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GATE Exam 2025  Registration (Started), Dates, Syllabus, Eligibility Criteria, Pattern, Preparation Tips
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 04 Sep 2024:
 04 Sep 2024:
 28 Aug 2024:
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About GATE 2025
GATE Exam 2025: Indian Institute Of Technology Roorkee has commenced the GATE 2025 registration process on August 28, 2024. The GATE 2025 application form link is activated on the official website, gate2025.iitr.ac.in. Candidates who are currently in the 3rd or higher years of any undergraduate degree program or who have completed a governmentapproved degree in Engineering/ Technology/ Architecture/ Science/ Commerce/ Arts/ Humanities are eligible to apply. The last date to submit the GATE 2025 application form without a late fee is September 26, 2024. The GATE GOAPS portal is now open, and IIT Roorkee has also released an updated list of GATE exam cities online. Candidates should ensure they meet all GATE 2025 eligibility criteria.
Latest: GATE 2025 application form
Aspirants can check the GATE exam 2025 dates on the official websites. The authority will conduct the GATE 2025 exam on February 1, 2, 15 and 16, 2025. To plan the preparation for the entrance test candidates must check the GATE exam syllabus and paper patterns. Practising the last 15 years GATE question papers will help the candidates to get familiar with the paper's difficulty level, highweightage topics, mostasked topics and more. The authority will activate the GATE mock test 2025 link to get familiar with the computer based test platform. All aspirants must attempt the GATE mock test to know all the navigation, how to use the virtual calculator and also improve their time management skills. The authority will announce the GATE 2025 exam date branch wise on the official website.
GATE 2025 Latest News and Updates
 GATE 2025 registration process has been started on August 28, 2024.
 GATE 2025 exam cities updated list available online.
 GATE exam 2025 registration date revised.
 IIT Roorkee has published the GATE 2025 information brochure.
 GATE 2025 result date announced.
 GATE 2025 application form dates announced.
 GATE exam 2025 syllabus has been released.
 GATE 2025 exam date announced.
 IIT Roorkee has released the GATE eligibility, syllabus and exam pattern online.
 IIT Roorkee has activated the GATE 2025 official website at gate2025.iitr.ac.in. Aspirants are advised to check this page regularly for the GATE latest news and updates 2025.
What is GATE Exam?
GATE is conducted jointly by the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) and seven Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) every year on a rotational basis. The full form of GATE is the Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering. GATE is an online exam that tests the comprehensive understanding of undergraduate engineering and science courses. It is a gateway for admission to postgraduate programs like M.E./M.Tech/Ph.D. at IITs, IISc, and various other universities and colleges across India. It is essential to have a clear understanding of the GATE exam pattern 2024, syllabus, and marking scheme to perform well in the exam. By scoring well in the exam, candidates can enhance their chances of admission to postgraduate programs at premier institutes secure jobs at various PSUs and admission to M.Tech courses. The GATE entrance exam is also used by various public sector undertakings (PSUs) to recruit engineering professionals.
Related links:
GATE 2025 Organizing Institute
Every year the organising institute for the GATE entrance exam is chosen among the IITs and IISc Bangalore. Below is a list of the organizing institutes of GATE for various years.
GATE Organizing Institutes: Over the years
Year  Organizing Institutes 
2025  IIT Roorkee 
2024  IISc Bangalore 
2023  IIT Khanpur 
2022  IIT, Kharagpur 
2021  IIT, Bombay 
2020  IIT, Delhi 
2019  IIT, Madras 
2018  IIT, Guwahati 
2017  IIT, Roorkee 
2016  IISc, Bangalore 
2015  IIT, Kanpur 
2014  IIT, Kharagpur 
2013  IIT, Bombay 
2012  IIT, Delhi 
2011  IIT, Madras 
2010  IIT, Guwahati 
Previous Year’s GATE exam statistics
The GATE exam is highly competitive, and here are the previous year's GATE exam statistics, including the number of candidates who registered, and appeared, and the overall qualifying percentage.
GATE 2024 Statistics: How many students appeared for GATE 2024?
Particular  Details 
Total number of students who applied for GATE 2024  8.26 Lakh 
Total number of students who appeared for GATE 2024  6.5 Lakh 
Top Entrance Exams to Study Abroad
GATE 2025 Highlights
Full Exam Name  Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering 
Short Exam Name  GATE 
Conducting Body  Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee 
Frequency of Conduct  Once a year 
Exam Level  National Level Exam 
Languages  English 
Mode of Application  Online 
Application Fee (General)  1400 Rs [Online] 
Mode of Exam  Online 
Mode of Counselling  Online 
Participating Colleges  863 
Exam Duration  3 Hours 
GATE 2025 Important Dates
GATE (Session 2025)
Upcoming Dates and Events
28 Aug, 2024  26 Sep, 2024
Application  Mode: Online ^{Ongoing}
27 Sep, 2024  07 Oct, 2024
Late Fee Application  Mode: Online
08 Oct, 2024  06 Nov, 2024
Application Correction  Mode: Online
02 Jan, 2025
Admit Card  Mode: Online
01 Feb, 2025  02 Feb, 2025
Exam  Mode: Online
15 Feb, 2025  16 Feb, 2025
Exam  Mode: Online
19 Mar, 2025
Result  Mode: Online
28 Mar, 2025  31 May, 2025
Score Card  Mode: Online
01 Jun, 2025  31 Dec, 2025
Score Card  Availability of Score Cards for download by paying a fee of Rs. 500 per test paper  Mode: Online
GATE (Session 2024)
Upcoming Dates and Events
01 Jun, 2024  31 Dec, 2024
(Target 2024)  Score Card  Score cards available for download by paying a fee of Rs. 500 per test paper  Mode: Online ^{Ongoing}
Candidates who are currently studying in the 3rd or higher years of any undergraduate degree program or who have completed any governmentapproved degree program in Engineering/ Technology/ Architecture/ Science/ Commerce/ Arts/ Humanities are eligible to appear for GATE 2025.
It's important to note that candidates with qualifications obtained outside of India will also need to meet specific eligibility criteria to be able to appear for the GATE 2025 exam. Such candidates must be currently in the 3rd or higher years or must have completed their Bachelor’s degree (of at least three years duration) in Engineering/ Technology/ Architecture/ Science/ Commerce/ Arts/ Humanities. Candidates are advised to carefully read through the GATE exam eligibility criteria before applying for the GATE 2025 entrance exam.

Nationality: Nationality is one of the important parameters that are considered in the GATE eligibility criteria 2025. As per the guidelines, Indian as well as foreign candidates can apply for the GATE exam. Candidates from Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Ethiopia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are also eligible candidates to apply for the exam.

Age limit: Candidates have no age limit criteria to submit this exam.

