulse oximeter, hemodialyzer; Electrical Isolation (optical and electrical) and safety of biomedical instruments 
Human anatomy and physiology
Basics of cell 

Types of tissues and organ systems 

Homeostasis 

Basics of organ systems 

Musculoskeletal, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, endocrine, nervous, gastrointestinal and reproductive 
Medical imaging systems
Basic physics 

Instrumentation and image formation techniques in medical imaging modalities 

Xray, computed tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound 
Biomechanics
Kinematics of muscles and joints 

Freebody diagrams and equilibrium, forces and stresses in joints, biomechanical analysis of joints, Gait analysis 
Hard tissues 

Definition of stress and strain, deformation mechanics, structure and mechanical properties of bonecortical and cancellous bones 
Soft tissues 

Structure, functions, material properties, viscoelastic properties, Maxwell and Voight models 
Biofluid mechanics 

Flow properties of blood in the intact human cardiovascular system 
Biomaterials
Basic properties of biomaterials 

Metallic, ceramic, polymeric and composite 
Fundamental characteristics of implants 

Biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability 
Basics of drug delivery 

Basics of tissue engineering 

Biomaterial characterization techniques 

Rheology, atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy 
GATE Environmental Science and Engineering Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Mathematics foundation
Linear algebra 

Determinants and matrices, systems of linear equations, eigen values and eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Functions, limit, continuity, differentiability, local maxima and minima, Taylor series, tests for convergence, definite and indefinite integrals, application of definite integral to obtain area and volume, partial and total derivatives 
Differential equations 

Linear and nonlinear first order ordinary differential equations (ODE), higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, Laplace transform and its application in solving linear ODEs 
Probability and Statistics 

Descriptive statistics, measurement of central tendency, dispersion, Skewness and kurtosis, probability concepts, conditional probability, Baye's theorem, risk and reliability, probability distributions, correlation, single and multiple regression models 
Hypothesis testing (ttest, Ftest, chisquare test) 
Environmental chemistry
Fundamentals of environmental chemistry 

Covalent and ionic bonding; chemical equations, concentration and activity; structure and chemistry of organic molecules; radioactivity of elements; chemical equilibria; thermodynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions 
Principles of water chemistry 

Water quality parameters and their measurement; acidbase equilibria; buffer solution; carbonate system; solubility of gases in water; complexation, precipitation, and redox reactions; inorganic and organic contaminants in water and their speciation 
Soil chemistry 

Organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, cation exchange capacity, base saturation, and sodium absorption ratio 
Atmospheric chemistry 

Composition of the atmosphere; reactivity of trace substances in the atmosphere; urban atmospheresmog and particulate pollution; chemistry of ozone formation; chemistry of stratosphere 
Environmental microbiology
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms 

Characteristics of diverse groups of microorganisms 

Classification of microorganisms 

Microbial diversity 

Plantmicrobe and soilmicrobe interactions 

Role of microorganisms in waste water treatment 

Bioremediation and biogeochemical cycling 

Cell chemistry and cell biology 

Structure of proteins, nucleic acid (DNA and RNA), lipids and polysaccharides; bonds in biomolecules; stereoisomerism in biomolecules; structure of cell; structure and function of cytoplasmic membrane, cell wall, outer membrane, glycocalyx, chromosomes 
Endospores, storage products, mitochondria and chloroplasts 
Microbial metabolism 

Anabolism and catabolism; phosphorylation; glycolysis; TCA cycle; electron transport chain; fermentation; anaerobic respiration; energy balances; enzymes and enzyme kinetics 
Growth and control of microorganisms 

Bacterial nutrition and growth; specific growth rate and doubling time; Monod's model; types of culture media; batch and continuous culture; effects of environmental factors on growth; control of microbes using physical and chemical methods 
Microbiology and health 

Pathogens and modes of transmission; indicator organisms; quantification of coliforms using MPN and membrane filtration techniques 
Water resources and environmental hydraulics
Global water resources 

Structure, properties, and distribution of water; water quality; threats to water resources; water conservation 
Surface water resources 

Hydrological cycle and water balanceprecipitation, infiltration, evapotranspiration, runoff; flow hydrographs; unit hydrographs; stagedischarge relationship; reservoir capacity; reservoir and channel routing; surface runoff models 
Surface water management; rain water harvesting and storage 
Ground water resources 

Geologic formations as aquifers; vadose and saturated zones; confined and unconfined aquifers and their parametersporosity, permeability, transmissivity and storage coefficient; Darcy's law and applications; steady state well hydraulics 
Environmental hydraulics 

Concepts of mechanics; properties of fluids; pressure measurement; hydrostatic force on surfaces; buoyancy and flotation; Laminar and turbulent flow; flow through pipes; pipe networks; boundary layer theory; forces on immersed bodies 
Flow measurement in channels and pipes; kinematics of flow; continuity, momentum and energy equations; channel hydraulicsspecific energy, critical flow, hydraulic jump, rapid and gradually varied flow; design of lined and unlined channels 
Water and waste water treatment and management
Water and waste water quality parameters 

Eutrophication and thermal stratification in lakes 

River pollutionoxygen sag curve 

Water treatment methods 

Screening, sedimentation with and without coagulation, filtration, desalination, disinfection; water distribution and storage 
Point and nonpoint sources of waste water 

Population forecasting methods 

Design of sewer and storm water sewers 

Sewer appurtenances 

Preliminary, primary, secondary and tertiary sewage treatment 

Sludge generation 

Processing and disposal methods 

Sewage farming 

Sources and characteristics of industrial effluents 

Concept of common effluent treatment plants (CETP) 

Waste water recycling and zero liquid discharge 

Kinetics and reactor design 

Mass and energy balance, order and rate of reactions, batch reactors, completely mixed flow reactors, plug flow reactors 
Air and noise pollution
Structure of the atmosphere 

Natural and anthropogenic sources of pollution 

Atmospheric sources, sinks, transport 

Indoor air pollution 

Effects on health and environment 

Air pollution 

Gases and particulate matter; air quality standards; primary and secondary pollutants 
Criteria pollutants 

Ambient and source standards 

Air quality indices 

Visibility 

Particulate pollutants 

Measurement and control methods; control of particulate air pollutants using gravitational settling chambers, cyclone separators, wet collectors, fabric filters (baghouse filter), electrostatic precipitators (ESP) 
Gaseous pollutants 

Measurement and control methods; control of gaseous contaminants: Absorption, adsorption, condensation and combustion; control of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons; vapourliquid and vapoursolid equilibria 
Diffusion, Fick's law and interfacial mass transfer 
Automotive emission controls, fuel quality, diesel particulate filters, catalytic convertors 
Air quality management 

Point, line and area sources; inventory; influence of meteorologywind rose diagrams, stability, mixing height, topography, dispersion modelling, monitoring 
Noise pollution 

Sources; health effects; standards; measurement and control methods 
Solid and hazardous waste management
Integrated solid waste management 

Waste hierarchy 

Rules and regulations for solid waste management in India 

Municipal solid waste management 

Sources, generation, characteristics, collection and transportation, waste processing and disposal (including reuse options, biological methods, energy recovery processes and landfilling) 
Hazardous waste management 

Characteristics, generation, fate of materials in the environment, treatment and disposal 
Soil contamination and leaching of contaminants into groundwater 
Management of biomedical waste, plastic waste and ewaste 

Sources, generation and characteristics; waste management practices including storage, collection and transfer 
Global and regional environmental issues
Global effects of air pollution 

Greenhouse gases, global warming, climate change, urban heat islands, acid rain, ozone hole 
Ecology and various ecosystems 

Biodiversity 

Factors influencing increase in population, energy consumption, and environmental degradation 

Environmental management and sustainable development
Environmental management systems 

ISO14000 series 

Environmental auditing 

Environmental impact assessment; life cycle assessment; human health risk assessment 
Environmental law and policy 

Objectives; polluter pays principle, precautionary principle; the water and air acts with amendments; the environment (protection) act (EPA) 1986; national green tribunal act, 2010; national environment policy 
Principles of international law and international treaties 
Energy and environment 

Energy sourcesoverview of resources and reserves; renewable and nonrenewable energy sources; energyenvironment nexus 
Sustainable development 

Definition and concepts of sustainable development; sustainable development goals; hurdles to sustainability; environment and economics 
GATE XH Reasoning and Comprehension Syllabus
Reasoning and comprehension
Reading comprehension 

Complex language material in short paragraphs 
Expression 

Stylistic and rhetorical aspects of a short passage including corrections or modifications of particular sentences 
Analytical reasoning 

Relationships in statements or short passages and being able to draw reasonable conclusions/ inferences from them 
Logical reasoning 

Thinking critically to evaluate or to predict an argument, identify the main and supporting arguments, predict outcomes, etc 
GATE XH Economics Syllabus
Microeconomics
Theory of consumer behaviour 

Cardinal approach and ordinal approach; consumer preferences; nature of the utility function; Marshallian and Hicksian demand functions; duality theorem 
Slutsky equation and comparative statics 

Homogeneous and homothetic utility functions 

Euler's theorem 

The theory of revealed preference 

Weak axiom of revealed preference and strong axiom of revealed preference, theory of production and costs: Shortrun and longrun analysis, existence, uniqueness and stability of market equilibrium: Walrasian and Marshallian stability analysis 
The cobweb model 

Decision making under uncertainty and risk 

Asymmetric information 

Adverse selection and moral hazard 
Theory of agency costs 

The theory of search, noncooperative games: 

Constant sum game, mixed strategy and pure strategy, Bayesian Nash equilibrium, SPNE, perfect Bayesian equilibria 
Theory of firm 

Market structurescompetitive and noncompetitive equilibria and their efficiency properties 
Structureconductperformance paradigm 

Factor pricing 

Marginal productivity theory of distribution in perfectly competitive markets; theory of employment in imperfectly competitive marketsmonopolistic exploitation, general equilibrium analysis 
Welfare economics 

Fundamental theorems, social welfare function 
Efficiency criteria 

Paretooptimality 
Macroeconomics
National income accounting 

Closed economy concepts and measurement and open economy issues 
Determination of output and employment 

Classical and Keynesian framework 
Theories of consumption 

Absolute income hypothesis, relative income hypothesis, life cycle hypothesis, permanent income hypothesis and Robert Hall's random walk model; 
Investment function specifications 

Dale Jorgenson's neoclassical theory of capital accumulation and Tobin's, Keynesian stabilization policies 
(Autonomous) multipliers and investment accelerator 

Demand and supply of money 

Components of money supply 

Liquidity preference and liquidity trap 

Money multiplier 

Interest rate determination 

Central banking 

Objectives, instruments (direct and indirect) of monetary policy 

Prudential regulation 

Quantitative easing (unconventional monetary policy) 

