Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE)
About GATE 2021
Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) is conducted to shortlist candidates for admission in PG engineering courses. GATE scores are also taken into consideration during PSU recruitments. GATE is conducted jointly by the seven IITs (Bombay, Delhi, Guwahati, Kharagpur, Madras, Roorkee and Kanpur) and Indian Institute of Science (IISc) Bangalore.
IIT Bombay will be conducting GATE 2021 tentatively in the first and second week of February. Candidates will be able to access the application form tentatively from the last week of August to the final week of September 2020. During the application process, the candidates will have to submit all of the required details. GATE 2021 will be held as a computer based test for 25 papers and two sessions (morning and afternoon) will be held for each day of the examination.
After the entrance examination, the answer key will be released by the authorities. GATE 2021 result will be available tentatively in the second week of March. The score card will be valid for three years after the date of release. There will be no common counselling for GATE 2021. For IIT admissions, the candidates will have to register through COAP. Meanwhile, for NIT admissions, the candidates will have to apply through CCMT. Various PSUs will also open their recruitment process for GATE qualified candidates.
GATE 2021 Highlights
Full Exam Name | Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering |
Short Exam Name | GATE |
Conducting Body | Indian Institute of Technology Delhi |
Frequency of Conduct | Once a year |
Exam Level | National Level Exam |
Languages | English |
Mode of Application | Online |
Application Fee (General) | 1500 Rs [Online] |
Mode of Exam | Online |
Mode of Counselling | Online |
Participating Colleges | 1015 |
Exam Duration | 3 Hours |
GATE 2021 Important Dates
Upcoming Dates and Events
01 Aug, 2020 (Tentative)
Advertisement | Mode: Online
31 Aug, 2020 - 28 Sep, 2020 (Tentative)
Application | Mode: Online
03 Jan, 2021 (Tentative)
Admit Card | Mode: Online
06 Feb, 2021 - 07 Feb, 2021
Exam | Mode: Online
13 Feb, 2021 - 14 Feb, 2021 (Tentative)
Exam | Mode: Online
13 Mar, 2021 (Tentative)
Result | Mode: Online
19 Mar, 2021 (Tentative)
Score Card | Mode: Online
There are some important parameters that the candidates are expected to meet to be eligible for GATE 2021. These eligibility criteria are set up by the authorities and the candidates are advised to check them before filling out the application form. Various factors such as age, academics, nationality and more are involved in the eligibility criteria of GATE 2021.
Age Limit: There is no age limit for GATE 2021.
Nationality: Candidates should be of Indian nationality. However, candidates from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Singapore and United Arab Emirate (UAE) will also be eligible to apply.
Academic Qualification: No minimum pass percentage has been specified by the authorities for GATE 2021. However, the candidates must meet the criteria related to the qualifying exam as explained below.
Qualifying Exam Details
Qualifying Degree | Qualifying Degree / Examination | Description | Year of Qualification not later than |
B.E./ B.Tech./ B.Pharm. | Candidate must be a Bachelor in Engineering/Technology (4 years after 10+2 or 3 years after B.Sc./ Diploma in Engineering / Technology) | Qualified or is in final year | 2021 |
B.Arch. | Candidate must have completed Bachelor of Architecture (5 years course) | Qualified or is in final year | 2021 |
B.Sc. (Research)/ B.S.
| Candidate need to have completed Bachelor of Science degree (Post-Diploma/ 4 years after 10+2) | Qualified or is in final year | 2021 |
Pharm.D. (after 10+2) | Candidate must have completed 6 years programme having internship or residency training during sixth year as part of it | Qualified or is in 4th /5th or 6th year | 2023 |
M.Sc./ M.A./ MCA or equivalent
| Candidates need to have Masters in Science, Mathematics, Statistics, Computer Applications, or equivalent | Qualified or is in final year | 2021 |
Int. M.E./ M.Tech. (Post-B.Sc.)
| Candidates should have done Post-BSc Integrated Master’s degree in Engineering or Technology (4 years programme) | Qualified or is currently in 2nd/3rd /4th year | 2023 |
Int. M.E./ M.Tech. or Dual Degree (after Diploma or 10+2) | Candidates should have completed Integrated Master’s degree programme or Dual Degree in Engineering or Technology (5 years programme) | Qualified or is currently in 4th / 5th year | 2022 |
Int. M.Sc./ Int. B.S.-M.S. | Candidates applying must have completed Integrated M.Sc. or 5 years integrated B.S.-M.S. program | Qualified or is in final year | 2021 |
Professional Society Examinations* (equivalent to B.E/ B.Tech/ B.Arch.) | Candidates need to have completed B.E./ B.Tech./ B.Arch. Equivalent examinations of Professional Societies, recognized by MHRD/UPSC/AICTE (e.g., AMIE by Institution of professional courses Engineers-India, AMICE by the Institute of Civil Engineers-India) | Completed Section A or equivalent professional course | NA |
*Candidates who possess certification from any of the professional societies must ensure that those examinations conducted by the societies are approved by MHRD/ AICTE as equivalent to B.E./ B.Tech./ B.Arch.
Mode of Application : Online
Mode of Payment : Net Banking | Credit Card | Debit Card
Candidates will be able to access the application form of GATE 2021 tentatively from the last week of August 2020. The registration for GATE 2021 will be open through GATE Online Application Process (GOAPS). To participate in the entrance examination, the candidates will have to register, fill out the required personal, contact and academic details, upload scanned documents and also pay the required application fee.The last date to submit the GATE 2021 application form will be tentatively in the last week of September 2020.
How to fill GATE 2021 Application Form
Step 1 - Registration: Candidates will have to visit the GOAPS portal and register using their name, country of residence, email address and mobile number. A password also has to be generated for future log-in. An enrollment number will be generated on successful registration.
Step 2 - Filling of Application Form: Next, the candidates will have to provide their valid personal, academic and communication details. The preferred GATE paper along with two exam centres (one from their zone and the other from another zone) also has to be selected by the candidates.
Step 3 - Uploading of Documents: After the details are filled, the candidates will have to upload their photograph, signature and category certificate (if applicable) as per the specifications mentioned by the authorities.
Step 4 - Fee Payment: Finally, the candidates will have to pay the required application fee of GATE 2021 in online mode (net banking/credit card/debit card).