Academic Qualifications: Academic qualifications are an essential aspect of the GATE 2025 eligibility criteria. The academic requirements vary based on the program applied for. Aspirants should have a bachelor’s degree in Engineering/ Technology/ Architecture or a master’s degree in any branch of Science/Mathematics/Statistics/Computer Applications or equivalent. Candidates pursuing the qualifying degree and those who have already completed the degree can apply for the GATE 2025. Additionally, nonscience graduates from arts and commerce fields are also eligible to apply for GATE 2025 with the addition of humanities and social science streams.
GATE Eligibility 2025 Education Qualification
Degree / Program 
Qualifying Degree / Examination 
Description of Eligible Candidates 
B.E. / B.Tech. / B. Pharm. 
Bachelor’s degree in Engineering / Technology (4 years after 10+2 or 3 years after B.Sc. / Diploma in Engineering / Technology) 
Currently in the 3rd year or higher or already completed 
B. Arch. 
Bachelor’s degree of Architecture (5year course) / Naval Architecture (4year course) / Planning (4year course) 
Currently in the 3rd year or higher or already completed 
B.Sc. (Research) / B.S. 
Bachelor’s degree in Science (PostDiploma / 4 years after 10+2) 
Currently in the 3rd year or higher or already completed 
Pharm. D.(after 10+2) 
6 years degree program, consisting of internship or residency training, during third year onwards 
Currently in the 3rd/ 4th/ 5th/ 6th year or already completed 
M.B.B.S. / B.D.S. / B.V.Sc. 
Degree holders of M.B.B.S. / B.D.S. / B.V.Sc and those who are in the 5th/ 6th/ 7th semester or higher semester of such programme. 
5th/ 6th/ 7th or higher semester or already completed 
M. Sc. / M.A. / MCA or equivalent 
Master’s degree in any branch of Arts / Science / Mathematics / Statistics / Computer Applications or equivalent 
Currently in the first year or higher or already Completed 
Int. M.E. / M.Tech.(PostB.Sc.) 
PostB.Sc Integrated Master’s degree programs in Engineering / Technology (4year program) 
Currently in the 1st/ 2nd/ 3rd/ 4th year or already completed 
Int. M.E. / M.Tech. / M.Pharm or Dual Degree (after Diploma or 10+2) 
Integrated Master’s degree program or Dual Degree program in Engineering / Technology (5year program) 
Currently in the 3rd/ 4th/ 5th year or already completed 
B.Sc. / B.A. / B.Com. 
Bachelor degree in any branch of Science / Arts / Commerce (3 year program) 
Currently in the 3rd year or already completed 
Int. M.Sc. / Int. B.S. / M.S. 
Integrated M.Sc. or 5year integrated B.S. M.S. program 
Currently in the 3rd year or higher or already completed 
Professional Society Examinations* (equivalent to B.E. / B.Tech. / B.Arch.) 
B.E. / B.Tech. / B.Arch. equivalent examinations of Professional Societies, recognized by MoE / UPSC / AICTE (e.g. AMIE by Institution of EngineersIndia, AMICE by the Institute of Civil EngineersIndia and so on) 
Completed Section A or equivalent of such professional courses 
B.Sc. (Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry) 
4years program 
Currently in the 3rd/ 4th year or already completed 
Mode of Application : Online
Mode of Payment : Net Banking  Credit Card  Debit Card
GATE exam registration has commenced on August 28. The authority has updated the GATE 2025 application form link on the website, gate2025.iitr.ac.in. Candidates who meet the eligibility criteria can fill out the GATE application form 2025 without a late fee by September 26, 2024. The last date to submit the GATE application form with a late fee is October 7, 2024. The application process involves registration, filling out the application form, uploading documents, and payment of the application fee. Candidates who complete the GATE application process will be issued an admit card. Applicants must submit the application form for GATE 2025 before the last date.
How to fill GATE Application Form 2025?
IIT Roorkee will conduct the GATE 2025 registration process online. The following is a general overview of the application process.
 Online GATE 2025 Registration: Candidates must register for GATE by providing their email address and a valid mobile number. After registration, candidates will receive an enrollment ID and password to log in to the GATE online application system.
 Filling out the GATE 2025 application form: Candidates must fill out the GATE 2025 application form online, providing personal details, educational qualifications, and other required information.
 Uploading documents: Candidates must upload scanned copies of their photograph, signature, and other relevant documents.
 Payment of GATE registration fee: Candidates can pay the GATE 2025 registration fee online through debit card, credit card, or net banking.
 Submission of the application form: After completing the application form, candidates must submit it online.
 Admit card: Candidates who have successfully submitted their application form can download their GATE 2025 admit card from the official website once it is released.
GATE 2025 Registration Fee
The authority has announced the GATE 2025 registration fee along with the official notification. Candidates can check the categorywise application fee below.
Category  Regular Period  During the Extended Period (September 27 to October 7) 
Male (General, OBC and Others)  Rs. 1,800  Rs. 2,300 
SC/ ST/ PwD  Rs. 900  Rs. 1,400 
Female candidates  Rs. 900  Rs. 1,400 
GATE Exam 2025 Combination of two subject papers
Code of the First Paper  Codes of the Second Paper  Code of the First Paper  Codes of the Second Paper 
AE  CE, ME, XE  GE  AR, CE, CS, ES, GG 
AG  CE  GG  GE 
AR  CE, GE  IN  BM, EC, EE, ME 
BM  BT, IN  MA  CS, DA, PH, ST 
BT  BM, XL  ME  AE, DA, IN, NM, PI, XE 
CE  AE, AG, AR, ES, GE, NM, XE  MT  XE 
CH  ES, PE, XE  NM  CE, ME 
CS  DA, EC, GE, MA, PH, ST  PE  CH 
CY  XE, XL  PH  CS, DA, EC, EE, MA, XE 
DA  CS, EC, EE, MA, ME, PH, ST, XE  PI  ME, XE 
EC  CS, DA, EE, IN, PH  ST  CS, DA, MA, XH 
EE  DA, EC, IN, PH  XE  AE, CE, CH, CY, DA, ME, MT, PH, PI 
ES  CE, CH, GE  XH  ST 
EY  XL  XL  BT, CY, EY 
GATE 2025 Application Form Correction Facility
The authority will conduct the GATE application form correction process in online mode. Candidates who wish to edit their GATE application form. The application form correction facility of GATE 2025 will be a chargeable process. The exam authority will also inform the applicants about the correction facility through email. Candidates should correct the GATE 2025 exam form if needed. In case of any incorrect details, the GATE 2025 application form will be rejected.
How to edit the GATE Application Form 2025?
The following steps are typically involved in editing the GATE application form during the correction window:
Visit the GATE official website 2025 gate2025.iitr.ac.in
Log in using your GATE 2025 Enrollment ID and password.
Navigate to the "Application Form" section and click on the "Edit Application Form" button.
Make the necessary changes to the form, such as personal details, exam paper, and exam city. Note that some changes may require additional fees to be paid.
Review the modified form carefully and ensure that all the changes are correct.
Submit the corrected form and take a printout of the revised form for future reference.
Charges for Changes/Modifications in GATE 2025 Application
Description of Change/Modification  Fee Charges 
Change in Name  ₹ 500 
Change in Date of Birth  ₹ 500 
Change in choice of examination cities  ₹ 500 
Change of existing paper  ₹ 500 
Add a second paper (from given combinations with respect to the primary paper)  ₹ 500 
Change of gender to female  ₹ 500 
Changes of gender from female to any other gender  ₹ 500 + ₹ 900 = ₹ 1400 
Change of category to SC/ST  ₹ 500 
Change of category from sc/ST to any other  ₹ 500 ₹ 500 + ₹ 900 = ₹ 1400 
Change from NonPwD/Dyslexics to PwD/Dyslexics  
Change from NonPwD/Dyslexics to NonPwD/Dyslexic  ₹ 500 ₹ 500 + ₹ 900 = ₹ 1400 
Any other change in Category (not mentioned above)  ₹ 500 
Details of Parents/Guardian/Correspondence Address  ₹ 500 
College Name and Location, Roll No. Registration No.  ₹ 500 
Application Fees
Category  Quota  Mode  Gender  Amount 

EWS, OBC, General, SC, ST  Online  Female  ₹ 900  
ST, SC  PWD  Online  Male, Transgender  ₹ 900 
OBC, General  Online  Male, Transgender  ₹ 1400 
GATE question papers consist of both theoretical as well as numerical questions. Candidates can check the previous year's GATE exam papers for better preparation. Solving the question paper of GATE helps in understanding the exam syllabus and paper pattern.
GATE 2024 Question Papers
Paper Name 
GATE Question Paper 
AE: Aerospace Engineering 
GATE 2024 AE Question Paper and Answer Key 
AG: Agricultural Engineering 

AR: Architecture and Planning 

BM: Biomedical Engineering 

BT: Biotechnology 
GATE 2024 BT Question Paper and Answer Key 
CE: Civil Engineering 

CH: Chemical Engineering 

CS: Computer Science and Information Technology 

CY: Chemistry 
GATE 2024 CY Question Paper and Answer Key

DA: Data Science and Artificial Intelligence 
GATE 2024 DA Question Paper and Answer Key

EC: Electronics and Communication Engineering 

EE: Electrical Engineering 

ES: Environmental Science and Engineering 

EY: Ecology and Evolution 
GATE 2024 EY Question Paper and Answer Key

GE: Geomatics Engineering

GATE 2024 GE Question Paper and Answer Key

GG: Geology and Geophysics 

IN: Instrumentation Engineering 

MA: Mathematics 
GATE 2024 MA Question Paper and Answer Key

ME: Mechanical Engineering 

MN: Mining Engineering 

MT: Metallurgical Engineering 
GATE 2024 MT Question Paper and Answer Key

NM: Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering

GATE 2024 NM Question Paper and Answer Key

PE: Petroleum Engineering 

PH: Physics 
GATE 2024 PH Question Paper and Answer Key

PI: Production and Industrial Engineering 

ST: Statistics 
GATE 2024 ST Question Paper and Answer Key

TF: Textile Engineering and Fibre Science 

XE: Engineering Sciences 
GATE 2024 XE Question Paper and Answer Key

XH: Humanities & Social Sciences 

XL: Life Sciences 
GATE 2024 XL Question Paper and Answer Key 
GATE Aerospace Engineering Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Vector algebra, matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, rank of a matrix, eigen values and eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Functions of single variable, limits, continuity and differentiability, mean value theorem, chain rule, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, gradient, divergence and curl, directional derivatives 
Integration, line, surface, and volume integrals 
Theorems of Stokes, Gauss, and Green 
Differential equations 

First order linear and nonlinear differential equations, higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients 
Partial differential equations and separation of variables methods 
Fourier series 

Laplace transforms 

Numerical methods for linear and nonlinear algebraic equations 

Numerical integration and differentiation 

Complex analysis 

Probability and Statistics 

Flight mechanics
Basics 

Atmosphere: Properties, standard atmosphere. Classification of aircraft. Airplane (fixed wing aircraft) configuration and various parts 
Pressure altitude; equivalent, calibrated, indicated air speeds; primary flight instruments: Altimeter, ASI, VSI, turnbank indicator 
Angle of attack, sideslip; roll, pitch and yaw controls 
Aerodynamic forces and moments 
Airplane performance 

Drag polar; takeoff and landing; steady climb and descent; absolute and service ceiling; range and endurance, load factor, turning flight, VN diagram 
Winds: Head, tail, and cross winds 
Static stability 

Stability and control derivatives; longitudinal stick fixed and free stability; horizontal tail position and size; directional stability, vertical tail position, and size; lateral stability 
Wing dihedral, sweep, and position; hinge moments, stick forces 
Dynamic stability 

Euler angles; equations of motion; decoupling of longitudinal and lateraldirectional dynamics; longitudinal modes; lateraldirectional modes 
Space dynamics
Central force motion 

Determination of trajectory and orbital period in simple cases 

Kepler's laws 

Escape velocity 

Aerodynamics
Basic fluid mechanics 

Conservation laws: Mass, momentum, and energy (integral and differential form); dimensional analysis and dynamic similarity; potential flow theory: Sources, sinks, doublets, line vortex, and their superposition 
Elementary ideas of viscous flows including boundary layers 
Airfoils and wings 

Airfoil nomenclature; aerodynamic coefficients: lift, drag, and moment; KuttaJoukowski theorem; thin airfoil theory, Kutta condition, starting vortex; finite wing theory: Induced drag, Prandtl lifting line theory; critical and drag divergence mach number 
Compressible flows 

Basic concepts of compressibility, onedimensional compressible flows, isentropic flows, fanno flow, Rayleigh flow; normal and oblique shocks, PrandtlMeyer flow; flow through nozzles and diffusers 
Wind tunnel testing 

Measurement and visualization techniques 
Shockboundary layer interaction 
Structures
Strength of materials 

Stress and strain: Threedimensional transformations, Mohr's circle, principal stresses, threedimensional Hooke's law, plane stress and strain 
Failure theories: Maximum stress, Tresca and Von Mises 
Strain energy 
Castigliano's principles 
Statically determinate and indeterminate trusses, and beams 
Elastic flexural buckling of columns 
Flight vehicle structures 

Characteristics of aircraft structures and materials 
Torsion, bending, and shear of thinwalled sections 
Loads on aircraft 
Structural dynamics 

Free and forced vibrations of undamped and damped SDOF systems 
Free vibrations of undamped 2DOF systems 
Vibration of beams 

Theory of elasticity 

Equilibrium and compatibility equations, Airy's stress function 
Propulsion
Basics 

Thermodynamics, boundary layers, heat transfer, combustion and thermochemistry 
Aerothermodynamics of aircraft engines 

Thrust, efficiency, range 
Brayton cycle 
Engine performance: Ramjet, turbojet, turbofan, turboprop, and turboshaft engines 
Afterburners 
Turbo machinery 