Commercial banking 

Nonbanking financial institutions 

Capital market and its regulation 

Theories of inflation and expectations augmented Phillips curve 

Real business cycles 

Adaptive expectations hypothesis 

Rational expectation hypothesis and its critique 

Closed economy ISLM model and Mundell Fleming model 

Monetary and fiscal policy efficacy 
The impossible trinity 

Statistics, econometrics and mathematical economics
Probability theory 

Concepts of probability, probability distributions (discrete and continuous), central limit theorem, index numbers and construction of price indices, sampling methods and sampling distribution, statistical inferences, hypothesis testing 
Linear regression models and the Gauss Markov theorem, heteroscedasticity, multicollinearity and autocorrelation, spurious regressions and unit roots, simultaneous equation modelsrecursive and nonrecursive 
Identification problem 

Differential calculus and its applications 

Linear algebramatrices 

Applications of Cramer's rule 

Static optimization problems and applications 

Inputoutput model 

Linear programming 

Difference equations and differential equations with applications 

International economics
Theories of international trade 

International trade under imperfect competition 

Gains from trade 

Terms of trade 

Trade multiplier 

Tariff and nontariff barriers to trade 

Dumping and antidumping policies 

GATT, WTO, and regional trade blocks 

Trade policy issues 

Balance of payments 

Composition, equilibrium and disequilibrium and adjustment mechanisms, foreign exchange market and arbitrage, exchange rate determination, IMF and World bank 
Public economics
Market failure and remedial measures 

Asymmetric information, public Goods, externality, regulation of marketcollusion and Consumers' welfare 
Public revenue 

Tax and nontax revenue, direct and indirect taxes, progressive and nonprogressive taxation, incidence and effects of taxation, public expenditure, public debt and its management, public budget and budget multiplier, tax incidence 
Fiscal policy and its implications, environment as a public good, market failure and Coase theorem, costbenefit analysis 
Development economics
Theories of economic development 

Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Karl Marx, J. Schumpeter, W. Rostow, balanced and unbalanced growth, big push approach 
Indicators of economic development 

HDI, SDGs, MDGs, poverty and inequalitiesconcepts and measurement issues 
Social sector development 

Health, education, gender, fertility, morbidity, mortality, migration, child labor, age structure, demographic dividend 
Models of economic growth 

HarrodDomar, Solow, Ramsey, technical progressdisembodied and embodied, endogenous growth models 
Indian economy
Economic growth in India 

Pattern and structure 
Agriculture, industry, and services sector 

Pattern and structure of growth, major challenges, policy responses, rural and urban developmentissues, challenges and policy responses, flow of foreign capital, trade policies 
Infrastructure development 

Physical and social; publicprivate partnerships, reforms in land, labour and capital markets, poverty, inequality and unemployment, functioning of monetary policy in India 
Fiscal policy in the Indian context 

Structure of receipts and expenditure, tax reformsgoods and services tax, issues of growth and equity, fiscal federalism, centrestate financial relations and finance commissions of India; sustainability of deficits and debt 
The fiscal responsibility and budget management act 2003, demonetization and aftermath 
India's balance of payments 

Composition of India's trade 

Competitiveness of India's exports 

India's exchange rate policy 

GATE XH English Syllabus
English
Multigenre literatures in English 

Poetry, the novel and other forms of fiction including the short story, drama, creative nonfiction, and non fiction prosewith emphasis on the long 19th and 20th centuries 
Especially in a comparative context, anglophone and in English translation, literatures from India and, extending to some degree, the larger Indian subcontinent 

Literary criticism and theory; critical and cultural intellectual 

Traditions and approaches widely referred to, and used in the discipline of English 
History of English literature and English literary studies 

Research approaches and methodologies, including interpretive techniques responsive to literary forms, devices, concepts, and genres 

GATE XH Linguistics Syllabus
Language and linguistics
Language spoken, written, and signed 

Description and prescription 

Language and cultural heritage 

Language and social identity 

Language as an object of inquiry 

Its structure, units and components 
Design features 

Writing systems 

Biological foundations and language faculty 

Linguistic competence and performance 

Levels of grammar 

Contrast and complementation 

Rulescontext dependent and context free 

Levels of adequacy for analysis 

Interdisciplinary approaches 

Schools of linguistic thought (European, American) and the Indian grammatical tradition 

Levels of grammar and grammatical analysis
Phonetics and phonology 

Vocal tract anatomy; phonation; articulatory parameters; classification of sounds; gestural theory of speech production; cardinal vowels; secondary and coarticulation; suprasegmentalslength, stress, tone, intonation and juncture; IPA 
Basic physics of sound and of phonation and articulation; acoustic cues for speech sounds; organisation of phones into phonemes; phoneme inventories and crosslinguistic properties, syllable structure and phonological properties 
Principles of phonological analysisphonetic similarity, contrastive and complementary distribution, free variation, allophones; linear and nonlinear approaches; levels of representation; phonological rules 
Distinctive features (major class, manner, place, etc); feature geometry; rule ordering, markedness and unspecified featural values; core principles of lexical phonology, optimality theory, auto segmental phonology, and prosodic morphology 
Morphology 

Concepts of morpheme, morph, allomorph, zero allomorph, conditions on allomorphs; lexeme and word; types of morphemesstructural and functional; affixes vs. clitics; grammatical categories 
Morphological theoriesgenerative, lexicalist, process and distributed morphology; identification of morphemes and parts of speech; alternation; morphophonology; inflection vs. derivation; conjugation and declension 
Word creation and word formation rules and processes; creativity and productivity, blocking, bracketing paradoxes, constraints on affix ordering; mental lexicon; lexical 
Syntax 

Basic syntactic units and their types: Word, phrase, clause, sentence and their description, and generation; grammatical and case relations; key ideas from syntactic theories, generative grammars including minimalist program, HPSG 
Basic syntactic units and their types: Relational grammar and lexical functional grammar; phrase structure rules (including Xbar theory); universal grammar and crosslinguistic properties; idea of grammaticality judgments 
Basic syntactic units and their types: Solving the language acquisition problem; diagnostics of structure; syntactic phenomena such as movement, binding, ellipses, casechecking, islands, argument structure etc; unergatives and unaccusatives 
Semantics and pragmatics 

Types of meaning, lexical and compositional; syntaxsemantics interface (semantic roles, binding, scope, LF etc); sense and reference, connotation and denotation, lexical semantic relations (homonymy, hypo/ hypernymy, antonymy, synonymy, ambiguity) 
Prototype theory and componential analysis; sentence meaning and truth conditions, contradictions, entailment; basic set theory; propositions, truth values, sentential connectives; arguments, predicates, quantifiers, variables 
In/ definiteness, mood and modality; language use in context; sentence meaning and utterance meaning; speech acts; deixis; presupposition and implicature: Gricean maxims; information structure; politeness, power and solidarity; discourse analysis 
Historical linguistics
Neogrammarian laws of phonetic change such as Grimm's, Verner's, Grassmann's laws 

Genesis and spread of sound change 

Split and merger 

Conditioned vs. unconditioned change 

Lexical diffusion of sound change 

Analogical changes and paradigm levelling 

Relative chronology of different changes 

Study of sound change in progress 

Morphosyntactic (syncretism, grammaticalisation, and lexicalisation) and semantic change (extension, narrowing, figurative speech) 

Linguistic reconstructionexternal vs. internal 

The comparative method; lexicostatistics; language contact and dialect geographyborrowing, and impact of borrowing; pidgins and creoles; biand multilingualism as the source for borrowing; dialect geographydialect atlas 
Isogloss, focal, transition, and relic areas 
Sociolinguistics
Microand macro approaches to language in society 

Linguistic repertoire language, dialect, sociolect, idiolect 

Diglossia 

Taboo, slang and euphemism 

Elaborated and restricted codes 

Speech community and communicative competence 

Ethnography of speaking 

Lingua franca 

Diasporic language 

Linguistic variables and their covariation along linguistic/ social dimensions 

Language policies and development (especially in India) 

Language contact and outcomes (language loss, pidginization, and creolization) 

Codemixing and codeswitching 

Language movementsstate and societal interventions 

Script development and modifications 

Linguistic minorities 

Language ecology and endangerment linguistic vitality, language endangerment (EGIDS scale) 

Parameters of endangerment, documentation and revitalisation 

Areal typology, universals, crosslinguistic features
Morphological types of languages agglutinative, analytical (isolating), synthetic fusional (inflecting), polysynthetic (incorporating) languages 

Formal and substantive universals, absolute and statistical universals 

Implicational and nonimplicational universals (greenberg) 

Linguistic relatedness 

Universals and parametric variation 

Word order typology 

Salient features of South Asian languages 

IndoAryan, Dravidian, AustroAsiatic, and TibetoBurman language families 
Linguistic survey of India 

Contact induced typological change 

Methods of analysis
Experimental and nonexperimental methods 

Sampling and tools 

Identification of variables and their variants 

Data processing and interpretation 

Quantitative analysis of data 

Ethnomethodology 

Participant observation 

Field methods and elicitation 

Document creation 

Ethics 

Applied linguistics
Psycholinguistics 

The study of how humans learn, represent, comprehend, and produce language 
Topics include word recognition and storage, sentence production and comprehension, reading, speech perception, language acquisition, neural representation of language, bilingualism, and language disorders 
GATE XH Philosophy Syllabus
Classical Indian philosophy
Orthodox systems 

SānkhyaPuruṣa, Prakṛti, Guṇas, Satkāryavāda, mokṣa (Kaivalya), Pramāṇas and theory of error, YogaPramāṇas, theory of error, Iśvara, Citta, Kleśa, Aṣṭāngayoga, Kaivalya (Mokṣa) 
NyāyaPramāṇas, Hetvābhāsa, Iśvara, Asatkāryavāda, theory of error, NavyaNyāya, VaiśeṣikaParataḥprāmāṇya, Padārthas (categories), theory of atomism (paramāṇuvāda), Mīmāmsādharma, Apūrva, mokṣa, Pramāṇas (both in Kumārila and Prabhākara), Anyathākhyāti 
VedāntaAdvaita (Adhyāsa, Brahman, Iśvara, Ātman, Jīva, Mokṣa, Viśiṣṭādvaita (Tattvatraya, mokṣa, and refutation of Māyāvāda), Dvaita, Dvaitādvaita, Śuddhādvaita, Pramāṇa in Advaita and Viśiṣṭādvaita 
Heterodox systems 

CārvākaPramāṇa, Indian marerislism and Hedonism, JainismPramāṇas, Syādvāda, Anekāntavāda, Padārtha (categories), Jīva and Ajīva, Mokṣa, Mahāvrata, Aṇuvrata, and BuddhismTipiṭaka, Sarvāstivāda, Sautrāntika, Mādhyamika, YogācāraVijñānavāda 
BuddhismPañcaskandha, Anityavāda, Anātmavāda, doctrine of momentariness, doctrine of dependent origination, Pramānas, doctrine of two truths, doctrine of Trikāya, Ṣaḍpāramitās, Brahmavihāras, Pāñcaśīla, and Bodhisattva Ideal, and Upāyakauśalya 
Upaniṣads, Bhagavadgītā, and Dharmaśāstras 