Previous Year’s GATE Zone-Wise Registrations
Name of IITs | Registration Numbers |
IIT Bombay | 1,73,965 |
IISc Bangalore | 1,31,287 |
IIT Delhi | 1,30,522 |
IIT Madras | 1,18,951 |
IIT Kharagpur | 1,14,794 |
IIT Kanpur | 73,618 |
IIT Roorkee | 62,340 |
IIT Guwahati | 52,553 |
Total | 8,58,030 |
Application Fees
Category | Quota | Mode | Gender | Amount |
---|---|---|---|---|
General, SC, ST, OBC | PWD | Online | Transgender, Male, Female | ₹ 750 |
General, OBC | Online | Transgender, Male | ₹ 1500 | |
SC, ST | Online | Transgender, Male | ₹ 750 | |
General, SC, ST, OBC | Online | Female | ₹ 750 |
GATE 2021 Syllabus
GATE Aerospace Engineering Syllabus
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra |
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Vector algebra |
Matrix algebra |
Systems of linear equations |
Rank of a matrix |
Eigen values and Eigen vectors |
Calculus |
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Functions of single variable |
Limits |
Continuity and differentiability |
Mean value theorem |
Chain rule |
Partial derivatives |
Maxima and minima |
Gradient |
Gradient, divergence and curl |
Directional derivatives |
Integration |
Line |
Line, surface & volume integrals |
Theorems of stokes |
Gauss and Green |
Differential equations |
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First order linear and nonlinear differential equations |
Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients |
Partial differential equations and separation of variables methods |
Fourier series |
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Laplace transforms |
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Numerical methods for linear and nonlinear algebraic equations |
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Numerical integration and differentiation |
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Flight mechanics
Atmosphere |
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Properties |
Standard atmosphere |
Classification of aircraft |
Airplane (fixed wing aircraft) configuration and various parts |
Airplane performance |
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Pressure altitude |
Equivalent, calibrated, indicated air speeds |
Primary flight instruments |
Altimeter, ASI, VSI, turn-bank indicator |
Drag polar |
Take-off and landing |
Steady climb & descent, absolute and service ceiling |
Cruise, cruise climb, endurance or loiter |
Load factor |
Turning flight |
V-N diagram |
Winds: Head, tail & cross winds |
Static stability |
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Angle of attack |
Sideslip |
Roll, pitch and yaw controls |
Longitudinal stick fixed & free stability |
Horizontal tail position and size |
Directional stability |
Vertical tail position and size |
Dihedral stability |
Wing dihedral |
Sweep & position |
Hinge moments |
Stick forces |
Dynamic stability |
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Euler angles |
Equations of motion |
Aerodynamic forces and moments |
Stability & control derivatives |
Decoupling of longitudinal and lateral-directional dynamics |
Longitudinal modes |
Lateral-directional modes |
Space dynamics
Central force motion, determination of trajectory and orbital period in simple cases |
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Orbit transfer |
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In-plane and out-of-plane |
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Aerodynamics
Basic fluid mechanics |
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Conservation laws: Mass, momentum (integral and differential form) |
Potential flow theory: Sources, sinks, doublets, line vortex and their superposition, viscosity and Reynolds number |
Airfoils and wings |
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Airfoil nomenclature |
Aerodynamic coefficients |
Lift, drag and moment |
Kutta- Joukowski theorem |
Thin airfoil theory |
Kutta condition |
Starting vortex |
Finite wing theory |
Induced drag |
Prandtl lifting line theory |
Critical and drag divergence Mach number |
Compressible flows |
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Basic concepts of compressibility |
Conservation equations |
One dimensional compressible flows |
Fanno flow |
Rayleigh flow |
Isentropic flows |
Normal and oblique shocks |
Prandtl-Meyer flow |
Flow through nozzles and diffusers |
Elementary ideas of viscous flows including boundary layers |
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Wind tunnel testing |
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Measurement and visualization techniques |
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Structures
Strength of materials |
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States of stress and strain |
Stress and strain transformation |
Mohr's circle |
Principal stresses |
Three-dimensional Hooke's law |
Plane stress and strain |
Failure theories, Mohr’s circle(stress), deflection of beams |
Strain energy |
Castigliano's principles |
Analysis of statically determinate and indeterminate trusses and beams |
Elastic flexural buckling of columns |
Flight vehicle structures |
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Characteristics of aircraft structures and materials |
Torsion, bending and flexural shear of thin-walled sections |
Loads on aircraft |
Structural dynamics |
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Free and forced vibrations of undamped and damped SDOF systems |
Free vibrations of undamped 2-DOF systems |
Vibration of beams |
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Theory of elasticity: Equilibrium and compatibility equations, Airy’s stress function |
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Propulsion
Thermodynamics |
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Boundary layers and heat transfer and combustion thermochemistry |
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Thermodynamics of aircraft engines |
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Thrust |
Efficiency and engine performance of turbojet |
Turboprop |
Turbo shaft |
Turbofan and ramjet engines |
Thrust augmentation of turbojets and turbofan engines |
Aerothermodynamics of non-rotating propulsion components such as intakes |
Combustor and nozzle |
Axial compressors |
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Angular momentum |
Work and compression |
Characteristic performance of a single axial compressor stage |
Efficiency of the compressor and degree of reaction |
Axial turbines |
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Axial turbine stage efficiency |
Centrifugal compressor |
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Centrifugal compressor stage dynamics |
Inducer |
Impeller and diffuser |
Rocket propulsion |
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Thrust equation and specific impulse |
Vehicle acceleration |
Drag |
Gravity losses |
Multi-staging of rockets |
Classification of chemical rockets |
Performance of solid and liquid propellant rockets |
GATE Agricultural Engineering Syllabus
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra |
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Matrices and determinants |
Systems of linear equations |
Eigen values and Eigen vectors |
Calculus |
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Limit |
Continuity and differentiability |
Partial derivatives |
Maxima and minima |
Sequences and series |
Tests for convergence |
Fourier series |
Taylor series |
Vector calculus |
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Gradient |
Gradient, divergence and curl |
Line |
Line, surface & volume integrals |
Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems |
Differential equations |
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Linear and non-linear first order ordinary differential equations |
Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients |
Cauchy's and Euler's equations |
Laplace transforms |
Partial differential equations - Laplace, heat and wave equations |
Probability and Statistics |
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Mean |
Median |
Mean, median, mode & standard deviation |
Random variables |
Poisson, normal & binomial distributions |
Correlation and regression analysis |
Tests of significance |
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) |
Numerical methods |
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Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations |
Numerical integration - trapezoidal and Simpson's rule |
Numerical solutions of ODE |
Farm machinery
Machine design |
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Design and selection of machine elements – Gears, pulleys, chains and sprockets and belts |
Overload safety devices used in farm machinery |
Measurement of force, torque, speed |
Displacement and acceleration on machine elements |
Farm machinery |
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Soil tillage |
Forces acting on a tillage tool |