Axial compressors: Angular momentum, work, and compression, characteristic performance of a single axial compressor stage, efficiency of the compressor and degree of reaction, multistaging 
Centrifugal compressor: Stage dynamics, inducer, impeller, and diffuser 
Axial turbines: Stage performance 
Rockets 

Thrust equation and specific impulse, rocket performance 
Multistaging 
Chemical rockets 
Performance of solid and liquid propellant rockets 
Aerothermodynamics of nonrotating propulsion components such as intakes, combustor, and nozzle 

Turbine blade cooling 

Compressorturbine matching 

Surge and stall 

GATE Agricultural Engineering Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrices and determinants, linear and orthogonal transformations, CayleyHamilton theorem; eigen values and eigen vectors, solutions of linear equations 
Calculus 

Limit, continuity, and differentiability; partial derivatives; homogeneous functionEuler's theorem on homogeneous functions, total differentiation; maxima and minima of function with several independent variables; sequences and seriesinfinite series 
Tests for convergence; Fourier, Taylor, and Maclaurin series 
Vector calculus 

Vector differentiation, scalar and vector point functions, vector differential operatorsdel, gradient; divergence and curl; physical interpretationsline, surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss, and Green's theorems 
Differential equations 

Linear and nonlinear first order ordinary differential equations (ODE); homogeneous differential equations, higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Laplace transforms and their inverse; partial differential equations 
Laplace, heat and wave equations 
Probability and Statistics 

Mean, median, mode, and standard deviation; random variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; correlation and regression analysis 
Numerical methods 

Solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations; numerical integrationtrapezoidal and Simpson's rule; numerical solutions of ODEs 
Farm machinery
Machine design 

Design and selection of machine elementsgears, pulleys, chains and sprockets, and belts; overload safety devices used in farm machinery; measurement of force, stress, torque, speed, displacement and acceleration on machine elementsshafts, couplings 
Keys, bearings, and knuckle joints 
Farm machinery 

Soil tillage; forces acting on a tillage tool; hitch systems and hitching of tillage implements; functional requirements, principles of working, construction and operation of manual, animal, and power operated equipment for tillage, sowing, planting 
Fertilizer application, intercultivation, spraying, mowing, chaff cutting, harvesting and threshing calculation of performance parametersfield capacity, efficiency 
Application rate and losses; cost analysis of implements and tractors 
Farm power
Sources of power 

Sources of power on the farmhuman, animal, mechanical, electrical, wind, solar and biomass; biofuels 
Farm power 

Thermodynamic principles of IC engines; IC engine cycles; engine components; fuels and combustion; lubricants and their properties; IC engine systemsfuel, cooling, lubrication, ignition, electrical, intake and exhaust; selection, operation 
Maintenance and repair of IC engines; power efficiencies and measurement; calculation of power, torque, fuel consumption, heat load and power losses; performance index, cost analysis of implements and tractors 
Tractors and power tillers 

Type, selection, maintenance and repair of tractors, and power tillers; tractor clutches and brakes; power transmission systemsgear trains, differential, final drives and power takeoff; mechanics of tractor chassis; traction theory; three point hitches 
Free link and restrained link operations; steering and hydraulic control systems used in tractors; tractor tests and performance; human engineering and safety considerations in design of tractor, and agricultural implements 
Soil and water conservation engineering
Fluid mechanics 

Ideal and real fluids, properties of fluids; hydrostatic pressure and its measurement; continuity equation, kinematics, and dynamics of flow; Bernoulli's theorem; laminar and turbulent flow in pipes, DarcyWeisbach and HazenWilliams equations 
Moody's diagram; flow through orifices, weirs and notches; flow in open channels, dimensional analysisconcepts of geometric dimensionless numbers 
Soil mechanics 

Engineering properties of soils; fundamental definitions and relationships; index properties of soils; permeability and seepage analysis; shear strength, Mohr's circle of stress, active and passive earth pressures; stability of slopes 
Terzaghi's one dimensional soil consolidation theory 
Hydrology 

Hydrological cycle and measurement of its components; meteorological parameters and their measurement; analysis of precipitation data; runoff estimation; hydrograph analysis, unit hydrograph theory and application; stream flow measurement; flood routing 
Hydrological reservoir and channel routing, infiltrationindices and equations, drought and its classification 
Surveying and leveling 

Measurement of distance and area; instruments for surveying and leveling; chain surveying, methods of traversing; measurement of angles and bearings, plane table surveying; types of leveling; theodolite traversing; contouring; total station 
Introduction to GPS survey, computation of areas and volume 
Soil and water erosion 

Mechanics of soil erosionwind and water erosion: Soil erosion types, factors affecting erosion; soil loss estimation; biological and engineering measures to control erosion; terraces and bunds; vegetative waterways; gully control structures, drop 
Drop inlet and chute spillways; earthen dams 
Watershed management 

Watershed characterization and land use capability classification; water budgeting in watershed, rainwater harvesting, check dams and farm ponds 
Irrigation and drainage engineering
Soilwaterplant relationship 

Water requirement of crops; consumptive use and evapotranspiration; measurement of infiltration, soil moisture, and irrigation water infiltration 
Irrigation water conveyance and application methods 

Design of irrigation channels and underground pipelines; irrigation scheduling; surface, sprinkler and micro irrigation methods, design and evaluation of irrigation methods; irrigation efficiencies 
Agricultural drainage 

Drainage coefficient; planning, design and layout of surface and subsurface drainage systems; leaching requirement and salinity control; irrigation and drainage water quality and reuse; nonconventional drainage system 
Groundwater hydrology 

Groundwater occurrence; Darcy's law, steady and unsteady flow in confined and unconfined aquifers, groundwater exploration techniques; overview of groundwater recharge estimation and artificial recharge techniques 
Wells and pumps 

Types of wells, steady flow through wells; design and construction of water wells; classification of pumps; pump characteristics; pump selection and installation 
Agricultural process engineering
Engineering properties of agriculture produce 

Physical, thermal, frictional, rheological, and electrical properties 
Evaporation and drying 

Concentration and drying of liquid foodsevaporators, tray, drum, and spray dryers; hydrothermal treatments; drying and milling of cereals, pulses and oilseeds; drying kinetics; psychrometryproperties of airwater vapor mixture 
Size reduction and material handling 

Mechanics and energy requirement in size reduction of agriculture produce; particle size analysis for comminuted solids; size separation by screening; fluidization of granular solidspneumatic, bucket, screw and belt conveying; cleaning and grading 
Effectiveness of separation; centrifugal separation of solids, liquids and gases; homogenization; filtration and membrane separation 
Processing of agriculture produce 

Processing of seeds, spices, fruits, and vegetables; value addition of agriculture produce 
Storage systems 

Controlled and modified atmosphere storage; perishable food storage, godowns, bins and grain silos, packaging material and machines 
Dairy and food engineering
Heat and mass transfer 

Steady state heat transfer in conduction, convection and radiation; transient heat transfer in simple geometry; working principles of heat exchangers; diffusive and convective mass transfer 
Simultaneous heat and mass transfer in agricultural processing operations; material and energy balances in food processing systems; water activity, sorption and desorption isotherms 
Preservation of food 

Kinetics of microbial deathpasteurization and sterilization of milk, and other liquid foods; preservation of food by cooling and freezing; refrigeration and cold storage basics, and applications 
GATE Architecture and Planning Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Architecture, planning, and design
Architectural graphics 

Visual composition in 2D and 3D 

Computer application in architecture and planning 

Anthropometrics 

Organization of space 

Circulationhorizontal and vertical 

Space standards 

Universal design 

Building byelaws 

Codes and standards 

Construction and management
Project management techniques example PERT, CPM, etc 

Estimation and specification 

Professional practice and ethics 

Form and structure 

Principles and design of disaster resistant structures 

Temporary structures for rehabilitation 

Environmental planning and design
Natural and manmade ecosystem 

Ecological principles 

Environmental considerations in planning and design 

Environmental pollutiontypes, causes, controls, and abatement strategies 

Sustainable development, goals, and strategies 

Climate change and built environment 

Climate responsive design 

Urban design, landscape, and conservation
Historical and modern examples of urban design 

Elements of urban built environmenturban form, spaces, structure, pattern, fabric, texture, grain etc 

Concepts and theories of urban design 

Principles, tools, and techniques of urban design 

Public spaces, character, spatial qualities, and sense of place 

Urban design interventions for sustainable development and transportation 

Development controlsFAR, densities, and building byelaws 

Urban renewal and conservation 

Heritage conservation 

Historical public spaces and gardens 

Landscape design 

Site planning 

Planning process
Salient concepts 

Theories and principles of urban planning 

Concepts of citiesecocity, smart city 

Concepts and theories by trendsetting planners, and designers 

Ekistics 

Urban sociology 

Social, economic, and environmental cost benefit analysis 

Methods of nonspatial and spatial data analysis 

Development guidelines such as URDPFI 

Housing
Housing typologies 

Concepts, principles, and examples of neighbourhood 

Residential densities 

Affordable housing 

Real estate valuation 

Services and infrastructure
Firefighting systems 

Building safety and security systems 

Building management systems 

Water treatment 

Water supply and distribution system 

Water harvesting systems 

Principles, planning, and design of storm water drainage system 

Sewage disposal methods 

Methods of solid waste managementcollection, transportation, and disposal 

Recycling and reuse of solid waste 

Land usetransportation, urban form inter relationships 

Design of roads, intersections, grade separators, and parking areas 

Hierarchy of roads and level of service 

Paratransits and other modes of transportation 

Pedestrian and slow moving traffic planning 

History and contemporary architecture
Principles of art and architecture 

World history of architecture 

Egyptian, GrecoRoman classical period, Byzantine, Gothic, Renaissance, BaroqueRococo, etc 
Recent trends in contemporary architecture 

Art nouveau, art Deco, eclecticism, international styles, post modernism, deconstruction in architecture, etc 
Influence of modern art and design in architecture 

Indian vernacular and traditional architecture 

Oriental architecture 

Works of renowned national and international architects 

Building construction and structural systems
Building construction techniques, methods, and details 