Philosophy of the Upaniṣadspure Monism, Brahmam and Ātman, Pañcakośa, Parāvidyā and Aparāvidyā, meaning of dharma, Ṛta, Purusārtha, Śreyas and Preyas, Varṇāśramadharma, dharmaSvadharma and Sādhāraṇa Dharma, Ṛna, Yajña, Karmayoga, Sthitaprajña 
Lokasaṃgraha and law of Karma 
Kāṣmira Śaivism, Śaivasiddhānta, Vīra Śaivism, Śāktism, and Vaiṣṇavism 

Kāṣmīra ŚaivismPratyābhijña school, Śiva and Śakti, and conception of Kriyā, ŚaivasiddhāntaGod (pati) and divine power (śakti), proofs for God's existence, bondage and liberation, Vīra Śaivismphilosophical basis of Vīra Śaivism 
Śāktismphilosophical basis of Śāktism, and Vaiṣṇavismphilosophical basis of Vaiṣṇavism 
Contemporary Indian philosophy
Vivekananda 

Notion of God, freedom and Karma, nature of soul/ self, practical Vedanta, and universal religion 
Aurobindo 

World processinvolution and evolution, four theories of existence, the supermind, integral yoga, and Gnostic being 
Iqbal 

Nature of intuition, nature of self, and notion of God 
Tagore 

Humanism and nature of man, notion of religion, and nationalism 
K. C. Bhattacharyya 

Concept of absolute and its alternative forms, and notion subjectivity and freedom 
Radhakrishnan 

Nature of ultimate reality, religious experience, intellect and intuition, Hindu view of life 
J. Krishnamurti 

Notion of freedom, choiceless awareness, truth is a pathless land, and notion of education 
Gandhi 

Notion of truth, nonviolence, Satyagraha, Swaraj, and trusteeship 
Ambedkar 

Annihilation of caste, neoBuddhism, democracy, and natural rights and law 
M.N. Roy 

Radical humanism and materialism 
Classical and modern western philosophy
Metaphysics 

PreSocratic philosophy of Thales, Anaxagoras, Anaximenies, Ionians, Pythagoras, Parmenides, Heraclitus and Democritus 
Metaphysics of Plato and Aristotle: The question of being (to on/ousia)being as idea in Plato's Phaedo, republic and the Sophist, being as synthesis of hyle (matter) and morphe (form) in Aristotle's metaphysics and physics 
Problem of evil and existence of God in St. Augustine, St. Anselm, and St. Thomas Aquinas metaphysics in modern philosophy: Substance, mindbody dualism, attribute, parallelism, preestablished harmony, the existence of God, problem of Solipsism 
St. Thomas Aquinas metaphysics in modern philosophy: Self and personal identity, rejection of metaphysics, phenomena and noumena, transcendental deduction of categories, being and becoming, absolute idealism 
Epistemology 

Plato and Aristotle's theory of knowledge, Doxa, Episteme, and Sophia, method of dialectics, theoretical and practical reason, theory of causation, Descarte's method of doubt, cogito ergo sum, innate ideas and its refutation 
Principle of noncontradiction, sufficient reason, and identity of indiscernible, Locke's three grades of knowledge, Berkeley's critique of abstract ideas, Hume's impressions and ideas, induction and causality, Kant's Copernican revolution 
Forms of sensibility, possibility of synthetic a priori judgments 
Hegel's dialectics, spirit, and absolute idealism 
Ethics 

Concepts of good, right, justice, duty, obligation, cardinal virtues, eudaemonism; intuition as explained in teleological and deontological theories; egoism, altruism, universalism, subjectivism, cultural relativism, supernaturalism 
Ethical realism and intuitionism, Kant's moral theory, postulates of morality, goodwill, categorical imperative, duty, means and ends, maxims; utilitarianism: Principle of utility, problem of sanction and justification of morality 
Moral theories of Bentham, J.S. Mill, Sidgwick; theories of punishment; ethical cognitivism and noncognitivism, emotivism, prescriptivism, descriptivism 
Social and political philosophy 

Plato's theory of justice and state, Aristotle's definition of state and political naturalism; classical liberalism and social contract theory (Hobbes, Rousseau, Locke); Marx's dialectical materialism, alienation, and critique of capitalism 
Logic 

Truth and validity, nature of propositions, categorical syllogism, laws of thought classification of propositions square of opposition, truthfunctions and propositional logic, quantification and rules of quantification 
Symbolic logic: Use of symbols; truth table for testing the validity of arguments; differences between deductive and inductive logic, causality and Mill's method 
Contemporary western philosophy
Frege's sense and reference 

Logical positivism's verification theory of meaning 

Elimination of metaphysics 

Moore's distinction between sense and reference 

Defense of commonsense 

Proof of an external world 

Russell's logical atomism 

Definite descriptions 

Refutation of idealism 

Wittgenstein on language and reality 

The picture theory 

Critique of private language 

Meaning and use 

Forms of life 

Gilbert Ryle on systematically misleading expressions 

Critique of Cartesian dualism 

W.V.O. Quine's two dogmas of empiricism 

P.F. Strawson's concept of person 

Husserl's phenomenological method 

Philosophy as a rigorous science 

Intentionality 

Phenomenological reduction 

Intersubjectivity 

Heidegger's concept of being (Dasein) 

Being in the world 

Sartre's concept of freedom, badfaith, humanism 

MerleauPonty on perception 

Embodied consciousness 

William James's pragmatic theories of meaning and truth 

Varieties of religious experience 

John Dewey on pragmatist epistemology with focus on inquiry 

Fallibilism and experience 

Education 

Nietzsche on the critique of enlightenment 

Will to power 

Genealogy of moral 

Richard Rorty's critique of representationalism 

Against epistemological method 

Edifying philosophy 

Levinas 

Ethics as a first philosophy, philosophy of 'other' 
Rawls' veil of ignorance, principle of justice 

Nozick's critique of Rawls 

Libertarianism 

Charles Taylor's communitarianism, critique of the liberal self, politics of recognition 
Martha Nussbaum's liberal feminism and capability approach 

Simone de Beauvoir on situated freedom and ethics of ambiguity 

Code and Harding on situated knowledge and strong and weak objectivity 

Gilligan and Noddings on ethics of care, debate between care and justice 

GATE XH Psychology Syllabus
Research methods and statistics
Approaches to research 

Philosophical world views and criteria involved in approach 
Research design: Quantitative and qualitative, mixed methods 
Designing research 

Research problems, purpose statement, variables and operational definitions, hypothesis, sampling 
Nature of quantitative and qualitative research 

Structured, semistructured interviewing, selfcompletion questionnaires (survey), observation, experimental, Quasiexperimental, field studies, focus groups discussions, narratives, case studies, ethnography 
Ethics in conducting and reporting research 

Statistics in psychology 

Measures of central tendency and dispersion 
Normal probability curve 
Parametric and nonparametric tests effect size and power analysis 
Correlational analysis 

Correlation (product moment, rank order), partial correlation, multiple correlation 
Special correlation methods: biserial, point biserial, tetrachoric, phi coefficient 
Regression: simple linear regression, multiple regression 
Factor analysis: assumptions, methods, rotation and interpretation 
Experimental designs 

ANOVA (oneway, factorial), randomized block designs, repeated measures design, Latin square, cohort studies, time series, MANOVA, ANCOVA 
Singlesubject designs 
Psychometrics
Foundations of psychological measurement 

Basic components 

Scales and items' construction and analysis of items: Intelligence test items, performance tests, ability and aptitude test, personality questionnaires 
Method of test construction 

Standardization of measures 

Reliability, validity, norms, application of assessment and measurements in testsapplications of psychological testing in various settingseducations, counselling and guidance, clinical, organizational and developmental 
Biological and evolutionary basis of behaviour
Heredity and behaviour evolution and natural selection 

Nervous system 

structures of the brain and their functions 

Neurons 

Structure, functions, types, neural impulse, synaptic transmission 
Neurotransmitters 

Hemispheric lateralization 

The endocrine system types and functions 

Biological basis of motivation 

Hunger, thirst, sleep and sex 
Biological basis of emotion 

The limbic system, hormonal regulation of behaviour 
Methods of physiological psychology 

Invasive methodsanatomical methods, degeneration techniques, lesion techniques, chemical methods, microelectrode studies, noninvasive methodsEEG, scanning methods 
Muscular and glandular system 

Genetics and behaviour: Chromosomal anomalies; naturenurture controversy (twin studies and adoption studies) 
Perception, learning, memory and forgetting
What is sensation 

Sensory thresholds and sensory adaptations 

Vision 

Hearing 

Touch and pain 

Smell and taste 

Kinesthesis and vestibular sense 

Perception 

Role of attention; organizing principles of perception, gestalt perception, depth perception and illusions 
Theories of learning 

Classical conditioning, operant conditioning, social learning theory, cognitive learning 
Memory 

Encoding, storage, retrieval, information processing theories of memory, retrieval in long term memory, reconstructive nature of longterm memory 
Forgetting 

Encoding failure, interference theory, memory trace decay theory, the physical aspects of memory 
Cognition
Thinking, intelligence, and language 

Basic elements of though: Concepts, propositions, imagery 
Current paradigms of cognitive psychologyinformation processing approach, ecological approach, problem solving: Methods of problem solving, strategies and obstacles, role of metacognitive processing, decisionmaking: Choosing among alternatives 
Intelligence: Theories of intelligence (Spearman; Thurstone; Jensen; Cattell; Gardner; Stenberg) and emotional intelligence; measuring intelligence, individual differences in intelligence; role of heredity and environment 
Difference between Intelligence, aptitude and creativity 
Personality
Theories of personality 

Psychoanalytic, behaviourist, social cognitive view, humanism and trait and type theories, biology of personality and assessment of personality 
Motivation, emotion and stress and coping
Approaches to understanding motivation 

Instinct, drivereduction, arousal, incentive, humanistic, achievement motivation, intrinsic motivation, aggression, curiosity and exploration 
Emotions 

Nature of emotions; biological basis of emotions 
Theories of emotions 

JamesLange, CanonBard, Schachter and Singer, Lazarus, definition of stress; what are stressors; cognitive factors in stress 
Factors in stress reaction 

General adaptation syndrome; effect of stress 
Coping with stress 

Problemfocused coping; emotionfocused coping, REBT and meditation 
Social psychology
Social perception 

Attribution; impression formation; social categorization, implicit personality theory 
Social influence 

Conformity, compliance and obedience, attitudes 
Beliefs and values 

Evaluating the social world, attitude formation, attitude change and persuasion, cognitive dissonance, prejudice, discrimination, aggression, power and prosocial behaviour, Belief systems and value patterns 
Group dynamics 

Leadership style and effectiveness 

Theories of intergroup relations and conflicts 

Development across the life span
Nature versus nurture in human development 

Prenatal development 

Chromosomes, genes and DNA 
Physical, cognitive and psychosocial development in infancy 