Hitch systems and hitching of tillage implements |
Functional requirements |
Principles of working |
Construction and operation of manual |
Animal and power operated equipment for tillage, sowing, planting, fertilizer application, inter-cultivation, spraying, mowing, chaff cutting, harvesting, threshing and transport |
Testing of agricultural machinery and equipment |
Calculation of performance parameters - Field capacity, efficiency, application rate and losses |
Cost analysis of implements and tractors |
Farm power
Sources of power |
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Sources of power on the farm - human, animal, mechanical, electrical, wind, solar and biomass |
Bio-fuels |
Farm power |
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Thermodynamic principles of I.C. engines |
I.C. engine cycles |
Engine components |
Fuels and combustion |
Lubricants and their properties |
I.C. engine systems – Fuel, cooling, lubrication, ignition, electrical, intake and exhaust |
Selection, operation, maintenance and repair of I.C. engines |
Power efficiencies and measurement |
Calculation of power |
Torque |
Fuel consumption |
Heat load and power losses |
Tractors and power tillers |
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Type, selection, maintenance and repair of tractors and powertillers |
Tractor clutches and brakes |
Power transmission systems – Gear trains, differential |
Final drives and power take-off transmission system |
Mechanics of tractor chassis |
Traction theory |
Three point hitches- free link and restrained link operations |
Mechanical steering and hydraulic control systems used in tractors |
Tractor tests and performance |
Human engineering and safety in design of tractor and agricultural implements |
Soil and water conservation engineering
Fluid mechanics |
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Ideal and real fluids, properties of fluids |
Hydrostatic pressure and its measurement |
Hydrostatic forces on plane and curved surface |
Continuity equation |
Bernoulli's theorem |
Laminar and turbulent flow in pipes |
Darcy- Weisbach and Hazen-Williams equations |
Moody's diagram |
Flow through orifices and notches |
Flow in open channels |
Soil mechanics |
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Engineering properties of soils |
Fundamental definitions and relationships |
Index properties of soils |
Permeability and seepage analysis |
Shear strength |
Mohr's circle of stress |
Active and passive earth pressures |
Stability of slopes |
Hydrology |
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Hydrological cycle and components |
Meteorological parameters, their measurement and analysis of precipitation data |
Runoff estimation |
Hydrograph analysis |
Unit hydrograph theory and application |
Stream flow measurement |
Flood routing |
Hydrological reservoir and channel routing |
Surveying and levelling |
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Measurement of distance and area |
Instruments for surveying and levelling |
Chain surveying |
Methods of traversing |
Measurement of angles and bearings |
Plane table surveying |
Types of levelling |
Theodolite traversing |
Contouring |
Computation of areas and volume |
Soil and water erosion |
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Mechanics of soil erosion |
Soil erosion types |
Wind and water erosion |
Factors affecting erosion |
Soil loss estimation |
Biological and engineering measures to control erosion |
Terraces and bunds |
Vegetative waterways |
Gully control structures, drop, drop inlet and chute spillways |
Earthen dams |
Watershed management |
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Watershed characterization |
Land use capability classification |
Rainwater harvesting structures |
Check dams and farm ponds |
Irrigation and drainage engineering
Soil-water-plant relationship |
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Water requirement of crops |
Consumptive use and evapotranspiration |
Measurement of infiltration |
Soil moisture and irrigation water infiltration |
Irrigation water conveyance and application methods |
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Design of irrigation channels and underground pipelines |
Irrigation scheduling |
Surface, sprinkler and micro irrigation methods, design and evaluation of irrigation methods |
Irrigation efficiencies |
Agricultural drainage |
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Drainage coefficient |
Planning, design and layout of surface and sub-surface drainage systems |
Leaching requirement and salinity control |
Irrigation and drainage water quality and reuse |
Groundwater hydrology |
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Groundwater occurrence |
Darcy's law |
Steady flow in confined and unconfined aquifers |
Evaluation of aquifer properties |
Groundwater recharge |
Wells and pumps |
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Types of wells, steady flow through wells |
Classification of pumps |
Pump characteristics |
Pump selection and installation |
Agricultural processing engineering
Drying |
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Psychrometry – properties of air-vapours mixture |
Concentration and drying of liquid foods – evaporators, tray, drum and spray dryers |
Hydrothermal treatment |
Drying and milling of cereals |
Pulses and oilseeds |
Size reduction and conveying |
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Mechanics and energy requirement in size reduction of granular solids |
Particle size analysis for comminuted solids |
Size separation by screening |
Fluidization of granular solids- Pneumatic, bucket, screw and belt conveying |
Cleaning and grading |
Effectiveness of grain cleaners |
Centrifugal separation of solids, liquids and gases |
Processing and by-product utilization |
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Processing of seeds, spices, fruits and vegetables |
By-product utilization from processing industries |
Storage systems |
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Controlled and modified atmosphere storage |
Perishable food storage |
Godowns |
Bins and grain silos |
Dairy and food engineering
Heat and mass transfer |
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Steady state heat transfer in conduction |
Convection and radiation |
Transient heat transfer in simple geometry |
Working principles of heat exchangers |
Diffusive and convective mass transfer |
Simultaneous heat and mass transfer in agricultural processing operations |
Material and energy balances in food processing systems |
Water activity |
Sorption and desorption isotherms |
Preservation of food |
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Kinetics of microbial death – pasteurization and sterilization of milk and other liquid foods |
Preservation of food by cooling and freezing |
Refrigeration and cold storage basics and applications |
GATE Architecture and Planning Syllabus
Architecture and design
Visual composition in 2D and 3D |
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Principles of art and architecture |
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Organization of space |
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Architectural graphics |
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Computer Graphics – concepts of CAD, BIM, 3D modeling and architectural rendition |
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Programming languages and automation |
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Anthropometrics |
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Planning and design considerations for different building types |
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Site planning |
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Horizontal and vertical circulation |
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Barrier free design |
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Building codes |
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National building code |
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Elements, construction, architectural styles and examples of different periods of Indian and western history of architecture |
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Oriental, vernacular and traditional architecture |
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Architectural developments since Industrial Revolution |
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Influence of modern art on architecture |
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Art nouveau |
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Eclecticism |
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International styles |
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Post modernism |
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Deconstruction in architecture |
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Works of renowned national and international architects |