Building systems and prefabrication of building elements 

Principles of modular coordination 

Construction planning and equipment 

Building material characteristics and applications 

Principles of strength of materials 

Alternative building materials 

Foundations 

Design of structural elements with different materials 

Elastic and limit state design 

Structural systems 

Principles of prestressing 

High rise and long span structures 

Gravity and lateral load resisting systems 

Building services and sustainability
Solar architecture 

Thermal, visual, and acoustic comfort in built environments 

Natural and mechanical ventilation in buildings 

Airconditioning systems 

Sustainable building strategies 

Building performance simulation and evaluation 

Intelligent buildings 

Water supply 

Sewerage and drainage systems 

Sanitary fittings and fixtures 

Plumbing systems 

Principles of internal and external drainage system 

Principles of electrification of buildings 

Elevators and escalatorsstandards and uses 

Regional and settlement planning
Regional delineation 

Settlement hierarchy 

Types and hierarchy of plans 

Various schemes and programs of central government 

Transit oriented development (TOD), SEZ, SRZ etc 

Public perception and user behaviour 

National housing policies, programs, and schemes 

Slums, squatters, and informal housing 

Standards for housing and community facilities 

Housing for special areas and needs 

Planning techniques and management
Application of GIS and remote sensing techniques in urban, and regional planning 

Tools and techniques of surveysphysical, topographical, land use, and socioeconomic surveys 

Urban economics 

Law of demand and supply of land and its use in planning 

Graphic presentation of spatial data 

Local selfgovernance 

Panchayati raj institutions 

Planning legislation and implementationland acquisition act, PPP, etc 

Decision support system and land information system 

Urban geography and econometrics 

Management of infrastructure projects 

Demography and equity in planning 

Infrastructure planning
Process and principles of transportation planning, and traffic engineering 

Road capacity and travel demand forecasting 

Traffic survey methods 

Traffic flow analysis 

Traffic analyses and design considerations 

Traffic and transport management, and control in urban areas 

Mass transportation planning 

Intelligent transportation systems 

Urban and rural infrastructure system network 

GATE Biotechnology Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrices and determinants; systems of linear equations; eigen values and eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Limits, continuity, and differentiability; partial derivatives, maxima and minima; sequences and series; test for convergence 
Differential equations 

Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs, higher order ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy's and Euler's equations; Laplace transforms 
Probability and Statistics 

Mean, median, mode, and standard deviation; random variables; Poisson, normal, and binomial distributions; correlation and regression analysis 
Numerical methods 

Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations; integration by trapezoidal and Simpson's rule; single step method for differential equations 
General biology
Biochemistry 

Biomoleculesstructure and function; biological membranesstructure, membrane channels, and pumps, molecular motors, action potential and transport processes; basic concepts and regulation of metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids 
Amino acids and nucleic acids; photosynthesis, respiration, and electron transport chain 
Enzymesclassification, catalytic, and regulatory strategies; enzyme kineticsMichaelisMenten equation; enzyme inhibitioncompetitive, noncompetitive, and uncompetitive inhibition 
Microbiology 

Bacterial classification and diversity; microbial ecologymicrobes in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems; microbial interactions; virusesstructure and classification; methods in microbiology; microbial growth and nutrition; nitrogen fixation 
Microbial diseases and hostpathogen interactions; antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance 
Immunology 

Innate and adaptive immunity, humoral and cell mediated immunity; antibody structure and function; molecular basis of antibody diversity; T cell and B cell development; antigenantibody reaction; complement; primary and secondary lymphoid organs 
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC); antigen processing and presentation; polyclonal and monoclonal antibody; regulation of immune response; immune tolerance; hyper sensitivity; autoimmunity; graft versus host reaction; immunization and vaccines 
Genetics, cellular, and molecular biology
Genetics and evolutionary biology 

Mendelian inheritance; gene interaction; complementation; linkage, recombination, and chromosome mapping; extra chromosomal inheritance; microbial geneticstransformation, transduction, and conjugation; horizontal gene transfer and transposable elements 
Chromosomal variation; genetic disorders; population genetics; epigenetics; selection and inheritance; adaptive and neutral evolution; genetic drift; species and speciation 
Cell biology 

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; cell cycle and cell growth control; cellcell communication; cell signaling and signal transduction; posttranslational modifications; protein trafficking; cell death and autophagy; extracellular matrix 
Molecular biology 

Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes; mutations and mutagenesis; regulation of gene expression; nucleic acidreplication, transcription, splicing, translation and their regulatory mechanisms; Noncoding and micro RNA; RNA interference 
DNA damage and repair 
Fundamentals of biological engineering
Engineering principles applied to biological systems 

Material and energy balances for reactive and nonreactive systems; recycle, bypass and purge processes; stoichiometry of growth and product formation; degree of reduction, electron balance, theoretical oxygen demand 
Classical thermodynamics and bioenergetics 

Laws of thermodynamics; solution thermodynamics; phase equilibrium, reaction equilibrium; ligand binding; membrane potential; energetics of metabolic pathways, oxidation, and reduction reactions 
Transport processes 

Newtonian and nonNewtonian fluids, fluid flowlaminar and turbulent; mixing in bioreactors, mixing time; molecular diffusion and film theory; oxygen transfer and uptake in bioreactor, kLa and its measurement; conductive and convective heat transfer, LMTD 
Overall heat transfer coefficient; heat exchangers 
Bioprocess engineering and process biotechnology
Bioreaction engineering 

Rate law, zero, and first order kinetics; ideal reactorsbatch, mixed flow and plug flow; enzyme immobilization, diffusion effectsThiele modulus, effectiveness factor, Damkohler number; kinetics of cell growth 
Substrate utilization and product formation; structured and unstructured models; batch, fedbatch, and continuous processes; microbial and enzyme reactors; optimization and scale up 
Upstream and downstream processing 

Media formulation and optimization; sterilization of air and media; filtrationmembrane filtration, ultra filtration; centrifugationhigh speed and ultra; cell disruption; principles of chromatographyion exchange, gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction 
Affinity, GC, HPLC, and FPLC; extraction, adsorption, and drying 
Instrumentation and process control 

Pressure, temperature, and flow measurement devices; valves; first order and second order systems; feedback and feed forward control; types of controllersproportional, derivative, and integral control, tuning of controllers 
Plant, animal, and microbial biotechnology
Plants 

Totipotency; regeneration of plants; plant growth regulators and elicitors; tissue culture and cell suspension culture systemmethodology, kinetics of growth and nutrient optimization; production of secondary metabolites; hairy root culture 
Plant products of industrial importance; artificial seeds; somaclonal variation; protoplast, protoplast fusionsomatic hybrid and cybrid; transgenic plantsdirect and indirect methods of gene transfer techniques; selection marker and reporter gene 
Plastid transformation 
Animals 

Culture media composition and growth conditions; animal cell and tissue preservation; anchorage and nonanchorage dependent cell culture; kinetics of cell growth; micro and macrocarrier culture; hybridoma technology; stem cell technology; animal cloning 
Transgenic animals; knockout and knockin animals 
Microbes 

Production of biomass and primary/ secondary metabolitesbiofuels, bioplastics, industrial enzymes, antibiotics; large scale production and purification of recombinant proteins and metabolites; clinical, food, and industrial microbiology 
Screening strategies for new products 
Recombinant DNA technology and other tools in biotechnology
Recombinant DNA technology 

Restriction and modification enzymes; vectorsplasmids, bacteriophage, and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, bacterial and yeast artificial chromosomes; expression vectors; cDNA and genomic DNA library; gene isolation and cloning 
Strategies for production of recombinant proteins; transposons and gene targeting 
Molecular tools 

Polymerase chain reaction; DNA/ RNA labelling and sequencing; southern and northern blotting; insitu hybridization; DNA fingerprinting, RAPD, RFLP; sitedirected mutagenesis; gene transfer technologies; CRISPRcas; biosensing and biosensors 
Analytical tools 

Principles of microscopylight, electron, fluorescent, and confocal; principles of spectroscopyUV, visible, CD, IR, fluorescence, FTIR, MS, NMR; electrophoresis; microarrays; enzymatic assays; immunoassaysELISA, RIA, immunohistochemistry 
Immunoblotting; flow cytometry; whole genome and ChIP sequencing 
Computational tools 

Bioinformatics resources and search tools; sequence and structure databases; sequence analysissequence file formats, scoring matrices, alignment, phylogeny; genomics, proteomics, metabolomics; gene prediction; functional annotation 
Secondary structure and 3D structure prediction; knowledge discovery in biochemical databases; metagenomics; metabolic engineering and systems biology 
GATE Civil Engineering Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrix algebra; systems of linear equations; eigen values and eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Functions of single variable; limit, continuity, and differentiability; mean value theorems, local maxima and minima; Taylor series; evaluation of definite and indefinite integrals, application of definite integral to obtain area and volume 
Partial derivatives; total derivative; gradient, divergence and curl, vector identities; directional derivatives; line, surface and volume integrals 
Ordinary differential equation (ODE) 

First order (linear and nonlinear) equations; higher order linear equations with constant coefficients; EulerCauchy equations; initial and boundary value problems 
Partial differential equation (PDE) 

Fourier series; separation of variables; solutions of onedimensional diffusion equation; first and second order onedimensional wave equation and twodimensional Laplace equation 
Probability and Statistics 

Sampling theorems; conditional probability; descriptive statisticsmean, median, mode and standard deviation; random variablesdiscrete and continuous, Poisson and normal distribution; linear regression 
Numerical methods 

Error analysis 
Numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations; Newton's and Lagrange polynomials; numerical differentiation; integration by trapezoidal and Simpson's rule; single and multistep methods for first order differential equations 
Structural engineering
Engineering mechanics 

System of forces, freebody diagrams, equilibrium equations; internal forces in structures; frictions and its applications; centre of mass; free vibrations of undamped SDOF system 
Solid mechanics 

Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams; simple stress and strain relationships; simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses, shear centre; uniform torsion, transformation of stress; buckling of column 
Combined and direct bending stresses 
Structural analysis 

Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods; method of superposition; analysis of trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames; displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods; Influence lines 
Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis 
Construction materials and management 

Construction materials: Structural steelcomposition, material properties and behaviour; concreteconstituents, mix design, shortterm and longterm properties 
Construction management: Types of construction projects; project planning and network analysisPERT and CPM; cost estimation 
Concrete structures 

Working stress and limit state design concepts; design of beams, slabs, columns; bond and development length; prestressed concrete beams 
Steel structures 