Childhood, adolescence and adulthood 

Theories of aging 

Moral development 

Applications of psychology
Psychological disorders 

Conceptions of mental disorders; assessment and diagnosis, DSM and other tools, PTSD and trauma 
Psychotherapies 

Psychodynamic, phenomenological/ experiential therapy; behaviour therapy; cognitive therapy; biological therapy 
Applications of theories of motivation and learning in school 

Factors in educational achievement; counselling and guidance in schools, application of theories of motivation, learning, emotions, perceptions, group dynamics and leadership to organizational set up, issues of personal space, crowding, and territoriality 
GATE XH Sociology Syllabus
Sociological theory
Classical sociological traditions 

Emile Durkheim (social solidarity, social facts, religion, functionalism, suicide, anomie, division of labour, law; Max Weber (types of authority, social action, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism, bureaucracy, ideal type, methodology) 
Karl Marx: Class and class conflict, dialectical and historical materialism, capitalism, surplus value, alienation) 
Structuralfunctionalism and structuralism 

Bronislaw Malinowski; A.R. RadcliffeBrown, Talcott Parsons (AGIL, systems approach), Robert K. Merton (middle range theory, reference groups, latent and manifest function), Claude Levi Strauss (myths, structuralism) 
Hermeneutic and interpretative traditions 

G.H. Mead, Alfred Schutz (phenomenology); Harold Garfinkel (ethnomethodology); Erving Goffman (symbolic interaction, dramaturgy); ∙Clifford Geertz (culture, thick description) 
Postmodernism, poststructuralism, and postcolonialism 

Pierre Bourdieu, Michel Foucault, Jurgen Habermas, Anthony Giddens, Frankfurt School 
Conflict theory 

Ralf Dahrendorf; C Wright Mills 
Indian thinkers 

M.K. Gandhi, B.R. Ambedkar, Radha Kamal Mukherjee, G. S. Ghurye, M.N. Srinivas, Irawati Karve, 
Research methodology and methods
Conceptualizing social reality 

Philosophy of science; scientific method and epistemology in social science; Hermeneutic traditions; objectivity and reflexivity in social science; ethics and politics of research 
Research design 

Reading social science research, data and documents; induction and deduction; fact, concept and theory; hypotheses, research questions, objectives 
Quantitative and qualitative methods 

Ethnography; survey method; historical method; comparative method 
Research techniques 

Sampling; questionnaire and schedule; statistical analysis; observation, interview and case study; interpretation, data analysis and report writing 
Sociological concepts
Sociological concepts 

Social structure; culture; network; status and role; identity; community; socialization; diaspora; values, norms and rules; personhood, habitus and agency; bureaucracy, power and authority; self and society 
Social institutions 

Marriage, family and kinship; economy; polity; religion; education; law and customs 
Social stratification 

Social difference, hierarchy, inequality and marginalization: Caste and class; status and power; gender, sexuality and disability; race, tribe and ethnicity 
Social change 

Evolution and diffusion; modernization and development; social transformations and globalization; social mobilitySanskritisation, educational and occupational change 
Agrarian sociology and rural transformation
Rural and peasant society 

Castetribe distinction and continuum 

Agrarian social structure and emergent class relations 

Land ownership and agrarian relations 

Decline of agrarian economy 

Depeasantization and agrarian change 

Agrarian unrest and peasant movements 

Feudalism 

Mode of production debate 

Land reforms 

Panchayati raj 

Rural development programmes and community development 

Green revolution and agricultural change 

Peasants and farmers movements 

Family, marriage, and kinship
Theoretical approaches 

Structuralfunctionalist, alliance and cultural; gender relations and power dynamics; inheritance, succession and authority; gender, sexuality, and reproduction; children, youth, and elderly; emotions and family; emergent forms of family 
Changing marriage practices; changing care and support systems; family laws; domestic violence and crime against women; honour killing 
Indian society/ sociology of India
Colonial, nationalist, indological perspectives (G.S.Ghurye) 

Structuralfunctional approach (M.N. Srinivas) 

Dialectical approach (A.R. Desai) 

Subaltern studies (R. Guha) 

Non Brahmin perspectives (Phule, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar) 

Feminist perspectives (Leela Dube, Sharmila Rege) 

Social institutions 

Family, kinship, household, village and urban settings 
Social stratification 

Caste, class, tribe and gender 
Tradition and modernity (M.N.Srinivas, Yogendra Singh, Dipankar Gupta) 

Peasants and agrarian sociology (Andre Beteille, AR Desai, D.N.Dhanagare) 

Village studies 

Communalism and secularism 

Social movements
Introduction to social movements 

Nature, definitions, characteristics; social movement and social change; types of social movements (reform, rebellion, revival, revolution, insurrection, counter movement) 
Theories of social movements 

Structuralfunctional; Marxist; resource mobilization theory; new social movements 
Social movement in India with specific reference to social basis, leadership, ideology and actions 

Peasant movement; labour movement; Dalit movement; women's movement, environmental movement 
Social movements, civil society, and globalization 

Social movement and its relationship with state and civil society; social movements and impact of globalization: Debates; issues of citizenship 
Sociology of development
Perspectives on the study of development 

Definitions and indices; liberal, Marxist, and NeoMarxist perspectives (dependency theory, world systems); epistemological critiques of development 
State and market 

Institutions and ideologies: Planned development and society; globalisation and liberalization 
The micropolitics of development 

Transforming communities: Maps and models; knowledge and power in development; reinventing development: Subaltern movements; postcolonial development; decentralization and devolution; participatory approaches 
Sustainable development 

Postsustainable development; development, violence and inequality; poststructural perspectives (Escobar); alternative development paradigms; feminist critique; human development 
GATE Geomatics Engineering Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech, basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context, reading and comprehension, narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables, numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms 
Numerical computation and estimation: Permutations and combinations, and series, mensuration and geometry, elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction, analogy, numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Geomatics engineering (partA)
Engineering mathematics 

Surveying measurements, accuracy, precision, most probable value, errors and their adjustments, regression analysis, correlation coefficient, least square adjustment, statistical significant value, chi square test 
Remote sensing 

Basic concept, electromagnetic spectrum, spectral signature, resolutionsspectral 
Spatial, temporal and radiometric, platforms and sensors, remote sensing data productsPAN, multispectral, microwave, thermal, hyperspectral, visual, and digital interpretation methods 
GNSS 

Principle used, components of GNSS, data collection methods, DGPS, errors in observations and corrections 
GIS 

Introduction, data sources, data models and data structures, algorithms, DBMS, creation of databases (spatial and nonspatial), spatial analysisinterpolation, buffer, overlay, terrain modeling and network analysis 
Geomatics engineering (partB: SectionI)
Maps 

Importance of maps to engineering projects, types of maps, scales and uses, plotting accuracy, map sheet numbering, coordinate systemsCartesian and geographical, map projections, map datumMSL, Geoid, spheroid, WGS84 
Land surveying 

Various levels, levelling methods, compass, theodolite and total station and their uses, tachometer, trigonometric levelling, traversing, triangulation, and trilateration 
Aerial photogrammetry 

Types of photographs, flying height and scale, relief (height) displacement, stereoscopy, 3D Model, height determination using parallax bar, digital elevation model (DEM), slope 
Data quantization and processing 

Sampling and quantization theory, principle of linear system, convolution, continuous, and discrete Fourier transform 
Geomatics engineering (partB: SectionII)
Digital image processing 

Digital image characteristics: Image histogram and scattergram and their significance, variancecovariance matrix, correlation matrix and their significance 
Radiometric and geometric corrections 

Registration and resampling techniques 
Image enhancement 

Contrast enhancement: Linear and nonlinear methods; spatial enhancement: Noise and spatial filters 
Image transformation 

Principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis, color transformations (RGBIHS, CMYK), indices (Ratios, NDVI, NDWI) 
Image segmentation and classification 

Simple techniques 
GATE Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech, basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context, reading and comprehension, narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables, numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms 
Numerical computation and estimation: Permutations and combinations, and series, mensuration and geometry, elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction, analogy, numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Naval architecture and marine engineering
Engineering mathematics 

Determinants and matrices, systems of linear equations, eigen values and eigen vectors 
Functions, gradient, divergence, curl, chain rules, partial derivatives, directional derivatives, definite and indefinite integrals, line surface and volume integrals, theorems of Stokes, Gauss, and Green 
Linear, nonlinear, first and higher order ordinary and partial differential equations, separation of variables 
Laplace transformation, analytical functions of complex variables, Fourier series, numerical methods for differentiation and integration, complex analysis, probability and statistics 
Applied mechanics and structures 

Engineering mechanics: Freebody diagrams and equilibrium; trusses and frames; virtual work; kinematics and dynamics of particles and rigid bodies in plane motion; impulse and momentum (linear and angular) and energy formulations 
Mechanics of materials: Stress and strain, elastic constants, Poisson’s ratio; Mohr’s circle for plane stress and plane strain; shear force and bending moment diagrams; bending and shear stresses; torsion; Euler’s theory of columns; energy methods 
Mechanics of materials: Theories and failure, material testing methods 
Vibrations: Free and forced vibration of damped and undamped systems, single and multi DOF systems 
Machine design: Design for static and dynamic loading; design of machine elements such as shafts, gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings; joining technics such as bolting, riveting and welding 
Fluid mechanics and marine hydrodynamics 

Fluid mechanics: Fluid properties; fluid statics, stability of floating bodies; conservation laws: Mass, momentum, and energy (integral and differential form); dimensional analysis and dynamic similarity; sources, sinks, doublets 
Line vortex and their superposition; Stoke’s integral theorem 
Generalised Bernoulli’s equation, sources, sinks, dipole, flow with circulation, potential flow with rotational symmetry, hydrodynamical lift, KuttaJoukowski theorem 
Vortex motionfundamental concepts, vortex analogy to Biotsavart’s law, straight parallel vortex filaments, vortex sheets 
Viscous flownavierStokes equations, Couette flow, plane Poiseuille flow 
Equation of continuity, Eeuler‘s equation, Bernoulli‘s equation, viscous flow of incompressible fluids, elementary turbulent flow, boundary layer, flow through pipes 
Boundary layer theoryPrandtl’s boundary layer equations, criterion for separation, Blasius solution, skin friction, displacement thickness, momentum thickness, turbulent boundary layer, boundary layer control 
Airfoilslift, drag, circulation, pressure distributiontheory of thin aerofoils, wings of infinite and finite span, circulation distribution, cavitation 
Vorticity and Kelvin’s theorem, potential flow theory, sources, sinks and doublets, hydrodynamic forces in potential flow, D’Alembert’s paradox, addedmass, SlenderBody theory, hydrodynamic model testing, scaling laws 
Application of potential theory to surface waves, energy transport, wave/ body forces, linearised theory of lifting surfaces 
Naval architecture and ocean engineering 