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Building materials, construction and management
Behavioural characteristics and applications of different building materials viz. mud, timber, bamboo, brick, concrete, steel, glass, FRP, AAC, different polymers, composites |
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Building construction techniques |
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Methods and details |
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Building systems and prefabrication of building elements |
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Principles of modular coordination |
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Estimation |
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Specification |
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Valuation |
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Professional practice |
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Construction planning and equipments |
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Project management techniques e.g. PERT, CPM etc. |
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Building and structures
Principles of strength of materials |
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Design of structural elements in wood, steel and RCC |
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Elastic and limit state design |
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Structural systems in RCC and steel |
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Form and structure |
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Principles of pre-stressing |
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High rise and long span structures |
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Gravity and lateral load resisting systems |
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Principles and design of disaster resistant structures |
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Environmental planning and design
Ecosystem- natural and man-made ecosystem |
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Ecological principles |
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Concepts of environmental impact analysis |
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Environmental considerations in planning and design |
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Thermal comfort |
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Ventilation and air movement |
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Principles of lighting and illumination |
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Climate responsive design |
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Solar architecture |
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Principles of architectural acoustics |
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Concepts and rating green building |
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ECBC |
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Building performance simulation and evaluation |
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Environmental pollution types |
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Environmental pollution causes |
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Controls and abatement strategies |
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Urban design
Concepts and theories of urban design |
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Public perception |
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Townscape |
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Public realm |
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Urban design interventions for sustainable development and transportation |
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Historical and modern examples of urban design |
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Public spaces |
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Character, spatial qualities and sense of place |
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Elements of urban built environment - Urban form, spaces, structure, pattern, fabric, texture, grain etc. |
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Principles, tools and techniques of urban design |
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Urban renewal and conservation |
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Site planning |
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Landscape design |
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Development controls and FAR |
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Development controls densities and building byelaws |
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Urban planning and housing
Planning process |
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Master plan |
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City development plan |
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Structure plan |
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Zonal plan |
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Action area plan |
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Town planning scheme |
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Regional plan |
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Salient concepts, theories and principles of urban planning |
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Sustainable urban development |
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Emerging concepts of cities |
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Eco-city |
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Smart city |
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Transit oriented development (TOD) |
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SEZ |
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SRZ |
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Housing |
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Concepts |
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Principles and examples of neighbourhood |
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Housing typologies |
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Slums |
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Affordable housing |
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Housing for special areas and needs |
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Residential densities |
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Standards for housing and community facilities |
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National housing policies |
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Programs and schemes |
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Planning techniques and management
Physical tools and techniques of surveys |
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Topographical tools and techniques of surveys |
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Land use and socio economic surveys |
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Methods of non-spatial and spatial data analysis |
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Graphic presentation of spatial data |
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Application of G.I.S and remote sensing techniques in urban and regional planning |
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Decision support system and land information system |
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Urban economics |
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Law of demand and supply of land and its use in planning |
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Social, economical and environmental cost benefit analysis |
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Techniques of financial appraisal |
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Management of infrastructure projects |
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Development guidelines such as URDPFI |
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Planning, legislation and implementation |
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Land acquisition act |
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PPP planning legislation and implementation |
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Local self-governance |
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Services, infrastructure and transportation
Building services |
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Water supply |
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Sewerage and drainage systems |
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Sanitary fittings and fixtures |
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Plumbing systems |
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Principles of internal and external drainage system |