Working stress and Limit state design concepts; design of tension and compression members, beams and beamcolumns, column bases; connectionssimple and eccentric, beamcolumn connections, plate girders and trusses 
Concept of plastic analysisbeams and frames 
Geotechnical engineering
Soil mechanics 

Threephase system and phase relationships, index properties; unified and Indian standard soil classification system; permeabilityone dimensional flow, seepage through soilstwodimensional flow, flow nets, uplift pressure, piping, capillarity 
Seepage force; principle of effective stress and quicksand condition; compaction of soils; onedimensional consolidation, time rate of consolidation; shear strength, Mohr's circle, effective and total shear strength parameters 
Stressstrain characteristics of clays and sand; stress paths 
Foundation engineering 

Subsurface investigationsdrilling bore holes, sampling, plate load test, standard penetration and cone penetration tests; Earth pressure theoriesRankine and Coulomb; stability of slopesfinite and infinite slopes, Bishop's method 
Stress distribution in soilsBoussinesq's theory; pressure bulbs, shallow foundationsTerzaghi and Meyerhof's bearing capacity theories, effect of water table; combined footing and raft foundation; contact pressure 
Settlement analysis in sands and clays; deep foundationsdynamic and static formulae, axial load capacity of piles in sands and clays, pile load test, pile under lateral loading, pile group efficiency, negative skin friction 
Water resources engineering
Fluid mechanics 

Properties of fluids, fluid statics; continuity, momentum and energy equations and their applications; potential flow, laminar and turbulent flow; flow in pipes, pipe networks; concept of boundary layer and its growth; concept of lift and drag 
Hydraulics 

Forces on immersed bodies; flow measurement in channels and pipes; dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude; channel hydraulicsenergydepth relationships, specific energy, critical flow, hydraulic jump, uniform flow 
Gradually varied flow and water surface profiles 
Hydrology 

Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, evapotranspiration, watershed, infiltration, unit hydrographs, hydrograph analysis, reservoir capacity, flood estimation and routing, surface runoff models 
Ground water hydrologysteady state well hydraulics and aquifers; application of Darcy's law 
Irrigation 

Types of irrigation systems and methods; crop water requirementsduty, delta, evapotranspiration; gravity dams and spillways; lined and unlined canals, design of weirs on permeable foundation; cross drainage structures 
Environmental engineering
Water and waste water quality and treatment 

Basics of water quality standardsphysical, chemical, and biological parameters; water quality index; unit processes and operations; water requirement; water distribution system; drinking water treatment 
Sewerage system design, quantity of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment 
Effluent discharge standards; sludge disposal; reuse of treated sewage for different applications 
Air pollution 

Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution control, air quality standards, air quality index and limits 
Municipal solid wastes 

Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal) 
Transportation engineering
Transportation infrastructure 

Geometric design of highwayscrosssectional elements, sight distances, horizontal and vertical alignments 
Geometric design of railway Trackspeed and cant 
Concept of airport runway length, calculations and corrections; taxiway and exit taxiway design 
Highway pavements 

Highway materialsdesirable properties and tests; desirable properties of bituminous paving mixes; design factors for flexible and rigid pavements; design of flexible and rigid pavement using IRC codes 
Traffic engineering 

Traffic studies on flow and speed, peak hour factor, accident study, statistical analysis of traffic data; microscopic and macroscopic parameters of traffic flow, fundamental relationships; traffic signs; signal design by Webster's method 
Types of intersections; highway capacity 
Geomatics engineering
Principles of surveying 

Errors and their adjustment 

Maps 

Scale, coordinate system 
Distance and angle measurement 

Levelling and trigonometric levelling 
Traversing and triangulation survey 

Total station 

Horizontal and vertical curves 

Photogrammetry and remote sensing 

Scale, flying height 
Basics of remote sensing and GIS 

GATE Chemical Engineering Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, eigen values and eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Functions of single variable, limit, continuity, and differentiability, Taylor series, mean value theorems, evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, total derivative, maxima and minima, gradient, divergence and curl 
Vector identities, directional derivatives, line, surface and volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green's theorems 
Differential equations 

First order equations (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms 
Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation 
Complex variables 

Complex number, polar form of complex number, triangle inequality 
Probability and Statistics 

Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode and standard deviation, random variables, Poisson, normal and binomial distributions, linear regression analysis 
Numerical methods 

Numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations 
Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson's rule 
Single and multistep methods for numerical solution of differential equations 
Process calculations and thermodynamics
Steady and unsteady state mass and energy balances including multiphase 

Multicomponent 

Reacting and nonreacting systems 

Use of tie components 

Recycle, bypass, and purge calculations 

Gibb's phase rule and degree of freedom analysis 

First and second laws of thermodynamics 

Applications of first law to close and open systems 

Second law and entropy 

Thermodynamic properties of pure substances 

Equation of state and residual properties 
Properties of mixtures 

Partial molar properties, fugacity, excess properties and activity coefficients 
Phase equilibria 

Predicting VLE of systems; chemical reaction equilibrium 
Fluid mechanics and mechanical operations
Fluid statics 

Surface tension 

Newtonian and nonNewtonian fluids 

Transport properties 

Shellbalances including differential form of Bernoulli equation and energy balance 

Equation of continuity 

Equation of motion 

Equation of mechanical energy 

Macroscopic friction factors 

Dimensional analysis and similitude 

Flow through pipeline systems 

Velocity profiles 

Flow meters 

Pumps and compressors 

Elementary boundary layer theory 

Flow past immersed bodies including packed and fluidized beds 

Turbulent flow 

Fluctuating velocity, universal velocity profile and pressure drop 
Particle size and shape 

Particle size distribution 

Size reduction and classification of solid particles 

Free and hindered settling 

Centrifuge and cyclones 

Thickening and classification 

Filtration 

Agitation and mixing 

Conveying of solids 

Heat transfer
Equation of energy 

Steady and unsteady heat conduction 

Convection and radiation 

Thermal boundary layer and heat transfer coefficients 

Boiling 

Condensation and evaporation 

Types of heat exchangers and evaporators and their process calculations 

Design of double pipe 

Shell and tube heat exchangers, and single and multiple effect evaporators 

Mass transfer
Fick's laws 

Molecular diffusion in fluids 

Mass transfer coefficients 

Film 

Penetration and surface renewal theories 

Momentum 

Heat and mass transfer analogies 

Stagewise and continuous contacting and stage efficiencies 

HTU and NTU concepts 

Design and operation of equipment for distillation 

Absorption 

Leaching 

Liquidliquid extraction 

Drying 

Humidification 

Dehumidification and adsorption 

Membrane separations (microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) 

Chemical reaction engineering
Theories of reaction rates 

Kinetics of homogeneous reactions 

Interpretation of kinetic data 

Single and multiple reactions in ideal reactors 

Kinetics of enzyme reactions (MichaelisMenten and Monod models) 

Nonideal reactors 

Residence time distribution 

Single parameter model 

Nonisothermal reactors 

Kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions 

Diffusion effects in catalysis 

Rate and performance equations for catalyst deactivation 

Instrumentation and process control
Measurement of process variables 

Sensors and transducers 

P and ID equipment symbols 

Process modeling and linearization 

Transfer functions and dynamic responses of various systems 

Systems with inverse response 

Process reaction curve 

Controller modes (P, PI, and PID) 

Control valves 

Transducer dynamics 

Analysis of closed loop systems including stability 

Frequency response 

Controller tuning 

Cascade and feed forward control 

Plant design and economics
Principles of process economics and cost estimation including depreciation and total annualized cost 

Cost indices 

Rate of return 

Payback period 

Discounted cash flow 

Optimization in process design and sizing of chemical engineering equipments such as heat exchangers and multistage contactors 

Chemical technology
Inorganic chemical industries (sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, chloralkali industry) 

Fertilizers (ammonia, urea, SSP and TSP) 

Natural products industries (pulp and paper, sugar, oil, and fats) 

Petroleum refining and petrochemicals 

Polymerization industries (polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC and polyester synthetic fibers) 

GATE Computer Science and Information Technology Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Engineering mathematics
Discrete mathematics 

Propositional and first order logic 
Sets, relations, functions, partial orders and lattices 
Monoids, groups 
Graphs: Connectivity, matching, colouring 
Combinatorics: Counting, recurrence relations, generating functions 
Linear algebra 

Matrices, determinants, system of linear equations, eigen values and eigen vectors, LU decomposition 
Calculus 

Limits, continuity, and differentiability 
Maxima and minima 
Mean value theorem 
Integration 
Probability and Statistics 

Random variables 
Uniform, normal, exponential, poisson and binomial distributions 
Mean, median, mode and standard deviation 
Conditional probability and baye's theorem 
Computer science and information technology
Digital logic 

Boolean algebra 
Combinational and sequential circuits 
Minimization 
Number representations and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point) 
Computer organization and architecture 

Machine instructions and addressing modes 
ALU, data‐path and control unit 
Instruction pipelining, pipeline hazards 
Memory hierarchy: Cache, main memory and secondary storage; I/O interface (interrupt and DMA mode) 
Programming and data structures 

Programming in C. Recursion 
Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, binary search trees, binary heaps, graphs 
Algorithms 

Searching, sorting, hashing 
Asymptotic worst case time and space complexity 
Algorithm design techniques: Greedy, dynamic programming and divide‐and‐conquer 
Graph traversals, minimum spanning trees, shortest paths 
Theory of computation 

Regular expressions and finite automata 
Contextfree grammars and pushdown automata 
Regular and contexfree languages, pumping lemma 
Turing machines and undecidability 
Compiler design 

Lexical analysis, parsing, syntaxdirected translation 
Runtime environments 
Intermediate code generation 
Local optimisation, data flow analyses: Constant propagation, liveness analysis, common subexpression elimination 
Operating system 

System calls, processes, threads, inter‐process communication, concurrency and synchronization 
Deadlock 
CPU and I/O scheduling 
Memory management and virtual memory 
File systems 
Databases 

ER‐model 
Relational model: Relational algebra, tuple calculus, SQL 
Integrity constraints, normal forms 
File organization, indexing (e.g., B and B+ trees) 
Transactions and concurrency control 
Computer networks 