Ship geometry and physical fundamentalsArchimedes’ principle, buoyancy and weight of ship, laws of flotation, heel and trim, stable and unstable equilibrium of ships, importance of streamlined hull shape, ship main particulars, hydrostatic calculations 
Stability and trim of ships: Statical stability at small angles of heel, inclining experiment. Shift of centre of gravity due to addition or removal of mass, transverse movement of mass and effect, free surface effect, effect of suspended mass 
Stability and trim of ships: Stability at large angles of heel, angle of loll, curves of statical stability, dynamical stability, probabilistic and deterministic damage stability different characteristic curves of dynamic stability 
Stability and trim of ships: Floodable length calculations and curves. Loss of stability due to grounding, docking stability 
Resistance and propulsion: Components of ship resistance, form factor, hull roughness, model testing and ship resistance prediction methods, tank wall effects, determination of ship resistance different series test results, resistance of advanced vehicles 
Resistance and propulsion: Appendage and added resistance. Geometry of screw propeller, propeller theories, hullpropeller interactions, different propulsive efficiency definitions. Propeller cavitation and effects. Propeller design and series 
Resistance and propulsion: Open water and self propulsion model tests. Different types of propellers and their working principles. Propeller material, strength and manufacturing. Unconventional propellers 
Ship manoeuvring and motions: Ship path keeping and changing, equations of motion, linearised equations and control fixed stability indexes, model tests. Stability and control in the horizontal and vertical planesdefinitive manoeuvres and sea trials 
Ship manoeuvring and motions: Rudder hydrodynamics, design and operation. Influence of propeller, hull, appendages, etc on rudder performance. Experimental methods for the determination of hydrodynamic derivatives 
Ship manoeuvring and motions: Ocean wavesregular, irregular, trochoidal. Wave spectrum, encounter frequency. Types of ship motions, coupled and noncoupled motions, equations of motion. Dynamic effects of ship motion in seaway 
Ship manoeuvring and motions: Different ship motion stabiliserspassive and active. Different numerical and experimental methods to determine ship motionsstrip theory, BEM, FEM. Sea keeping features of highperformance marine vehicles 
Ship structures and strength: Shipbuilding materials, joining techniques, ship structural and framing systemsbottom, side, deck, bulkhead, end structures, and structural connections. Primary and secondary structural members, superstructure, hatch covers 
Ship structures and strength: Machinery foundations, cargo handling systems and support structures. Loads acting on ships in seaway, longitudinal and transverse strength considerations and estimation methods. Strength of hull girder 
Ship structures and strength: Stiffened plate analysis, torsion of hull girder, deformation and stresses, local strength analysis; reliability analysis and ultimate strength of hull girder, structural vibrations, fatigue and fracture 
Physical oceanography: Physical properties of seawater, different types of ocean wavestides and wind waves, and their importance. Offshore structures: Fixed offshore platformsjackets, gravity platforms; floating platformssemisubmersibles, jackups 
Physical oceanography: Floating platformsTLPs, FPSOs; mooring, station keeping. Port and harbor engineering: Ports and harbours, port structuresjetties, dolphins, liquid berths, dredging, navigation 
Thermodynamics and marine engineering 

Thermodynamics: First law of thermodynamicsclosed system undergoing a cycle; closed system undergoing a change of state; internal energy of a system; expansion work; process using ideal gasconstant pressure, constant volume, isothermal 
Thermodynamics: First law of thermodynamicsadiabatic and polytropic processwork done and heat added in different process; first law applied to onedimensional steady flow process, flow energy, steady flow energy equation (ID) 
Thermodynamics: Second law of thermodynamicsdifferent statements; reversible and irreversible process; corollaries of second lawabsolute temperature scale; Carnot cycleCarnot engine, refrigerator and heat pump 
Thermodynamics: Clausius inequality and definition of entropy, change of entropy of an ideal gas; gas power cycles and IC engines; gas power cycles: Carnot cycle, Brayton cycle, Erricson cycle, Sterling cycle etc; air standard cyclesOttodiesel 
Thermodynamics: Dual and joule cycle; evaluation of thermal efficiency and mean effective pressure; internal combustion engineclassification of IC engines 
Thermodynamics: Internal combustion engineprinciple of operation of spark ignition and compression ignition engines both two stroke and four stroke; stages of combustion in SI and CI engines 
Thermodynamics: Knocking and detonationfactors controlling knock and detonation, methods of preventing Knocking and detonation; refrigerationprinciple of operation of simple vapour compression system, comparison with vapour compression systems 
Thermodynamics: Air conditioning principlessensible heating and cooling, humidification and dehumidification, cooling and humidification, cooling and dehumidificationheating and humidification, heating and dehumidification 
Thermodynamics: Adiabatic mixing of air streamscooling and heating load calculation 
Marine diesel engines: General engine principles, low speed and medium speed diesel engines, two and four stroke engines, scavenging and turbocharging, fuel oil system, lubricating oil systems, cooling systems, torque and power measurement 
Marine diesel engines: Starting air systems and reversing systems, controls and safety devices, couplings and gearboxes, specific fuel consumption. Waste heat recovery system, MARPOL regulations and energy efficiency design index (EEDI) 
Marine diesel engines: Ship energy efficiency management plan (SEEMP) 
Marine steam turbines: Types of turbines, compounding, reheat, turbine construction, rotors, blades, casing, gland sealing, diaphragms, nozzles, bearings, etc lubrication systems, expansion arrangements, gearings. Marine gas turbinesfundamentals of GT 
Marine steam turbines: Marine gas turbinesstructure of gas turbines, gearing, operational features, controls, combined cycles. Nuclear propulsionphysical principles of the operation of nuclear reactors, use of nuclear propulsion on seagoing vessels 
Marine steam turbines: Nuclear propulsionelectrical propulsion 
Marine boilers: Typesfire tube, water tube boilers, package boilers, cochran boilers, composite boilers, steam to steam generators, double evaporation boilers, exhaust gas heat exchangers, auxiliary steam plant systems, exhaust gas boilers 
Marine boilers: Typescomposite boilers. Boiler mounting, combustion, feed system, feed water treatment 
Engine dynamics: Torsional vibration of engine and shafting, axial shaft vibration, critical speeds, engine rating, rating corrections, trial tests, etc relationship of engine to the propeller classification society rules on engine construction 
Engine dynamics: Engine room arrangement. Automation of ship propulsion plants, maintenance requirements and reliability of propulsion plants 
Marine auxiliary machinery and systems: Different types of pumps and piping systems in shipshot water, drinking water, cooling water and seawater, fuel oil systems, lubricating oil system filters, coolers, centrifuges, purifiers and clarifiers 
Marine auxiliary machinery and systems: Bilge and ballast systems, sewage disposal, oily water separator, air compressors, boilers, heat exchangers, waste heat recovery systems; heat, ventilation and air conditioning systems 
Marine auxiliary machinery and systems: Dech machinery and cargo handling systems; propulsions and steering gear systems 
GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) is a highly competitive exam that tests the aptitude and technical knowledge of candidates in various fields of engineering and science. To help candidates ace this exam, here are some preparation tips for GATE 2025:
 Understand the Syllabus: The first step in preparing for any exam is to understand the syllabus thoroughly. Go through the GATE exam syllabus and make a note of the topics that you need to study.
 Create a Study Plan: After understanding the syllabus, create a study plan that suits your schedule. Allocate sufficient time for each topic and revise regularly.
 Study Materials: Collect quality study materials like textbooks, reference books, previous years' question papers, and online resources for your GATE exam preparation.
 Take Online Mock Tests: Take online mock tests and evaluate your performance. This will help you to understand your strengths and weaknesses and improve your speed and accuracy.
 Focus on Conceptual Clarity: GATE is a conceptual exam, and it is essential to have a clear understanding of the concepts. Focus on building conceptual clarity and practice solving numerical problems.
 Make Short Notes: While studying, make short notes of important formulas, theorems, and definitions. These notes will come in handy during revision.
 Solve Previous Year Question Papers: Solving previous year's question papers is one of the most effective ways to prepare for GATE. It helps you to understand the exam pattern, the types of questions asked, and the difficulty level.
 Time Management: Time management is critical during the exam. Practice solving problems under time constraints to improve your speed and accuracy.
 Stay Motivated: Stay motivated throughout your preparation. Stay positive, focused, and dedicated towards your goal.
Take Care of Yourself: Lastly, take care of yourself physically and mentally. Get enough sleep, eat a balanced diet, exercise regularly, and take breaks to refresh your mind.
Also Read:
GATE Topper Interview
Candidates can read some of the previous year's topper interviews from the below table.
Topper Name  All India Rank (AIR)  Topper interview link 
Rajat Gupta  8 (ME)  
Anirudh Joshi  14 (PE)  
Arunava Mondal  5 (MN)  
Ankita Modi  14 (BM)  
Yogesh Singh Dosad  23 (AG)  
Chirag Katariya  AIR 2 (PE)  
Yatish Naman Asthana  2 (AR)  
Siddharth Gupta  AIR 18 (XH)  
Amrit Layak  AIR 13 (TF)  
Navneet Gangwar  AIR 4 (CS)  
Sourav Duari  AIR 1 (PH) 
IIT Roorkee has released the GATE 2025 exam pattern on the official website gate2025.iitr.ac.in. The GATE 2025 exam will be held in computerbased mode and will comprise 2 sections. The exam duration is of 3 hours. As per the GATE paper pattern, there will 3 types of questions: Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs), Multiple Select Questions (MSQ) and Numerical Answer Type (NAT) questions. The exam tests candidates on their understanding of engineering and science concepts, as well as their ability to apply these concepts to solve complex problems. The GATE 2025 exam pattern is subject to change, so candidates need to stay updated on the latest information and instructions from the organizing institute.
Related links:
 GATE Previous Year Aptitude Questions with Solutions PDF
 When is the Right Time to Start GATE Preparation
 GATE Exam Preparation Timetable
GATE 2025 Exam Pattern
Particulars  Details 
Examination Mode  Computer Based Test 
Language  English 
Duration  3 hours (180 minutes) 
Number of GATE Papers  30 Papers 
Sections 

Type of Questions 

Total Number of Questions  65 Questions (including 10 questions from General Aptitude) 
Design of Questions  Questions test the following abilities:

Distribution of Marks in all Papers EXCEPT papers AR, CY, DA, PH, EY, GG, MA, ST, XH and XL 