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Principles of electrification of buildings |
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Intelligent buildings |
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Elevators and escalators and standards and uses |
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Air-conditioning systems |
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Firefighting systems |
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Building safety and security systems |
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Urban infrastructure - Transportation, water supply, sewerage, drainage, solid waste management, electricity and communications |
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Process and principles of transportation planning and traffic engineering |
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Road capacity |
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Traffic survey methods |
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Traffic flow characteristics |
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Traffic analyses and design considerations |
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Travel demand forecasting |
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Land-use and transportation and urban form inter-relationships |
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Design of roads |
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Intersections |
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Grade separators and parking areas |
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Hierarchy of roads and level of service |
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Traffic, transport management and control in urban areas |
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Mass transportation planning |
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Para transits and other modes of transportation |
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Pedestrian and slow moving traffic planning |
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Intelligent transportation systems |
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Principles of water supply and sanitation systems |
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Water treatment |
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Water supply and distribution system |
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Water harvesting systems |
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Principles, planning and design of storm water drainage system |
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Sewage disposal methods |
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Methods of solid waste management and collection |
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Methods of solid waste management and transportation and disposal |
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Recycling and reuse of solid waste |
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Power supply and communication systems |
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Network, design and guidelines |
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GATE Biotechnology Syllabus
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra |
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Matrices and determinants |
Systems of linear equations |
Linear algebra and Eigen values and Eigen vectors |
Calculus |
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Calculus: Limits, continuity and differentiability |
Partial derivatives, maxima and minima, sequences and series, test for convergence, Fourier series |
Differential equations |
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Differential equations for linear and nonlinear first order ODEs |
Differential equations higher order ODEs with constant coefficients |
Differential equations Cauchy's and Euler's equations |
Differential equations and Laplace transforms |
Differential equations and PDE Laplace |
Differential equations heat and wave equations |
Probability and Statistics |
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Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, probability and statistics |
Random variables for probability and statistics |
Poisson probability and statistics |
Probability and statistics normal and binomial distributions |
Probability and statistics correlation and regression analysis |
Numerical methods |
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Numerical methods solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations |
Numerical methods integration of trapezoidal and Simpson's rule |
Numerical methods single and multistep methods for differential equations |
General biotechnology
Biochemistry |
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Biomolecules-structure and functions |
Biological membranes |
Structure |
Action potential and transport processes |
Classification and enzymes |
Kinetics and mechanism of action and enzymes |
Basic concepts and designs of metabolism in carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleic acids |
Photosynthesis |
Respiration and electron transport chain |
Bioenergetics |
Microbiology |
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Structure and classification viruses |
Microbial classification and diversity in bacterial, algal and fungal |
Methods in microbiology |
Microbial growth and nutrition |
Aerobic and anaerobic respiration |
Nitrogen fixation |
Microbial diseases and host and pathogen interaction |
Cell biology |
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Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure |
Cell cycle and cell growth control |
Cell communication |
Cell signalling and signal transduction |
Molecular biology and genetics |
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Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes |
Mutations and mutagenesis |
Nucleic acid replication |
Transcription |
Translation and their regulatory mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes |
Mendelian inheritance |
Gene interaction |
Complementation |
Linkage |
Recombination and chromosome mapping |
Extra chromosomal inheritance |
Plasmids of microbial genetics |
Transformation of microbial genetics |
Transduction of microbial genetics |
Conjugation of microbial genetics |
Horizontal gene transfer and transposable elements |
RNA interference |
DNA damage and repair |
Chromosomal variation |
Molecular basis of genetic diseases |
Analytical techniques |
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Principles of microscopy-light, electron, fluorescent and confocal |
Centrifugation- high speed and ultra |
Principles of spectroscopy - UV, visible, CD, IR, FTIR, Raman, MS, NMR |
Principles of chromatography- Ion exchange, gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction, affinity, GC,HPLC, FPLC |
Electrophoresis |
Microarray |
Immunology |
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History of immunology |
Innate, humoral and cell mediated immunity |
Antigen |
Antibody structure and function |
Molecular basis of antibody diversity |
Synthesis of antibody and secretion |
Antigen, antibody reaction |
Complement |
Primary and secondary lymphoid organ |
B and T cells and macrophages |
Major histocompatibility complex |
Antigen processing and presentation |
Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody |
Regulation of immune response |
Immune tolerance |
Hypersensitivity |
Autoimmunity |
Graft versus host reaction |
Bioinformatics |
---|
Major bioinformatic resources and search tools |
Sequence and structure databases |
Sequence analysis (biomolecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices, sequence alignment, phylogeny) |
Data mining and analytical tools for genomic and proteomic studies |
Molecular dynamics and simulations (basic concepts including force fields, protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid, protein-ligand interaction) |
Recombinant DNA technology |
---|
Restriction and modification enzymes |
Vectors |
Plasmid |
Bacteriophage and other viral vectors |
Cosmids |
Ti plasmid |
Yeast artificial chromosome |
Mammalian and plant expression vectors |
CDNA and genomic DNA library |
Gene isolation |
Cloning and expression |
Transposons and gene targeting |
DNA labelling |
DNA Sequencing |
Polymerase chain reactions |
DNA fingerprinting |
Southern and northern blotting |
In-situ hybridization |
RAPD |
RFLP |
Site-directed mutagenesis |
Gene transfer technologies |
Gene therapy |
Plant and animal biotechnology |
---|
Totipotency |
Regeneration of plants |
Plant growth regulators and elicitors |
Tissue culture and cell suspension culture system |
Tissue culture and methodology |
Tissue culture and kinetics of growth |
Tissue culture and nutrient optimization |
Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures |
Hairy root culture |
Transgenic plants |