Concept of layering: OSI and TCP/IP protocol stacks; basics of packet, circuit and virtual circuitswitching; data link layer: Framing, error detection, medium access control, ethernet bridging 
Routing protocols: Shortest path, flooding, distance vector and link state routing; fragmentation and IP addressing, IPv4, CIDR notation, basics of IP support protocols (ARP, DHCP, ICMP), network address translation (NAT) 
Transport layer: Flow control and congestion control, UDP, TCP, sockets; application layer protocols: DNS, SMTP, HTTP, FTP, Email 
GATE Chemistry Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Physical chemistry
Structure 

Postulates of quantum mechanics 
Operators 
Time dependent and time independent Schrödinger equations 
Born interpretation 
Dirac braket notation 
Particle in a box: Infinite and finite square wells; concept of tunnelling; particle in 1D, 2D and 3Dbox; applications 
Harmonic oscillator: Harmonic and anharmonic potentials; hermite polynomials 
Rotational motion: Angular momentum operators, rigid rotor 
Hydrogen and hydrogenlike atoms: Atomic orbitals; radial distribution function 
Multielectron atoms: Orbital approximation; electron spin; Pauli exclusion principle; slater determinants 
Approximation methods: Variation method and secular determinants; first order perturbation techniques 
Atomic units 
Molecular structure and chemical bonding: BornOppenheimer approximation; valence bond theory and linear combination of atomic orbitalsmolecular orbital (LCAOMO) theory 
Hybrid orbitals 
Applications of LCAOMO theory to H2 +, H2; molecular orbital theory (MOT) of homo and heteronuclear diatomic molecules 
Hückel approximation and its application to annular π– electron systems 
Group theory: Symmetry elements and operations; point groups and character tables; internal coordinates and vibrational modes; symmetry adapted linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAOMO); construction of hybrid orbitals using symmetry aspects 
Spectroscopy: Atomic spectroscopy; RussellSaunders coupling; term symbols and spectral details; origin of selection rules. Rotational, vibrational, electronic and Raman spectroscopy of diatomic and polyatomic molecules. Line broadening 
Spectroscopy: Einstein's coefficients. Relationship of transition moment integral with molar extinction coefficient and oscillator strength. Basic principles of nuclear magnetic resonance: Gyromagnetic ratio; chemical shift, nuclear coupling 
Equilibrium 

Laws of thermodynamics 
Standard states 
Thermochemistry 
Thermodynamic functions and their relationships: GibbsHelmholtz and Maxwell relations, GibbsDuhem equation, Van't Hoff equation 
Criteria of spontaneity and equilibrium 
Absolute entropy 
Partial molar quantities 
Thermodynamics of mixing 
Chemical potential 
Fugacity, activity and activity coefficients 
Ideal and Nonideal solutions, Raoult's law and Henry's law, chemical equilibria 
Dependence of equilibrium constant on temperature and pressure 
Ionic mobility and conductivity 
DebyeHuckel limiting law 
DebyeHückelOnsager equation 
Standard electrode potentials and electrochemical cells 
Nernst Equation and its application, relationship between electrode potential and thermodynamic quantities, potentiometric and conductometric titrations 
Phase rule 
ClausiusClapeyron equation 
Phase diagram of one component systems: CO2, H2O, S; two component systems: Liquid vapour, liquidliquid, and solidliquid systems 
Fractional distillation 
Azeotropes and eutectics 
Statistical thermodynamics: Microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical ensembles, Boltzmann distribution, partition functions and thermodynamic properties 
Kinetics 

Elementary, parallel, opposing and consecutive reactions 
Steady state approximation 
Mechanisms of complex reactions 
Unimolecular reactions 
Potential energy surfaces and classical trajectories, concept of Saddle points, transition state theory: Eyring equation, thermodynamic aspects 
Kinetics of polymerization 
Catalysis concepts and enzyme catalysis 
Kinetic isotope effects 
Fast reaction kinetics: Relaxation and flow methods 
Diffusion controlled reactions 
Kinetics of photochemical and photophysical processes 
Surfaces and interfaces 

Physisorption and Chemisorption 
Langmuir, Freundlich and BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET) isotherms 
Surface catalysis: LangmuirHinshelwood mechanism 
Surface tension, viscosity 
Selfassembly 
Physical chemistry of colloids, micelles and macromolecules 
Inorganic chemistry
Main group elements 

Hydrides, halides, oxides, oxoacids, nitrides, sulfidesshapes and reactivity 
Structure and bonding of boranes, carboranes, silicones, silicates, boron nitride, borazines and phosphazenes 
Allotropes of carbon, phosphorous and sulphur 
Industrial synthesis of compounds of main group elements 
Chemistry of noble gases, pseudohalogens, and interhalogen compounds 
Acidbase concepts and principles (Lewis, Brønsted, HSAB and acidbase catalysis) 
Transition elements 

Coordination chemistrystructure and isomerism, theories of bonding (VBT, CFT, and MOT) 
Energy level diagrams in various crystal fields, CFSE, applications of CFT, JahnTeller distortion 
Electronic spectra of transition metal complexes: Spectroscopic term symbols, selection rules, Orgel and TanabeSugano diagrams, nephelauxetic effect and Racah parameter, chargetransfer spectra 
Magnetic properties of transition metal complexes 
RayDutt and Bailar twists, reaction mechanisms: Kinetic and thermodynamic stability, substitution and redox reactions 
Metalmetal multiple bond 
Lanthanides and actinides 

Recovery 
Periodic properties, spectra and magnetic properties 
Organometallics 

18Electron rule; metalalkyl, metalcarbonyl, metalolefin and metalcarbene complexes and metallocenes 
Fluxionality in organometallic complexes 
Types of organometallic reactions 
Homogeneous catalysishydrogenation, hydroformylation, acetic acid synthesis, metathesis and olefin oxidation 
Heterogeneous catalysisFischerTropsch reaction, ZieglerNatta polymerization 
Radioactivity 

Detection of radioactivity, decay processes, halflife of radioactive elements, fission and fusion processes 
Bioinorganic chemistry 

Ion (Na+ and K+ ) transport, oxygen binding, transport and utilization, electron transfer reactions, nitrogen fixation, metalloenzymes containing magnesium, molybdenum, iron, cobalt, copper and zinc 
Solids 

Crystal systems and lattices, Miller planes, crystal packing, crystal defects, Bragg's law, ionic crystals, structures of AX, AX2, ABX3 type compounds, spinels, band theory, metals and semiconductors 
Instrumental methods of analysis 

UVvisible, fluorescence and FTIR spectrophotometry, NMR and ESR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectroscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy (Fe and Sn) and Xray crystallography 
Chromatography including GC and HPLC 
Electroanalytical methodspolarography, cyclic voltammetry, ionselective electrodes 
Thermoanalytical methods 
Organic chemistry
Stereochemistry 

Chirality and symmetry of organic molecules with or without chiral centres and determination of their absolute configurations 
Relative stereochemistry in compounds having more than one stereogenic centre 
Homotopic, enantiotopic and diastereotopic atoms, groups and faces 
Stereoselective and stereospecific synthesis 
Conformational analysis of acyclic and cyclic compounds 
Geometrical isomerism and optical isomerism 
Configurational and conformational effects, atropisomerism, and neighbouring group participation on reactivity and selectivity/ specificity 
Reaction mechanisms 

Basic mechanistic conceptskinetic versus thermodynamic control, Hammond's postulate and CurtinHammett principle 
Methods of determining reaction mechanisms through kinetics, identification of products, intermediates and isotopic labelling 
Linear freeenergy relationshiHammett and Taft equations 
Nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution reactions (both aromatic and aliphatic) 
Addition reactions to carboncarbon and carbonheteroatom (N and O) multiple bonds 
Elimination reactions 
Reactive intermediatescarbocations, carbanions, carbenes, nitrenes, arynes and free radicals 
Molecular rearrangements 
Organic synthesis 

Synthesis, reactions, mechanisms and selectivity involving the following classes of compoundsalkenes, alkynes, arenes, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, nitriles, halides, nitro compounds, amines and amides 
Uses of Mg, Li, Cu, B, Zn, P, S, Sn and Si based reagents in organic synthesis 
Carboncarbon bond formation through coupling reactionsHeck, Suzuki, Stille, Sonogoshira, Negishi, Kumada, Hiyama, TsujiTrost, olefin metathesis and McMurry 
Concepts of multistep synthesisretrosynthetic analysis, strategic disconnections, synthons and synthetic equivalents 
Atom economy and green chemistry, umpolung reactivityformyl and acyl anion equivalents 
Selectivity in organic synthesischemo, regio and stereoselectivity 
Protection and deprotection of functional groups 
Concepts of asymmetric synthesisresolution (including enzymatic), desymmetrization and use of chiral auxiliaries, organocatalysis 
Carboncarbon and carbonheteroatom bond forming reactions through enolates (including boron enolates), enamines and silyl enol ethers 
Stereoselective addition to C=O groups (Cram, Prelog and FelkinAnh models) 
Pericyclic reactions and photochemistry 

Electrocyclic, cycloaddition and sigmatropic reactions 
Orbital correlationsFMO and PMO treatments, WoodwardHoffmann rule 
Photochemistry of alkenes, arenes and carbonyl compounds 
Photooxidation and photoreduction 
Diπmethane rearrangement, BartonMcCombie reaction, Norrish typeI and II cleavage reaction 
Heterocyclic compounds 

Structure, preparation, properties and reactions of furan, pyrrole, thiophene, pyridine, indole, quinoline and isoquinoline 
Biomolecules 

Structure, properties and reactions of monoand disaccharides, physicochemical properties of amino acids, chemical synthesis of peptides, chemical structure determination of peptides and proteins 
Structural features of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, steroids, terpenoids, carotenoids, and alkaloids 
Experimental techniques in organic chemistry 

Optical rotation (polarimetry) 
Applications of various chromatographic techniques such as thinlayer, column, HPLC and GC 
Applications of UVvisible, IR, NMR and mass spectrometry in the structural determination of organic molecules 
GATE Electronics and Communication Engineering Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Vector space, basis, linear dependence and independence, matrix algebra, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, rank, solution of linear equationsexistence and uniqueness 
Calculus 

Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, line, surface and volume integrals, Taylor series 
Differential equations 

First order equations (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, methods of solution using variation of parameters, complementary function and particular integral, partial differential equations 
Variable separable method, initial and boundary value problems 
Vector analysis 