Distribution of Marks in AR, EY, GG, CY, DA, MA, PH, ST, XH and XL 

Total Marks  100 Marks 
Marking Scheme 

GATE 2025 Marking Scheme
Paper Code  General Aptitude (GA) Marks  Compulsory Section (Section A)  Subject Marks 
AE, AG, BM, BT, CE, CH, CS, EC, EE, ES, IN, MA, ME, MN, MT, NM, PE, PI, TF; Subject marks in these papers include questions on Engineering Mathematics (13 marks), which are paperspecific.  15    85 
CY, DA, EY, MA, PH, ST  15    85 
AR [Part B1 or Part B2 can be selected during Exam. B1: Architecture or B2: Planning]  15  60  25 
GE [Part B1 or B2 can be selected during the Exam. B1  Surveying and Mapping or B2 Image Processing and Analysis.]  15  55  30 
GG [Part B can either be Geology (B1) or Geophysics (B2)  which must be chosen at the time of Application.]  15  25  60 
XE [Section A (Engineering Mathematics) is Common and Compulsory for all; Select any TWO additional Sections during the Exam]  15  15  2 x 35 
XH [Section B1 (Reasoning and Comprehension) is Common and Compulsory for all; Select any ONE additional Section at the time of Application]  15  25  60 
XL [Section P (Chemistry) is Common & Compulsory for all; Select any TWO additional Sections during the Exam]  15  25  2 x 30 
GATE Paper Codes
Papers  Codes  Papers  Codes 
Architecture and Planning  AR  Mathematics  MA 
Biotechnology  BT  Physics  PE 
Aerospace Engineering  AE  Metallurgical Engineering  MT 
Agricultural Engineering  AG  Engineering Sciences  XE 
Chemical Engineering  CH  Life Sciences  XL 
Civil Engineering  CE  Instrumentation Engineering  IN 
Computer Science and Information Technology  CS  Mining Engineering  MN 
Electronics and Communication Engineering  EC  Mechanical Engineering  ME 
Electrical Engineering  EE  Textile Engineering and Fibre Science  TF 
Chemistry  CY  Production and Industrial Engineering  PI 
Ecology and Evolution  EY  Petroleum Engineering  PE 
Geology and Geophysics  GG  Statistics  ST 
Biomedical Engineering  BM  Environmental Science and Engineering  ES 
Humanities and Social Science  XH  Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering  NM 
Geomatics Engineering  GE  Data Science & Artificial Intelligence  DA 
Candidates preparing for the exam must take the GATE 2025 mock test. The mock test will help candidates understand the exam pattern, analyse their strengths and weaknesses, and identify areas that need improvement. IIT Roorkee will release the official mock test of GATE 2025 a few days before the exam to simulate the actual exam conditions. The GATE 2025 mock test link will be updated on the official website gate2025.iitr.ac.in.
Additionally, various coaching institutes and online platforms also offer mock tests for GATE 2025, which candidates can take to practise and improve their skills. These mock tests usually cover the entire GATE 2025 syllabus and provide detailed solutions to the questions, helping candidates to understand the concepts better.
Candidates can also use the GATE 2025 mock tests to manage their time effectively during the actual exam. By practising with mock tests, candidates can develop a strategy to attempt the exam in the given time frame and avoid spending too much time on difficult questions.
How to attempt the GATE 2025 Mock Test?
Here are some general steps that can help you attempt the GATE mock test 2025:
 Choose a quiet and distractionfree place to take the mock test, preferably a location similar to where you will be taking the actual GATE exam.
 Familiarise yourself with the instructions and format of the mock test before beginning the test.
 Set a timer and attempt the mock test within the given time frame, as time management is a crucial aspect of the GATE exam.
 Attempt the mock test as if it were the actual GATE exam, and try to answer all the questions to the best of your ability.
 After completing the mock test, review the answers and analyse your performance. Identify the questions you answered correctly, the questions you got wrong, and the questions you left unanswered.
 Analyse your performance and identify areas where you need to improve. Focus on practising more questions in those areas.
 Take the mock test multiple times to improve your speed, accuracy, and time management skills.
 Make note of the important points, formulae, and concepts that you come across during the mock test, as they will be useful for revision.
GATE Mock Test  Previous year's
Subject Code  GATE Paper  GATE Mock Test 
AE  
AG  
AR  Architecture and Planning  
BT  
CE  CE1: GATE CE mock test CE2: GATE CE mock test  
CH  
CS  
CY  
EC  
EE  
ES  Environmental Science and Engineering  
EY  Ecology and Evolution  
GG  Geology and Geophysics  
IN  
MA  Mathematics  
ME  ME 1: GATE ME mock test ME 2: GATE ME mock test  
MN  
MT  
PE  
PH  Physics  
PI  
ST  Statistics  
TF  Textile Engineering and Fiber Science  
XE  Engineering Sciences  
XL  Life Sciences  
BM  Biomedical Engineering  
XH  Humanities & Social Sciences 
IIT Roorkee will release the GATE 2025 admit card on the official website, gate2025.iitr.ac.in. Candidates will have to log in to the GOAPS (GATE Online Application Processing System) to download the GATE admit card 2025. Registered candidates will require their enrollment or email ID and password. Candidates need to keep their admit card safe throughout the admission process and present it along with valid identity proof while reporting to the exam centre. In case of any errors in the GATE 2025 admit card, candidates will have to contact the concerned authorities for rectification.
Steps to download GATE Admit Card 2025
 Firstly, candidates must visit the GATE official website 2025.
 Candidates should click on the link for the admit card available on the official website.
 They have to log in on the official website by entering the GATE enrollment ID, registered email ID, password, and captcha.
 After entering the details, candidates should submit them, and the admit card will be displayed to the candidates.
 Candidates can download and save the admit card and also take a printout of it.
 Candidates have to check all the details mentioned on the admit card before downloading.
GATE Admit Card Image
List of documents allowed with GATE 2025 admit card (Indian Students)
Indian students appearing for the GATE 2025 exam will have to carry a valid photo identity card along with their admit card. Here is a list of documents that are allowed:
 Aadhaar Card
 Passport
 Voter ID Card
 PAN Card
 Driving Licence
 College ID
 Employee ID
List of documents allowed for International Candidates
 Valid Passport
 Government Issued ID
 College ID
 Employee ID
GATE 2025 Exam Centers
State  City 

Andhra Pradesh  Anantapur 
Kurnool  
Bhimavaram  
Eluru  
Kakinada  
Rajahmundry  
Tadepalligudem  
Tirupati  
Srikakulam  
Vijayawada  
Visakhapatnam  
Surampalem  
Vizianagaram  
Chirala  
Chittoor  
Guntur  
Kadapa  
Nellore  
Ongole  
Kerala  Angamaly 
Kannur  
Kasaragod  
Kozhikode  
Malappuram  
Palakkad  
Thrissur  
Thiruvananthapuram  
Payyanur  
Vadakara  
Pathanamthitta  
Vatakara  
Wayanad  
Alappuzha  
Aluva  
Ernakulam  
Attingal  
Chengannur  
Kanjirapally  
Kollam  
Kothamangalam  
Kottayam  
Muvattupuzha  
Karnataka  Bagalkot 
Ballari  
Belagavi  
Bangalore  
Bidar  
Davanagere  
Hassan  
Hubballi  
Kalaburagi  
Kolar  
Mangaluru  
Manipal  
Mysuru  
Shimoga  
Tumakuru  
Chikkaballapur  
Chikkamagaluru  
Dharwad  
Mandya  
Udupi  
Telangana  Hyderabad 
Warangal  
Medak  
Nalgonda  
Adilabad  
Karimnagar  
Khammam  
Kodad  
Kothagudem  
Nizamabad  
Suryapet  
Andaman and Nicobar Islands  Port Blair 
Gujarat  Ahmedabad 
Anand  
Bhavnagar  
Bhuj  
Gandhinagar  
Mehsana  
Rajkot  
Surat  
Vadodara  
Jamnagar  
Vapi  
Maharashtra  Ahmednagar 
Amravati  
Aurangabad  
Baramati  
Jalgaon  
Kankavali  
Kolhapur  
Mumbai  
Nagpur  
Nanded  
Nashik  
Navi Mumbai  
Pune  
Ratnagiri  
Sangli  
Satara  
Solapur  
Thane  
Dhule  
Akola  
Chandrapur  
Latur  
Panvel  
Raigad  
Sangamner  
Loni  
SHIRDI  
Vasai  
Palghar  
Wardha  
Yavatmal  
Goa  Goa 
Rajasthan  Ajmer 
Alwar  
Bikaner  
Jaipur  
Jodhpur  
Kota  
Sikar  
Udaipur  
Chittorgarh  
Haryana  Bahadurgarh 
Faridabad  
Gurugram  
Hisar  
Karnal  
Palwal  
Ambala  
Kurukshetra  
Yamuna Nagar  
Uttar Pradesh  Greater Noida 
Mathura  
Agra  
Aligarh  
Allahabad  
Bareilly  
Gorakhpur  
Lucknow  
Varanasi  
Ghaziabad  
Meerut  
Moradabad  
Muzaffarnagar  
Noida  
Kanpur  
Muzzafarpur  
Jhansi  
Saharanpur  
Madhya Pradesh  Indore 
Ujjain  
Bhopal  
Gwalior  
Jabalpur  
Satna  
Sagar  
Jammu and Kashmir  Jammu 
Samba  
Ladakh  
Srinagar  
Delhi  New Delhi 
Tripura  Agartala 
West Bengal  Asansol 
Burdwan  
Kalyani  
Siliguri  
Hooghly  
Kharagpur  
Kolkata  
Durgapur  
Bankura  
Murshidabad  
Howrah  
Midnapore  
Kolaghat  
Suri  
Jharkhand  Dhanbad 
Jamshedpur  
Ranchi  
Bokaro Steel City  
Hazaribagh  
Assam  Dibrugarh 
Guwahati  
Jorhat  
Silchar  
Tezpur  
Sikkim  Gangtok 
Manipur  Imphal 
Bihar  Muzaffarpur 
Patna  
Arrah  
Purnea  
Bhagalpur  
Meghalaya  Shillong 
Odisha  Balasore 
Berhampur  
Bhubaneshwar  
Cuttack  
Rourkela  
Sambalpur  
Dhenkanal  
Brahmapur  
Kakatpur  
Chhattisgarh  Bhilai 
Bilaspur  
Raipur  
Tamil Nadu  Tiruchirappalli 
Tirunelveli  
Vellore  
Viluppuram  
Virudhunagar  
Chennai  
Coimbatore  
Cuddalore  
Dindigul  
Kanyakumari  
Nagercoil  
Madurai  
Namakkal  
Ramanathapuram  
Salem  
Thanjavur  
Theni  
Thoothukudi  
Tiruchirapalli  
Punjab  Amritsar 
Bathinda  
Jalandhar  
Khanna  
Ludhiana  
Mohali  
Pathankot  
Patiala  
Sangrur  
Muzzafarpur  
Himachal Pradesh  Baddi 
Hamirpur  
Shimla  
Una  
Kangra  
Mandi  
Solan  
Uttarakhand  Bhimtal 
Dehradun  
Haldwani  
Roorkee  
Arunachal Pradesh  Itanagar 
Ladakh  Leh 
Mizoram  Aizawl 
Nagaland  Dimapur 
Kohima  
Puducherry  Puducherry 
Chandigarh  Chandigarh 
Documents Required at Exam
 Printout of GATE 2024 admit card
 Original and valid ID proof: passport, PAN Card, voter ID, AadhaarUID, college ID, employee ID or driving license
IIT Roorkee will release the GATE 2025 answer key on the official website. The GATE answer key will be prepared available along with the question paper. Candidates do not require any login credentials to download the GATE answer key pdf. The answer key contains the correct answers to all the questions asked in the exam. Candidates can use it to check their answers and predict their estimated scores.
The GATE Answer Key 2025 will be released in two phases: the Provisional Answer Key and the Final Answer Key. The authority will allow candidates to challenge the answer key of GATE 2025 within a specified period. After reviewing the challenges submitted by the candidates, the GATE authorities will release the final answer key. The GATE final answer key will be considered final and will not be subjected to challenges.
GATE 2025 Student Reactions
Candidates who will be appearing for the exam will be able to check the student's reactions for GATE 2025 after each shift and session of the examination. Based on this reaction of students, aspirants who will be sitting for the next shifts and sessions will be able to analyse the paper and prepare accordingly for the exam.
GATE Previous Year Student Reaction:
GATE 2023 Student Reaction:
Exam Day  Shift 1  Shift 2 
February 4, 2023  Easy to moderate  Moderate 
February 5, 2023  Easy to moderate  Moderate to Tough 
February 11, 2023  Easy  Moderate 
February 12, 2023  Moderate to Tough  Moderate 
Candidates will be able to check the exam analysis of GATE 2025 for each paper after the conduction of the exam. The GATE exam analysis will be based on the student's reactions and the coaching institute's analysis. As of now, candidates can check the previous year's exam analysis to know the difficulty level of the exam, type of questions that might be asked in the exam, etc.
GATE Previous Year Exam Analysis:
GATE 2023 Civil Engineering paper analysis  12 February Shift 2
Types of Question  Number of Question 
MSQ  11 
NAT  19 
MCQ  35 
GATE 2023 Civil Engineering paper analysis  12 February Shift 1
Types of Question  Number of Question 
MSQ  9 
NAT  22 
MCQ  34 
GATE 2023 Instrumentation Engineering paper analysis February 11 Shift 1
Types of Question  Number of Question 
MSQ  01 
NAT  33 
MCQ  31 
GATE 2023 Electronics and Communication Engineering paper analysis February 5 Shift 2
Types of Question  No. of question  Marks 
MCQ  45  66 
NAT  16  27 
MSQ  4  7 
GATE 2023 Electrical paper analysis February 5 Shift 1
Types of Question  No. of question 
MCQ  31 
NAT  28 
MSQ  6 
GATE 2023 CSE paper analysis February 4 Shift 1
Type of questions  Number of questions 
NAT  16 
MSQ  15 
MCQ  34 
GATE 2023 ME Paper Analysis February 4 Shift 2
Type of questions  Number of questions 
NAT  25 
MSQ  8 
MCQ  32 
The authority has announced the GATE 2025 result date online. According to the notification, the GATE result 2025 will be announced on March 19, 2025. The GATE result will comprise the GATE entrance exam scores and rank. To check the GATE 2025 result, candidates have to provide their enrollment numbers and password. IIT Roorkee will not send the GATE result or rank card in offline mode. Hence, candidates must download their GATE 2025 results online.
Steps to download GATE Result 2025
 Go to the GATE official website 2025, gate2025.iitr.ac.in.
 Look for the link that reads "GATE Result 2025" and click on it.
 Enter your GATE GOAPS 2025 credentials, such as the registration number and enrollment number, from your admit card.
 The GATE result will be displayed on the screen.
 Download and take a printout of the result for further use.
GATE 2025 Score Card
IIT Roorkee will release the GATE scorecard on the GATE GOAPS portal. The GATE scorecard 2025 is an important document that contains the candidate's details, subject paper, marks obtained, and the GATE score. Candidates who qualify the GATE exam can download their scorecards from the official website using their login credentials. The GATE scorecard is valid for three years from the date of announcement of the GATE 2025 result.
The GATE scorecard is available in an online mode only and no hard copy will be sent to the candidates. Therefore, candidates are advised to download and take a printout of their scorecard for future reference. It is important to note that the GATE scorecard is not equivalent to a GATE certificate. The GATE certificate will be issued to the qualified candidates by the organising institute after the announcement of the GATE 2025 result.
Details mentioned in GATE Score Card 2025
The following details will be mentioned in the scorecard of GATE 2025
 Candidate's name and photograph
 Gender
 GATE 2025 registration number and enrollment ID
 GATE paper code and score
 GATE 2025 qualifying marks for the corresponding discipline
 All India Rank (AIR) in the paper
 Total number of candidates who appeared for the paper
 Candidate's normalised marks out of 100
 GATE Score out of 1000
 Validity of the GATE 2025 scorecard
 Instructions for the candidate regarding scorecard and admission process.
GATE Result Highlights: Previous year's
GATE 2024 Result Statistics
Particular  Details 
Total number of students who applied for GATE 2024  8.26 lakh 
Total number of students who appeared for GATE 2024  6.5 lakh 
Number of candidates who cleared the GATE 2024 exam  1,29,268 
GATE 2022 Result  Statistics
Particulars  Details 