Plant products of industrial importance |
Animal cell culture |
Media composition and growth conditions |
Animal cell and tissue preservation |
Anchorage and non-anchorage dependent cell culture |
Kinetics of cell growth |
Micro and macro-carrier culture |
Hybridoma technology |
Stem cell technology |
Animal cloning |
Transgenic animals |
Bioprocess engineering and process biotechnology |
---|
Chemical engineering principles applied to biological system |
Principle of reactor design |
Ideal and non-ideal multiphase bioreactors |
Mass and heat transfer |
Rheology of fermentation fluids |
Aeration and agitation |
Media formulation and optimization |
Kinetics of microbial growth |
Substrate utilization and product formation |
Sterilization of air and media |
Batch |
Fed-batch and continuous processes |
Various types of microbial and enzyme reactors |
Instrumentation control and optimization |
Unit operations in solid-liquid separation and liquid-liquid extraction |
Process scale-up |
Economics and feasibility analysis |
Engineering principle of bioprocessing- upstream production and downstream |
Bioprocess design and development from lab to industrial scale |
Microbial, animal and plant cell culture platforms |
Production of biomass and primary/secondary metabolites |
Biofuels |
Bioplastics |
Industrial enzymes |
Antibiotics |
Large scale production and purification of recombinant proteins |
Industrial application of chromatographic and membrane based bio separation methods |
Immobilization of biocatalysts for bioconversion processes |
Bioremediation-aerobic and anaerobic processes for stabilization of solid / liquid wastes |
GATE Civil Engineering Syllabus
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra |
---|
Matrix algebra |
Systems of linear equations |
Eigen values and Eigen vectors |
Calculus |
---|
Functions of single variable |
Limit |
Continuity and differentiability |
Mean value theorems |
Local maxima and minima |
Taylor and Maclaurin series |
Evaluation of definite and indefinite integrals |
Application of definite integral to obtain area and volume |
Partial derivatives |
Total derivative |
Gradient |
Gradient, divergence and curl |
Vector identities |
Directional derivatives |
Line |
Line, surface & volume integrals |
Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems |
Ordinary differential equation (ODE) |
---|
First order linear and non-linear equations |
Higher order linear equations with constant coefficients |
Euler-Cauchy equations |
Laplace transform and its application in solving linear odes |
Initial and boundary value problems |
Partial differential equation (PDE) |
---|
Fourier series |
Separation of variables |
Solutions of one dimensional diffusion equation |
First and second order one-dimensional wave equation and two-dimensional Laplace equation |
Probability and Statistics |
---|
Definitions of probability and sampling theorems |
Conditional probability |
Discrete random variables |
Poisson and binomial distributions |
Continuous random variables |
Normal and exponential distributions |
Descriptive statistics of mean, median, mode and standard deviation |
Hypothesis testing |
Numerical methods |
---|
Accuracy and precision |
Error analysis |
Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations |
Least square approximation |
Newton's and Lagrange polynomials |
Numerical differentiation |
Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson's rule |
Single and multi-step methods for first order differential equations |
Structural engineering
Engineering mechanics |
---|
System of forces |
Free-body diagrams |
Equilibrium equations |
Internal forces in structures |
Friction and its applications |
Kinematics of point mass and rigid body |
Centre of mass |
Euler's equations of motion |
Impulse-momentum |
Energy methods |
Principles of virtual work |
Solid mechanics |
---|
Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams |
Simple stress and strain relationships |
Theories of failures |
Simple bending theory |
Flexural and shear stresses |
Shear centre |
Uniform torsion |
Buckling of column |
Combined and direct bending stresses |
Structural analysis |
---|
Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods |
Method of superposition |
Analysis of trusses |
Arches |
Beams |
Cables and frames |
Displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods |
Influence lines |
Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis |
Construction materials and management |
---|
Construction materials: Structural steel - composition, material properties and behaviour |
Concrete : Constituents, mix design, short-term and long-term properties |
Bricks and mortar |
Timber |
Bitumen |
Construction management |
Types of construction projects |
Tendering and construction contracts |
Rate analysis and standard specifications |
Cost estimation |
Project planning and network analysis - PERT and CPM |
Concrete structures |
---|
Working stress |
Limit state and ultimate load design concepts |
Design of beams |
Slabs |
Columns |
Bond and development length |
Prestressed concrete |
Analysis of beam sections at transfer and service loads |
Steel structures |
---|
Working stress and limit state design concepts |
Design of tension and compression members |
Beams and beam of columns, column bases |
Connections - Simple and eccentric, beam-column connections, plate girders and trusses |
Plastic analysis of beams and frames |
Geotechnical engineering
Soil mechanics |
---|
Origin of soils |
Soil structure and fabric |
Three-phase system and phase relationships |
Three index properties |
Unified and Indian standard soil classification system |
Permeability - one dimensional flow, Darcy's law |
Seepage through soils - Two-dimensional flow, flow nets, uplift pressure, piping |
Principle of effective stress |
Capillarity |
Seepage force and quicksand condition |
Compaction in laboratory and field conditions |
One dimensional consolidation |
One time rate of consolidation |
Mohr's circle |
Stress paths |
Effective and total shear strength parameters |
Characteristics of clays and sand |
Foundation engineering |
---|
Sub-surface investigations: Scope, drilling bore holes, sampling, plate load test, standard penetration and cone penetration tests |
Earth pressure theories - Rankine and Coulomb |
Stability of slopes - Finite and infinite slopes, method of slices and bishop's method |
Stress distribution in soils - Boussinesq's and Westergaard's theories, pressure bulbs |
Shallow foundations - Terzaghi's and Meyerhof's bearing capacity theories, effect of water table |
Combined footing and raft foundation |
Contact pressure |
Settlement analysis in sands and clays |
Deep foundations - Types of piles, dynamic and static formulae, load capacity of piles in sands and clays, pile load test, negative skin friction |
Water resources engineering
Fluid mechanics |
---|
Properties of fluids |
Fluid statics |
Continuity |
Momentum |
Energy and corresponding equations |
Potential flow |
Applications of momentum and energy equations |
Laminar and turbulent flow |
Flow in pipes |
Pipe networks |
Concept of boundary layer and its growth |
Hydraulics |
---|
Forces on immersed bodies |
Flow measurement in channels and pipes |
Dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude |
Kinematics of flow |
Velocity triangles |
Basics of hydraulic machines |
Specific speed of pumps and turbines |
Channel hydraulics - Energy-depth relationships, specific energy, critical flow, slope profile, hydraulic jump, uniform flow and gradually varied flow |
Hydrology |
---|
Hydrologic cycle |
Precipitation |
Evaporation |
Evapo-transpiration |
Watershed |
Infiltration |
Unit hydrographs |
Hydrograph analysis |
Flood estimation and routing |
Reservoir capacity |
Reservoir and channel routing |
Surface run-off models |
Ground water hydrology - steady state well hydraulics and aquifers |
Application of Darcy's law |
Irrigation |
---|
Duty, delta, estimation of evapotranspiration |
Crop water requirements |
Design of lined and unlined canals |
Head works |
Gravity dams and spillways |
Design of weirs on permeable foundation |
Types of irrigation systems |
Irrigation methods |
Water logging and drainage |
Canal regulatory works |
Cross-drainage structures |
Outlets and escapes |
Environmental engineering
Water and waste water |
---|
Quality standards |
Basic unit processes and operations for water treatment |
Drinking water standards |
Water requirements |
Basic unit operations and unit processes for surface water treatment |
Distribution of water |
Sewage and sewerage treatment |
Quantity and characteristics of waste water |
Primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of waste water |
Effluent discharge standards |
Domestic waste water treatment |
Quantity of characteristics of domestic waste water |
Primary and secondary treatment |
Unit operations and unit processes of domestic waste water |
Sludge disposal |
Air pollution |
---|
Types of pollutants |
Their sources and impacts |
Air pollution meteorology |