Vectors in plane and space, vector operations, gradient, divergence and curl, Gauss's, Green's and Stokes' theorems 
Complex analysis 

Analytic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem, Cauchy's integral formula, sequences, series, convergence tests, Taylor and Laurent series, residue theorem 
Probability and Statistics 

Mean, median, mode, standard deviation, combinatorial probability, probability distributions, binomial distribution, Poisson distribution, exponential distribution, normal distribution, joint and conditional probability 
Networks, signals, and systems
Circuit analysis 

Node and mesh analysis, superposition, Thevenin's theorem, Norton's theorem, reciprocity 
Sinusoidal steady state analysis: Phasors, complex power, maximum power transfer 
Time and frequency domain analysis of linear circuits: RL, RC and RLC circuits, solution of network equations using Laplace transform 
Linear 2port network parameters, Wyedelta transformation 
Continuoustime signals 

Fourier series and Fourier transform, sampling theorem and applications 
Discretetime signals 

DTFT, DFT, ztransform, discretetime processing of continuoustime signals 
LTI systems: Definition and properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeroes, frequency response, group delay, phase delay 
Electronic devices
Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors 

Equilibrium carrier concentration 

Direct and indirect bandgap semiconductors 

Carrier transport 

Diffusion current, drift current, mobility and resistivity, generation and recombination of carriers, Poisson and continuity equations 
PN junction 

Zener diode 

BJT 

MOS capacitor 

MOSFET 

LED 

Photo diode and solar cell 

Analog circuits
Diode circuits 

Clipping, clamping and rectifiers 
BJT and MOSFET amplifiers 

Biasing, ac coupling, small signal analysis, frequency response 
Current mirrors and differential amplifiers 
OPAMP Circuits 

Amplifiers, summers, differentiators, integrators, active filters, Schmitt triggers and oscillators 
Digital circuits
Number representations 

Binary, integer and floatingpointnumbers 
Combinatorial circuits 

Boolean algebra, minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map, logic gates and their static CMOS implementations, arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders 
Sequential circuits 

Latches and flipflops, counters, shiftregisters, finite state machines, propagation delay, setup and hold time, critical path delay 
Data converters 

Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs 
Semiconductor memories 

ROM, SRAM, DRAM 
Computer organization 

Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU, datapath and control unit, instruction pipelining 
Control systems
Basic control system components 

Feedback principle 

Transfer function 

Block diagram representation 

Signal flow graph 

Transient and steadystate analysis of LTI systems 

Frequency response 

RouthHurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria 

Bode and rootlocus plots 

Lag, lead and laglead compensation 

State variable model and solution of state equation of LTI systems 

Communications
Random processes 

Autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems 
Analog communications 

Amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers 
Information theory 

Entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem 
Digital communications 

PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK, QAM), bandwidth, intersymbol interference, MAP, ML detection, matched filter receiver, SNR and BER 
Fundamentals of error correction 

Hamming codes 

CRC 

Electromagnetics
Maxwell's equations 

Differential and integral forms and their interpretation, boundary conditions, wave equation, Poynting vector 
Plane waves and properties 

Reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through various media, skin depth 
Transmission lines 

Equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, Sparameters, Smith chart 
Rectangular and circular waveguides 

Light propagation in optical fibers 

Dipole and monopole antennas 

Linear antenna arrays 

GATE Electrical Engineering Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra 

Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, eigen values, eigen vectors 
Calculus 

Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series, vector identities, directional derivatives, line integral, surface integral 
Volume integral, Stokes's theorem, Gauss's theorem, divergence theorem, Green's theorem 
Differential equations 

First order equations (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, method of variation of parameters, Cauchy's equation, Euler's equation, Initial and boundary value problems 
Partial differential equations, method of separation of variables 
Complex variables 

Analytic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem, Cauchy's integral formula, Taylor series, Laurent series, residue theorem, solution integrals 
Probability and Statistics 

Sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode, standard deviation, random variables, discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson distribution, normal distribution, binomial distribution, correlation analysis, regression analysis 
Electric circuits
Network elements 

Ideal voltage and current sources, dependent sources, R, L, C, M elements 
Network solution methods 

KCL, KVL, node and mesh analysis 
Network theorems 

Thevenin's, Norton's, superposition and maximum power transfer theorem; transient response of dc and ac networks, sinusoidal steadystate analysis, resonance, two port networks, balanced three phase circuits, stardelta transformation 
Complex power and power factor in ac circuits 
Electromagnetic fields
Coulomb's law 

Electric field intensity 

Electric flux density 

Gauss's law 

Divergence 

Electric field and potential due to point, line, plane, and spherical charge distributions 

Effect of dielectric medium 

Capacitance of simple configurations 

Biot‐Savart's law 

Ampere's law 

Curl 

Faraday's law 

Lorentz force 

Inductance 

Magnetomotive force 

Reluctance 

Magnetic circuits 

Self and mutual inductance of simple configurations 

Signals and systems
Representation of continuous and discrete time signals 

Shifting and scaling properties 

Linear time invariant and causal systems 

Fourier series representation of continuous and discrete time periodic signals 

Sampling theorem 

Applications of Fourier transform for continuous and discrete time signals 

Laplace transform and Z transform 

Electrical machines
Single phase transformer 

Equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, open circuit and short circuit tests, regulation and efficiency 
Threephase transformers 

Connections, vector groups, parallel operation 
Autotransformer 

Electromechanical energy conversion principles 

DC machines 

Separately excited, series and shunt, motoring and generating mode of operation and their characteristics, speed control of dc motors 
Threephase induction machines 

Principle of operation, types, performance, torquespeed characteristics, noload and blockedrotor tests, equivalent circuit, starting and speed control 
Operating principle of singlephase induction motors 

Synchronous machines 

Cylindrical and salient pole machines, performance and characteristics, regulation and parallel operation of generators, starting of synchronous motors 
Types of losses and efficiency calculations of electric machines 

Power systems
Basic concepts of electrical power generation 

AC and DC transmission concepts 

Models and performance of transmission lines and cables 

Series and shunt compensation 

Electric field distribution and insulators 

Distribution systems 

Per‐unit quantities 

Bus admittance matrix 

GaussSeidel and NewtonRaphson load flow methods 

Voltage and frequency control 

Power factor correction 

Symmetrical components 

Symmetrical and unsymmetrical fault analysis 

Principles of over‐current 

Differential 

Directional and distance protection 

Circuit breakers 

System stability concepts 

Equal area criterion 

Economic load dispatch (with and without considering transmission losses) 

Control systems
Mathematical modeling and representation of systems 

Feedback principle 

Transfer function 

Block diagrams and signal flow graphs 

Transient and steady‐state analysis of linear time invariant systems 

Stability analysis using RouthHurwitz and Nyquist criteria 

Bode plots 

Root loci 

Lag 

Lead and lead‐lag compensators 

P, PI and PID controllers 

State space model 

Solution of state equations of LTI systems 

R.M.S. value 

Average value calculation for any general periodic waveform 

Electrical and electronic measurements
Bridges and potentiometers 

Measurement of voltage 

Current 

Power 

Energy and power factor 

Instrument transformers 

Digital voltmeters and multimeters 

Phase 

Time and frequency measurement 

Oscilloscopes 

Error analysis 

Analog and digital electronics
Simple diode circuits 

Clipping, clamping, rectifiers 
Amplifiers 

Biasing, equivalent circuit and frequency response 
Oscillators and feedback amplifiers 

Operational amplifiers 

characteristics and applications 
Single stage active filters 

Sallen Key 

Butterworth 

VCOs and timers 

Combinatorial and sequential logic circuits 

Multiplexers 

Demultiplexers 

Schmitt triggers 

Sample and hold circuits 

A/D and D/A converters 

Power electronics
Static VI characteristics and firing/ gating circuits for thyristor 

MOSFET 

IGBT 

DC to DC conversion 

Buck, boost, and buckboost converters 
Single and threephase configuration of uncontrolled rectifiers 

Voltage and current commutated thyristor based converters 

Bidirectional AC to DC voltage source converters 

Magnitude and phase of line current harmonics for uncontrolled and thyristor based converters 

Power factor and distortion factor of AC to DC converters 

Singlephase and threephase voltage and current source inverters 

Sinusoidal pulse width modulation 

GATE Geology and Geophysics Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 

Transformation of shapes: Translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping, paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions 
Common section
Earth and planetary system 

Terrestrial planets and moons of the solar system; size, shape, internal structure and composition of the earth; concept of isostasy; elements of seismologybody and surface waves, propagation of body waves in the earth’s interior 
Heat flow within the earth; gravitational field of the Earth; geomagnetism and paleomagnetism; continental drift; plate tectonicsrelationship with earthquakes, volcanism and mountain building; continental and oceanic crust 
Composition, structure, and thickness 
Weathering and soil formation 

Landforms created by river, wind, glacier, ocean, and volcanoes 

Basic structural geology 

Stress, strain and material response; brittle and ductile deformation; nomenclature and classification of folds and faults 
Crystallography 

Basic crystal symmetry and concept of point groups 
Mineralogysilicate crystal structure and determinative mineralogy of common rock forming minerals 
Petrology of common igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks 

Geological time scale 

Geochronology and absolute time 

Stratigraphic principles 

Major stratigraphic divisions of India 

Mineral, coal, and petroleum resources of India 

Introduction to remote sensing 

Engineering properties of rocks and soils 

Elements of hydrogeology 

Principles and applications of gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic, seismic, and radiometric methods of prospecting for oil, mineral, and ground water 

Introductory well logging 

Geology
Geomorphology 

Geomorphic processes and agents; development and evolution of landforms in continental, and oceanic settings; tectonic geomorphology 
Structural geology 

Forces and mechanism of rock deformation; primary and secondary structures; geometry and genesis of planar, and linear structures (bedding, cleavage, schistosity, lineation); folds, faults, joints, and unconformities; stereographic projection; shear zones 
Thrusts and superposed folding; basementcover relationship 
Interpretation of geological maps 
Crystallography and mineralogy 

Elements of crystal symmetry, form and twinning; crystallographic projection; crystal chemistry; classification of minerals, physical and optical properties of rockforming minerals 
Geochemistry 

Cosmic abundance of elements; meteorites; geochemical evolution of the earth; geochemical cycles; distribution of major, minor, and trace elements in crust and mantle; elements of high temperature and low temperature geochemical thermodynamics 
Isotopic evolution of the crust and the mantle, mantle reservoirs; geochemistry of water and waterrock interaction 
Igneous petrology 