Number of candidates appeared for the exam  7,11,542 
Number of candidates declared qualified  1,26,813 
Number of qualified male candidates  98,732 
Number of qualified female candidates  28,081 
GATE 2021 Result Statistics
 Number of Admit cards issued: 913275
 Number of students who appeared for GATE: 711542
 No. of qualified students in GATE this year: 126813
 GATE 2021 Pass percentage: 17.82%
 Percentage of qualified candidates in individual GATE papers: from 8.42% to 29.54%.
 GATE qualified candidates (gender details): 98732 male and 28081 female candidates.
The GATE 2025 cutoff scores for various participating institutes online after the GATE results are declared. The cutoff scores will depend on various factors such as the number of candidates appearing for the exam, the difficulty level of the paper, the number of seats available in the institute, and the previous year's cutoff trends. Moreover, the GATE cutoff scores also vary for different categories such as General, OBCNCL, SC, ST, and PwD. Candidates who meet the cutoff scores and other eligibility criteria will be eligible for admission to the M.Tech./Ph.D. programmes in various institutes.
GATE 2025 Qualifying Cutoff Vs Admission Cutoff:
The GATE 2025 qualifying cutoff and admission cutoff are two different cutoffs.
The qualifying cutoff is the minimum score that a candidate needs to obtain in order to be eligible for admission to the various M.Tech./Ph.D. programmes offered by the participating institutes. The qualifying cutoff is usually lower than the admission cutoff, as it is the minimum score required for a candidate to be considered for admission.
The admission cutoff, on the other hand, is the score above which a candidate is likely to be offered admission to a particular institute. The admission cutoff depends on various factors such as the number of seats available in the institute, the number of candidates who have applied, the difficulty level of the paper, and the previous year cutoff trends. The admission cutoff may vary for different categories such as General, OBCNCL, SC, ST, and PwD.
Previous Year's GATE Qualifying Cutoff (Official)
GATE 2024 Qualifying Cutoff
GATE Paper Code  Qualifying GATE Cutoff Marks  
General  OBCNCL/EWS  SC/ST/PWD  
Aerospace Engineering  33.3  29.9  22.1 
Agricultural Engineering  25  22.5   
Architecture and Planning  41.5  37.3  27.6 
Biomedical Engineering  25  22.5  16.6 
Biotechnology  38.9  35  25.9 
Civil Engineering  28.3  25.4  18.8 
Chemical Engineering  25  22.5  16.6 
Computer Science and Information Technology  27.6  24.8  18.4 
Chemistry  25.2  22.6  16.7 
Data Science and Artificial Intelligence  37.1  33.3  24.7 
Electronics and Communication Engineering  25  22.5   
Electrical Engineering  25.7  23.1  17.1 
Environmental Science and Engineering  37.9  34.1  25.2 
Ecology and Evolution  35.8  32.2  23.8 
Geomatics Engineering  41.1  36.9  27.4 
Geology and Geophysics (Geology)  42  37.8  28 
Geology and Geophysics (Geophysics)  49  44.1  32.6 
Instrumentation Engineering  32.7  29.4  21.8 
Mathematics  25  22.5  16.6 
Mechanical Engineering  28.6  25.7  19 
Mining Engineering  25  22.5  16.6 
Metallurgical Engineering  41  36.9  27.3 
Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering  25.1  22.5  16.7 
Petroleum Engineering  42.6  38.3  28.4 
Physics  32  28.8  21.3 
Production and Industrial Engineering  30.5  27.4  20.3 
Statistics  26.6  23.9  17.7 
Textile Engineering and Fibre Science  28.1  25.2  18.7 
Engineering Sciences  36.2  32.5  24.1 
Humanities and Social Sciences (Economics)  37  33.3  24.6 
Humanities and Social Sciences (English)  48  43.2  32 
Humanities and Social Sciences (Linguistics)  49.7  44.7  33.1 
Humanities and Social Sciences (Philosophy)  39.3  35.3  26.1 
Humanities and Social Sciences (Psychology)  52.7  47.4  35.1 
Humanities and Social Sciences (Sociology)  36  32.4  24 
Life Sciences  29.3  26.3  19.5 
GATE 2023 Qualifying Cutoff
GATE Paper Code  Qualifying cutoff Marks  
General  OBCNCL/EWS  SC/ST/PWD  
Statistics  25  22.5  16.6 
Physics  31.1  27.9  20.7 
CS  32.5  29.2  21.6 
ECE  29.9  26.9  19.9 
CE  26.6  23.9  17.7 
IN  34.8  31.3  23.2 
Electrical engineering  25  22.5  16.6 
Mechanical Engineering (ME)  28.4  25.5  18.9 
XE  37.9  34.1  25.2 
CH  32.10 
GATE 2022 cutoff Qualifying Cutoff
GATE Paper 2022  GATE Qualifying Marks  
General  OBCNCL/ EWS  SC/ST/PwD  
CS  25  22.5  16.6 
ECE  25  22.5  16.5 
Biotechnology  35.5  31.9  23.6 
Chemical Engineering  25.3  22.7  16.8 
Statistics  25  22.5  16.6 
Metallurgical engineering  46.2  41.5  30.8 
Mathematics  27.3  24.5  18.2 
Electrical engineering  30.7  27.6  20.4 
Textile engineering and fibre science  36.8  34.9  25.6 
Mechanical Engineering (ME)  28.1  25.2  18.7 
Physics  26.5  23.8  – 
Life Science (Botany/ Zoology)  33.9  30.5  22.5 
Ecology and life sciences  33.4  30  22.2 
Agriculture Engineering  26.3  23.6  17.5 
Chemistry  27.5  24.7  18.3 
Mining Engineering  25.5  22.9  17 
Engineering Sciences (Fluid Mechanics/ Thermodynamics)  40.3  36.2  26.8 
Mode of Counselling: Online
The GATE exam score will be used by various institutes to shortlist candidates for their postgraduate programs. After the announcement of the GATE 2025 result, each participating institute will release its admission notification specifying the details of the admission process, including counselling, if any. Candidates who qualify GATE 2025 and meet the eligibility criteria of the participating institutes will be considered for admission to their preferred institute by following the admission process specified by the institute.
The admission process may involve various stages such as the application process, shortlisting of candidates, written test/interview, and document verification. Candidates who are shortlisted by the institute will be called for the next stage of the admission process. The final merit list of the selected candidates will be prepared based on the candidate's GATE score, academic record, and performance in the written test/interview, if any.
What is GATE COAP 2025?
GATE COAP is a common admission platform introduced by the IITs in 2017 to make admission offers to GATEqualified candidates seeking admission to M.Tech./Ph.D. programmes. While candidates must apply individually to IITs, they can view offers and accept or reject them through the COAP portal. COAP provides a centralised counselling process that ensures transparency and efficiency in the admission process. Admission offers are based on GATE scores and seat availability, making the admission process more streamlined and straightforward for candidates.
Admission to IITs is a twostep process:
Step 1: Qualifying in GATE Exam
The first step is to qualify for the GATE exam, which is mandatory for admission to postgraduate engineering programs offered by the IITs. The GATE score is used by the IITs to shortlist candidates for their postgraduate programs. The candidates must have a valid GATE score in the respective discipline to apply for the postgraduate programs offered by the IITs.
Step 2: Applying through IITs' Admission Portal
The second step involves applying for the postgraduate programs offered by the IITs through their admission portal. Candidates who meet the eligibility criteria of the IITs and have a valid GATE score can apply for their preferred postgraduate programs through the IITs' admission portal.
The admission process may vary slightly for different IITs, but it generally involves shortlisting candidates based on their GATE score, academic record, and performance in the written test/interview, if any. The final merit list of the selected candidates will be prepared based on their GATE score and other criteria as specified by the IITs.
It is important for the candidates to keep a close watch on the official websites of the IITs to stay updated with their admission process and important dates.
Documents Required at Counselling
The documents that need to be selfattested and submitted along with the original documents may vary depending on the counselling or admission process. Here is a list of the documents that are commonly required to be selfattested and submitted along with the original documents:
GATE scorecard: A selfattested copy of the GATE scorecard is required for admission or counselling.
Photo ID proof: A selfattested copy of a valid governmentissued photo ID proof such as Aadhaar card, passport, driving licence, voter ID, etc. is required.
Birth certificate: A selfattested copy of the original birth certificate issued by a competent authority or the Class X board certificate as date of birth proof is required.
Class XII mark sheet: A selfattested copy of the original Class XII mark sheet is required.
Qualifying examination mark sheets: A selfattested copy of the original mark sheets of the qualifying examination for all semesters is required.
Degree or provisional certificate: A selfattested copy of the original degree or provisional certificate is required if the degree is completed.