Air pollution control |
Air quality standards and limits |
Municipal solid wastes |
---|
Characteristics |
Generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes |
Engineered systems for solid waste management reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal |
Noise pollution |
---|
Impacts of noise |
Permissible limits of noise pollution |
Measurement of noise and control of noise pollution |
Transportation engineering
Transportation infrastructure |
---|
Highway alignment and engineering surveys |
Geometric design of highways and horizontal and vertical alignments, cross-sectional elements |
Geometric design of railway track |
Airport runway length |
Taxiway and exit taxiway design |
Highway pavements |
---|
Highway materials - desirable properties and quality control tests |
Design of bituminous paving mixes |
Design factors for flexible and rigid pavements |
Design of flexible pavement using IRC: 37-2012 |
Design of rigid pavements using IRC: 58-2011 |
Distresses in concrete pavements |
Traffic engineering |
---|
Traffic studies on flow, speed |
Traffic studies on travel time - delay and study |
PCU |
Peak hour factor |
Parking study |
Accident study and analysis |
Statistical analysis of traffic data |
Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of traffic flow |
Fundamental relationships |
Control devices |
Signal design by Webster's method |
Types of intersections and channelization |
Highway capacity and level of service of rural highways and urban roads |
Geomatics engineering
Principles of surveying |
---|
Errors and their adjustment |
Maps - scale |
Coordinate system |
Distance and angle measurement - levelling and trigonometric levelling |
Traversing and triangulation survey |
Total station |
Horizontal and vertical curves |
Photogrammetry |
---|
Photogrammetry - scale, flying height |
Remote sensing - Baics, platform and sensors, visual image interpretation |
Remote sensing of platform and sensors |
Remote sensing and visual image interpretation |
GIS and GPS |
---|
Basics of geographical information system (GIS) and geographical positioning system (GPS) |
GATE Chemical Engineering Syllabus
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra |
---|
Matrix algebra |
Systems of linear equations |
Eigen values and Eigen vectors |
Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, eigen values and eigenvectors |
Calculus |
---|
Functions of single variable |
Limit |
Continuity and differentiability |
Taylor series |
Mean value theorems |
Evaluation of definite and improper integrals |
Partial derivatives |
Total derivative |
Maxima and minima |
Gradient |
Gradient, divergence and curl |
Vector identities |
Directional derivatives |
Line |
Line, surface & volume integrals |
Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems |
Functions of single variable, limit, continuity and differentiability |
Taylor series, mean value theorems, evaluation of definite and improper integrals |
Partial derivatives, total derivative, maxima and minima |
Gradient, divergence and curl, vector identities, directional derivatives |
Line, surface and volume integrals, stokes, gauss and green’s theorems |
Differential equations |
---|
First order equations linear and nonlinear |
Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients |
Cauchy's and Euler's equations |
Initial and boundary value problems |
Laplace transforms |
Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation |
First order equations (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients |
Cauchy’s and euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems |
Laplace transforms, solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and laplace equation |
Complex variables |
---|
Complex number |
Polar form of complex number |
Triangle inequality |
Complex number, polar form of complex number, triangle inequality |
Probability and Statistics |
---|
Definitions of probability and sampling theorems |
Conditional probability |
Mean |
Median |
Mean, median, mode & standard deviation |
Random variables |
Poisson, normal & binomial distributions |
Linear regression analysis |
Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode and standard deviation |
Random variables, poisson, normal and binomial distributions, linear regression analysis |
Numerical methods |
---|
Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations |
Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson's rule |
Single and multi-step methods for numerical solution of differential equations |
Integration by trapezoidal and simpson’s rule |
Chemical engineering
Process calculations and thermodynamics |
---|
Steady and unsteady state mass and energy balances including multiphase |
Multicomponent |
Reacting and non-reacting systems |
Use of tie components |
Recycle |
Bypass and purge calculations |
Gibb's phase rule and degree of freedom analysis |
First and second laws of thermodynamics |
Applications of first law to close and open systems |
Second law and entropy |
Thermodynamic properties of pure substances |
Equation of state and residual properties |
Properties of mixtures |
Partial molar properties |
Fugacity |
Excess properties and activity coefficients |
Phase equilibria |
Predicting VLE of systems |
Chemical reaction equilibrium |
Fluid mechanics and mechanical operations |
---|
Fluid statics |
Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids |
Shell-balances including differential form of Bernoulli equation and energy balance |
Macroscopic friction factors |
Dimensional analysis and similitude |
Flow through pipeline systems |
Flow meters , pumps and compressors |
Elementary boundary layer theory |
Flow past immersed bodies including packed and fluidized beds |
Turbulent flow |
Fluctuating velocity |
Universal velocity profile and pressure drop |
Particle size and shape |
Particle size distribution |
Size reduction and classification of solid particles |
Free and hindered settling |
Centrifuge and cyclones |
Thickening and classification |
Filtration |
Agitation and mixing |
Conveying of solids |
Heat transfer |
---|
Steady and unsteady heat conduction |
Convection and radiation |
Thermal boundary layer and heat transfer coefficients |
Boiling, condensation and evaporation |
Types of heat exchangers and evaporators and their process calculations |
Design of double pipe |
Shell and tube heat exchangers |
Single and multiple effect evaporators |
Mass transfer |
---|
Fick's laws |
Molecular diffusion in fluids |
Mass transfer coefficients |
Film, penetration and surface renewal theories |
Momentum, heat and mass transfer analogies |
Stage-wise and continuous contacting and stage efficiencies |
HTU & NTU concepts |
Design and operation of equipment for distillation |
Absorption |
Leaching |
Liquid-liquid extraction |
Drying |
Humidification |
Dehumidification and adsorption |
Chemical reaction engineering |
---|
Theories of reaction rates |
Kinetics of homogeneous reactions |
Interpretation of kinetic data |
Single and multiple reactions in ideal reactors |
Non-ideal reactors |
Residence time distribution |
Single parameter model |
Non-isothermal reactors |
Kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions |
Diffusion effects in catalysis |
Instrumentation and process control |
---|
Measurement of process variables |
Sensors, transducers and their dynamics |
Process modelling and linearization |
Transfer functions and dynamic responses of various systems |
Systems with inverse response |
Process reaction curve |
Controller modes (P, PI, and PID) |
Control valves |
Analysis of closed loop systems including stability |
Frequency response |
Controller tuning |
Cascade and feed forward control |
Plant design and economics |
---|
Principles of process economics and cost estimation including depreciation and total annualized cost |
Cost indices |
Rate of return |
Payback period |
Discounted cash flow |
Optimization in process design and sizing of chemical engineering equipment such as compressors |
Heat exchangers |
Multistage contactors |
Chemical technology |
---|
Inorganic chemical industries (sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, chloralkali industry) |
Fertilizers (ammonia, urea, SSP and TSP) |
Natural products industries (pulp and paper, sugar, oil, and fats) |
Petroleum refining and petrochemicals |
Polymerization industries (polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC and polyester synthetic fibres) |
Process calculations and thermodynamics
Steady and unsteady state mass and energy balances including multiphase |
---|
Multicomponent |
---|
Reacting and non-reacting systems |
---|
Use of tie components |
---|
Recycle |
---|
Bypass and purge calculations |
---|
Gibb’s phase rule and degree of freedom analysis |
---|
First and second laws of thermodynamics |
---|
Applications of first law to close and open systems |
---|
Second law and entropy |
---|
Thermodynamic properties of pure substances |
---|
Equation of state and residual properties |
---|
Properties of mixtures |
---|