Classification, forms, textures, and genesis of common igneous rocks; magmatic differentiation; binary and ternary phase diagrams; major and trace elements as monitors of partial melting and magma evolutionary processes 
Mantle plumes, hotspots, and large igneous provinces 
Sedimentology 

Texture, structure, and sedimentary processes; petrology of common sedimentary rocks; sedimentary facies and environments, cyclicities in sedimentary succession; provencance and basin analysis 
Important sedimentary basins of India 
Metamorphic petrology 

Structures and textures of metamorphic rocks 
Physicochemical conditions of metamorphism and concept of metamorphic facies, grade and baric types; chemographic projections; metamorphism of pelitic, mafic and impure carbonate rocks; role of bulk composition including fluids in metamorphism 
Thermobarometry and metamorphic PTt paths, and their tectonic significance 
Paleobiology 

Diversity of life through time, mass extinctionscauses and effects; taphonomyprocesses of fossilization 
Taxonomy 
Morphology and functional morphology of invertebrates (bivalves, brachiopods, gastropods, echinoids, ammonites); microfossils (foraminifera, ostracoda, conodonts, bryozoa); vertebrate paleonology (equus, probicidea, human) 
Paleobotany (plant, spores, pollens) 
Basic concepts of ecology/ paleoecology; classificationecological and taxonomic schemes (diversity and richness) 
Fossils and paleoenvironments 
Stratigraphy 

Principles of stratigraphy and concepts of correlation; lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and chronostratigraphy 
Principles of sequence stratigraphy and applications 
Stratigraphy of peninsular and extrapeninsular India 
Boundary problems in Indian stratigraphy 
Resource geology 

Oremineralogy; ore forming processes visàvis orerock association (magmatic, hydrothermal, sedimentary, supergene and metamorphogenic ores); fluid inclusions as ore genetic tools 
Coal and petroleum geology; marine mineral resources 
Prospecting and exploration of economic mineral depositssampling, ore reserve estimation, geostatistics, mining methods 
Ore dressing and mineral economics 
Distribution of mineral, fossil, and nuclear fuel deposits in India 
Global tectonics 

Plate motions, driving mechanisms, plate boundaries, supercontinent cycles 
Applied geology 

Physicomechanical properties of rocks and soils; rock index tests; rock failure criteria (MohrCoulomb, Griffith, and HoekBrown criteria); shear strength of rock discontinuities; rock mass classifications (RMR and Q Systems); insitu stresses 
Rocks as construction materials; geological factors in the construction of engineering structures including dams, tunnels, and excavation sites 
Analysis of slope stability 
Natural hazards (landslide, volcanic, seismogenic, coastal) and mitigation 

Principles of climate change Hydrogeology 

Groundwater flow and exploration, well hydraulics and water quality 
Basic principles of remote sensing 

Energy sources and radiation principles, atmospheric absorption, interaction of energy with earth's surface, aerialphoto interpretation, multispectral remote sensing in visible, infrared, thermal IR and microwave regions 
Digital processing of satellite images 
GISbasic concepts, raster and vector mode operations 
Geophysics
Solidearth geophysics 

The earth as a planet; different motions of the earth; gravity field of the earth, Clairaut's theorem, size and shape of earth; geomagnetic field, paleomagnetism; geothermics and heat flow; seismology and interior of the earth; variation of density 
Velocity, pressure, temperature, electrical and magnetic properties of the earth 
Geodesy 

Gravitational field of the earth; geoid; ellipsoid; geodetic reference systems; datum; Everest (1830) and WGS 84 (1984) systems; GPS and DGPS; levelling and surveying 
Earthquake Seismology 

Elements of elasticity theorystress and strain tensors, generalized Hooke's law; body and surface waves; rotational, dilatational, irrotational, and equivolumnal waves 
Reflection and refraction of elastic waves; inhomogeneous and evanescent waves, and bounded waves; Eikonal equation and ray theory; earthquakes causes and measurements, magnitude and intensity, focal mechanisms; earthquake quantification 
Source characteristics, seismotectonics, and seismic hazards; digital seismographs, earthquake statistics, wave propagation in elastic media, quantifying earthquake source from seismological data 
Elements of seismic tomography 
Potential and time varying fields 

Scalar and vector potential fields; Laplace, Maxwell, and Helmholtz equations for solution of different types of boundary value problems in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates; Green's theorem; image theory 
Integral equations in potential and timevarying field theory 
Gravity methods 

Absolute and relative gravity measurements; gravimeters; land, airborne, shipborne, and borehole gravity surveys; tensorial gravity sensors and surveys; various corrections for gravity data reductionfree air, Bouguer, and isostatic anomalies 
Density estimates of rocks; regional and residual gravity separation; principle of equivalent stratum; data enhancement techniques, upward and downward continuation; derivative maps, wavelength filtering; preparation and analysis of gravity maps 
Gravity anomalies and their interpretationanomalies due to geometrical and irregular shaped bodies, depth rules, calculation of mass 
Magnetic methods 

Elements of Earth's magnetic field, units of measurement, magnetic susceptibility of rocks and measurements, magnetometers, and magnetic gradiometers, land, airborne and marine magnetic, and magnetic gradiometer surveys 
Various corrections applied to magnetic data, IGRF, reduction to Pole transformation, Poisson's relation of gravity, and magnetic potential field, preparation of magnetic maps, upward and downward continuation 
Magnetic anomalies due to geometrical and irregular shaped bodies; image processing concepts in processing of magnetic anomaly maps; depth rules; interpretation of processed magnetic anomaly data; derivative 
Analytic signal and Euler depth solutions 
Applications of gravity and magnetic methods for mineral, and oil exploration 
Electrical methods 

Conduction of electricity through rocks, electrical conductivities of metals, nonmetals, rock forming minerals and different rocks, concepts of DC resistivity measurement and depth of investigation; apparent resistivity and apparent chargeability 
Concept of negative apparent resistivity and negative apparent chargeability; theory of reciprocity, sounding and profiling, various electrode arrangements, application of linear filter theory, sounding curves over multilayered earth 
DarZarrouk parameters, reduction of layers, triangle of anisotropy, interpretation of resistivity field data, principles of equivalence and suppression, selfpotential method and its origin; electrical resistivity tomography (ERT); induced polarization 
Time and frequency domain IP measurements; interpretation and applications of SP, resistivity and IP data sets for groundwater exploration, mineral exploration, environmental and engineering applications 
Electromagnetic methods 

Geoelectromagnetic spectrum; Biot Savart's law; Maxwell's equation, Helmholtz equation, basic concept of EM induction in the earth, skindepth, elliptic polarization, inphase and quadrature components, phasor diagrams 
Response function and response parameters; ground and airborne methods, measurements in different sourcereceiver configurations; Earth's natural electromagnetic methodstellurics, geomagnetic depth sounding and magnetotellurics 
Electromagnetic profiling and sounding, time domain EM method; EM scale modelling, processing of EM data and interpretation; ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods; effect of conducting overburden; geological applications including groundwater 
Mineral environmental and hydrocarbon exploration 
Seismic methods 

Elastic properties of earth materials; reflection, refraction, and CDP surveys; land and marine seismic sources, generation, and propagation of elastic waves, velocitydepth models, geophones, hydrophones, digital recording systems, digital formats 
Field layouts, seismic noise, and noise profile analysis, optimum geophone grouping, noise cancellation by shot and geophone arrays, 2D, 3D, and 4D seismic data acquisition, processing and interpretation; CDP stacking charts, binning, filtering 
Static and dynamic corrections, digital seismic data processing, seismic deconvolution and migration methods, attribute analysis, bright and dim spots, seismic stratigraphy, high resolution seismics, VSP, AVO, multi 
Component seismics and seismic interferometry 
Reservoir geophysicsrock physics and petrophysics 
Geophysical survey design 
Geophysical signal processing 

Sampling theorem, Nyquist frequency, aliasing, Fourier series, periodic waveform, Fourier and Hilbert transform, Ztransform and wavelet transform; power spectrum, delta function, auto correlation, cross correlation, convolution, deconvolution 
Principles of digital filters, windows, poles, and zeros 
Geophysical well logging 

Principles and techniques of geophysical welllogging, SP, resistivity, induction, gamma ray, neutron, density, sonic, temperature, dip meter, caliper, nuclear magnetic resonancelongitudinal and transverse relaxation, CPMG sequence 
Porosity characterization, cement bond logging, micrologs 
Pulsed neutron devices and spectroscopy; multiarray and triaxial induction devices; quantitative evaluation of formations from well logs; logging while drilling; high angle and horizontal wells; clay quantification; lithology and porosity estimation 
Saturation and permeability estimation; application of bore hole geophysics in ground water, mineral, and oil exploration 
Radioactive methods 

Prospecting and assaying of mineral (radioactive and nonradioactive) deposits, halflife, decay constant, radioactive equilibrium, GM counter, scintillation detector, semiconductor devices, application of radiometric for exploration 
Assaying and radioactive waste disposal 
Geophysical Inversion 

Basic concepts of forward and inverse problems, illposedness of inverse problems, condition number, nonuniqueness and stability of solutions; L1, L2, and Lp norms, overdetermined, underdetermined, and mixed determined inverse problems 
Quasilinear and nonlinear methods including Tikhonov's regularization method, singular value decomposition, BackusGilbert method, simulated annealing, genetic algorithms, swarm intelligence, machine learning, and artificial neural networks 
Statistics of misfit and likelihood, Bayesian construction of posterior probabilities, sparsity promoting L1 optimization 
Ambiguity and uncertainty in geophysical interpretation 
GATE Instrumentation Engineering Syllabus
General aptitude
Verbal aptitude 

Basic English grammar: Tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verbnoun agreement, and other parts of speech 
Basic vocabulary: Words, idioms, and phrases in context 
Reading and comprehension 
Narrative sequencing 
Quantitative aptitude 

Data interpretation: Data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2 and 3dimensional plots, maps, and tables 
Numerical computation and estimation: Ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series 
Mensuration and geometry 
Elementary statistics and probability 
Analytical aptitude 

Logic: Deduction and induction 
Analogy 
Numerical relations and reasoning 
Spatial aptitude 