Category certificate: A selfattested copy of the original category certificate for candidates belonging to SC/ST/OBC categories, if applicable.
Undertaking for OBC status: A selfattested copy of the candidate's undertaking regarding OBC status in the required format is required.
PwD certificate: A selfattested copy of the original certificate for PwD candidates, if applicable.
Migration and transfer certificates: A selfattested copy of the original migration certificate of the last institute/university attended and the original transfer certificate from the head of the institute last attended is required.
Conduct and course completion certificates: A selfattested copy of the original conduct certificate from the head of the institute last attended and the original course completion certificate from the head of the university or institute, in case the result is awaited, is required.
Photographs: Three selfattested copies of recent passport size photographs are required.
GATE 2025 Selection Process
COAP conducts centralized counselling for admissions to various institutes offering postgraduation on the basis of GATE scores. All the participating institutes will release separate notifications consisting of the selection procedure. Candidates will be required to fulfil the eligibility criteria mentioned by the institutes to participate in the selection process. According to the MHRD guidelines, a minimum of 70% weightage will be given to the candidate's GATE score and 30% will be given to the candidate’s performance in test/interview and/or academic record.
Admissions will be made in order of the merit and preferences made by the candidates in their application form. The basis of selection by the IITs is given below:
Category  Selection Basis 
GATE Qualified candidates  Valid normalized GATE marks 
IIT Graduates  CGPA≥8 
Documents Required at Counselling
 Self attested copy of GATE score card
 Photo ID proof as per government of India norms
 Original birth certificate issued by competent authority
 Class X (high school) board certificate as date of birth proof
 Class XII original mark sheet
 Original grade or mark sheets of qualifying examination for all semesters
 If degree is completed, original degree or provisional certificate
 Original category certificate for candidates belonging to SC/ ST/ OB categories, if applicable
 Candidate's undertaking regarding OB status in the required format
 Original certificate for PwD, if applicable
 Original migration certificate of last institute/ university attended
 Three color passport size photographs
 Original conduct certificate from the head of the institute last attended
 Original transfer certificate from the head of the institute last attended
 Original course completion certificate from the head of the university or institute, in case result is awaited
 One set of selfattested photocopies of all original documents
Any candidate who wishes to appear for the GATE exam should at first check the books required for the preparation. Just having a thought of appearing for the exam will not get you anywhere and therefore start your preparation by reading good and informative books. Having a large number of books will distract you and will block the path of your success, hence pick up the best books for GATE preparation. Here, Careers360 has given the list of GATE preparation books to help candidates in their preparation.
GATE Books for CSE (Computer Science Engineering)
GATE 2024 Books CSE  Name of the Author 
Architecture  Hamacher 
Algorithm  Cormen 
Operating System  Galvin 
TOC  Theory of Computation  Ullman 
GATE Books for ECE
GATE Book Name  Author/ Publisher 
Electronic Devices Circuits  Millman and Halkias (Black Pad) 
Integrated Electronics  Millman and Halkias 
Switching and Finite Automatic Theory  Kohavi 
Microprocessor and its Applications  Goankar 
Modern Control Systems  Ogata 
GATE Books for Agricultural Engineering (AG)
Name of the Book  Name of the Author 
Concept of Agricultural Engineering  Mohanty Das 
Farm Machinery  Three Authors 
Soil & Water Conservation  VVN Murty 
GATE Books for Chemical Engineering (CH)
Name of the Book  Name of the Author 
An Insight into Chemical Engineering  M.Subbu 
Chemical Engineering For Gate Principles Solved Problems & Objective Type Questions  Ram Prasad 
Essentials of Chemical Reaction Engineering  Fogler 
Heat Transfer  JP Holman 
Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics  JM Smith 
Principles of Mass Transfer and Separation Processes  BK Dutta 
Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering  McCabe  FPM and MO 
GATE Books for Civil Engineering (CE)
Name of the Book  Name of the Author 
Environment 1 and 2  S K Garg 
Fluid mechanics  R K Bansal 
Highway engineering  Khanna and Justo 
Open channel flow and engineering hydrology  K Subramanya 
RCC  Pillai and Menon 
Soil mechanics and foundation engineering  Gopal and Ranjan 
Steel  Bhavikati 
GATE Books for Electrical Engineering (EE)
Name of the Book  Name of the Author 
Electrical machines  Nagrath, Kothari 
Fundamentals of circuits  Alexander, Sadiku 
Power Electronics  P S Bhimbhra 
GATE Books for Geology and Geophysics (GG)
Name of the Book  Name of the Author 
Complete Master Guide GATE  Amresh Singh 
Geophysics  Telford 
GATE Books for Mechanical Engineering (ME)
Best Books for GATE Mechanical  Name of the Author 
Fluid Mechanics  R.K. Bansal (Numerical point of view), Frank M.White (For understanding) 
Heat Transfer  Cengel (For understanding concept) 
Production Engineering  Swadesh Singh 
Thermodynamics  P.K.Nag 
Theory of Machine (TOM)  S.S. Ratan 
GATE Books for Production and Industrial (PI)
Name of the Book  Name of the Author 
Fluid Mechanics and Machinery  Modi & Seth 
Heat Transfer  Made Easy Class Notes 
IC engine  Mathur Sharma 
Material Science  Made Easy Class Notes & Swadesh Singh 
Machine Design  VB Bhandari 
Production  S K Mondal Notes Swadesh Sing 
Refrigeration  Made Easy Class Notes 
Strength of Material  Sadhu Singh 
Thermodynamics  P.K Nag 
Theory of Machine  SS Ratan 
General Information
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Question:When will the GATE 2025 result be declared?
Answer:
The GATE 2025 result will be out on March 19, 2025.
Question:When will GATE answer key challenge start?
Answer:
The GATE 2025 answer key challenge dates will be announced later.
Question:Is GATE syllabus 2025 released?
Answer:
Yes. IIT Roorkee has released the GATE 2025 syllabus online.
Question:When GATE 2025 registration will start?
Answer:
The GATE 2025 exam registration will begin on August 24, 2024.
Question:Who will conduct GATE 2025?
Answer:
Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee is the exam conducting authority for the GATE exam 2025.
Question:What rank is good in GATE?
Answer:
AIR rank from 1001000 is good for a candidate's admission to any IIT/NIT or for recruitment to any of the PSUs.
Question:Can I use a calculator during the GATE exam?
Answer:
Yes, candidates are allowed to use an online virtual calculator during the GATE exam.
Question:Is there any negative marking in the GATE exam?
Answer:
Yes, there is negative marking for multiplechoice questions in the GATE exam. For 1mark questions, 1/3 mark will be deducted for a wrong answer, and for 2mark questions, 2/3 mark will be deducted for a wrong answer.
Question:Can I apply for more than one paper in the GATE exam?
Answer:
Yes, candidates can choose to appear for one or up to two papers in the GATE exam.
Question:What is the validity of the GATE scorecard?
Answer:
The GATE scorecard is valid for three years from the date of announcement of the results.
Question:How can I prepare for the GATE exam?
Answer:
Candidates can prepare for the GATE exam by referring to standard textbooks, solving previous year papers, taking mock tests, and attending coaching classes. It is important to have a thorough understanding of the subject, as well as strong problemsolving skills.
Question:What is the exam pattern for the GATE exam?
Answer:
GATE exam consists of multiplechoice questions and numerical answer type questions. The exam is conducted for a duration of 3 hours and the total marks for the exam are 100. The exam consists of two sections  General Aptitude and the chosen subject paper.
Question:What is the eligibility criteria for the GATE exam?
Answer:
Candidates should have completed their bachelor's degree in engineering or technology or must be in their final year of their degree program. Candidates with a master's degree in science, mathematics, statistics, or computer applications are also eligible to apply.
Question:When will the GATE 2025 exam be conducted?
Answer:
IIT Roorkee will conduct the GATE 2025 exam on February 1, 2, 15, and 16, 2025.
Question:What is the GATE exam?
Answer:
GATE stands for Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering. It is a national level entrance exam conducted to test the aptitude and subject knowledge of candidates who want to pursue postgraduate programs in engineering, technology, and architecture.