Partial molar properties |
---|
Fugacity |
---|
Excess properties and activity coefficients |
---|
Phase equilibria |
---|
Predicting VLE of systems |
---|
Chemical reaction equilibrium |
---|
Multicomponent, reacting and non-reacting systems |
---|
Recycle, bypass and purge calculations |
---|
Equation of state and residual properties, properties of mixtures |
---|
Partial molar properties, fugacity, excess properties and activity coefficients |
---|
Fluid mechanics and mechanical operations
Fluid statics |
---|
Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids |
---|
Shell-balances including differential form of Bernoulli equation and energy balance |
---|
Macroscopic friction factors |
---|
Dimensional analysis and similitude |
---|
Flow through pipeline systems |
---|
Flow meters |
---|
Pumps and compressors |
---|
Elementary boundary layer theory |
---|
Flow past immersed bodies including packed and fluidized beds |
---|
Turbulent flow |
---|
Fluctuating velocity |
---|
Universal velocity profile and pressure drop |
---|
Particle size and shape |
---|
Particle size distribution |
---|
Size reduction and classification of solid particles |
---|
Free and hindered settling |
---|
Centrifuge and cyclones |
---|
Thickening and classification |
---|
Filtration |
---|
Agitation and mixing |
---|
Conveying of solids |
---|
Fluid statics, newtonian and non-newtonian fluids |
---|
Macroscopic friction factors, dimensional analysis and similitude, flow through pipeline systems |
---|
Flow meters, pumps and compressors, elementary boundary layer theory, flow past immersed bodies including packed and fluidized beds |
---|
Fluctuating velocity, universal velocity profile and pressure drop |
---|
Particle size and shape, particle size distribution, size reduction and classification of solid particles |
---|
Thickening and classification, filtration, agitation and mixing |
---|
Heat transfer
Steady and unsteady heat conduction |
---|
Convection and radiation |
---|
Thermal boundary layer and heat transfer coefficients |
---|
Boiling |
---|
Condensation and evaporation |
---|
Types of heat exchangers and evaporators and their process calculations |
---|
Design of double pipe |
---|
Shell and tube heat exchangers |
---|
Single and multiple effect evaporators |
---|
Steady and unsteady heat conduction, convection and radiation |
---|
Thermal boundary layer and heat transfer coefficients, boiling, condensation and evaporation |
---|
Design of double pipe, shell and tube heat exchangers, and single and multiple effect evaporators |
---|
Mass transfer
Fick’s laws |
---|
Molecular diffusion in fluids |
---|
Mass transfer coefficients |
---|
Film |
---|
Penetration and surface renewal theories |
---|
Momentum |
---|
Heat and mass transfer analogies |
---|
Stage-wise and continuous contacting and stage efficiencies |
---|
HTU & NTU concepts |
---|
Design and operation of equipment for distillation |
---|
Absorption |
---|
Leaching |
---|
Liquid-liquid extraction |
---|
Drying |
---|
Humidification |
---|
Dehumidification and adsorption |
---|
Fick’s laws, molecular diffusion in fluids, mass transfer coefficients, film, penetration and surface renewal theories |
---|
Momentum, heat and mass transfer analogies |
---|
Design and operation of equipment for distillation, absorption, leaching, liquid-liquid extraction, drying, humidification, dehumidification and adsorption |
---|
Chemical reaction engineering
Theories of reaction rates |
---|
Kinetics of homogeneous reactions |
---|
Interpretation of kinetic data |
---|
Single and multiple reactions in ideal reactors |
---|
Non-ideal reactors |
---|
Residence time distribution |
---|
Single parameter model |
---|
Non-isothermal reactors |
---|
Kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions |
---|
Diffusion effects in catalysis |
---|
Kinetics of homogeneous reactions, interpretation of kinetic data, single and multiple reactions in ideal reactors, non-ideal reactors |
---|
Residence time distribution, single parameter model |
---|
Instrumentation and process control
Measurement of process variables |
---|
Sensors |
---|
Transducers and their dynamics |
---|
Process modelling and linearization |
---|
Transfer functions and dynamic responses of various systems |
---|
Systems with inverse response |
---|
Process reaction curve |
---|
Controller modes (P, PI, and PID) |
---|
Control valves |
---|
Analysis of closed loop systems including stability |
---|
Frequency response |
---|
Controller tuning |
---|
Cascade and feed forward control |
---|
Sensors, transducers and their dynamics, process modeling and linearization, transfer functions and dynamic responses of various systems |
---|
Systems with inverse response, process reaction curve, controller modes (P, PI, and PID) |
---|
Analysis of closed loop systems including stability, frequency response, controller tuning, cascade and feed forward control |
---|
Plant design and economics
Principles of process economics and cost estimation including depreciation and total annualized cost |
---|
Cost indices |
---|
Rate of return |
---|
Payback period |
---|
Discounted cash flow |
---|
Optimization in process design and sizing of chemical engineering equipment such as compressors |
---|
Heat exchangers |
---|
Multistage contactors |
---|
Cost indices, rate of return, payback period, discounted cash flow |
---|
Optimization in process design and sizing of chemical engineering equipments such as compressors, heat exchangers, multistage contactors |
---|
Chemical technology
Inorganic chemical industries (sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, chloralkali industry) |
---|
Fertilizers (ammonia, urea, SSP and TSP) |
---|
Natural products industries (pulp and paper, sugar, oil, and fats) |
---|
Petroleum refining and petrochemicals |
---|
Polymerization industries (polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC and polyester synthetic fibers) |
---|
Inorganic chemical industries (sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, chlor-alkali industry), fertilizers (Ammonia, Urea, SSP and TSP) |
---|
GATE Computer Science and Information Technology Syllabus
Engineering mathematics
Discrete mathematics |
---|
Propositional and first order logic |
Sets |
Relations |
Functions |
Partial orders and lattices |
Groups |
Graphs: Connectivity, matching, coloring |
Combinatorics: Counting, recurrence relations, generating functions |
Linear algebra |
---|
Matrices |
Determinants |
System of linear equations |
Eigen values and Eigen vectors |
LU decomposition |
Calculus |
---|
Limits |
Continuity and differentiability |
Maxima and minima |
Mean value theorem |
Integration |
Probability |
---|
Random variables |
Uniform, exponential, normal, poisson and binomial distributions. |
Mean |
Median |
Mean, median, mode & standard deviation |
Conditional probability and Bayes theorem |
Computer science and information technology
Digital logic |
---|
Boolean algebra |
Combinational and sequential circuits |
Minimization |
Number representations and computer arithmetic of fixed and floating point |
Computer organization and architecture |
---|
Machine instructions and addressing modes |
ALU |
Data‐path and control unit |
Instruction pipelining |
Memory hierarchy |
Cache, main memory and secondary storage |
I/O interface in interrupt and DMA mode |
Programming and data structures |
---|
Programming in c, recursion |
Arrays |
Stacks |
Queues |
Linked lists |
Trees |
Binary search trees |
Binary heaps |
Graphs |
Algorithms |
---|
Searching |
Sorting |
Hashing |
Asymptotic worst case time and space complexity |
Algorithm design techniques and greedy |
Dynamic programming and divide and conquer |
Graph search |
Minimum spanning trees |
Shortest paths |
Theory of computation |
---|
Regular expressions and finite automata |
Context-free grammar and push-down automata |
Regular and context-free languages |
Pumping lemma |
Turing machines and undecidability |
Compiler design |
---|
Lexical analysis |
Parsing |
Syntax-directed translation |
Runtime environments |
Intermediate code generation |
Operating system |
---|
Processes |
Threads |
Inter‐process communication |
Concurrency and synchronization |
Deadlock |
CPU scheduling |
Memory management and virtual memory |
File systems |
Databases |
---|
ER‐model |
Relational model: Relational algebra, tuple calculus, SQL |
Integrity constraints, normal forms |
File organization |
Indexing of b and b+ trees |
Transactions and concurrency control |
Computer networks |
---|
Concept of layering |
Lan technologies in Ethernet |
Flow and error control techniques |
Switching |
IPV4/ IPV6 |
Routers and routing algorithms in distance vector, link state |
TCP/UDP and sockets |
Congestion control |
Application layer protocols in DNS, SMTP, pop, ftp, http |
Basics of wi-fi |
Network security: Authentication, basics of public key and private key cryptography, digital signatures and certificates, firewalls |
GATE Chemistry Syllabus
Physical chemistry
Structure |
---|
Postulates of quantum mechanics |
Time dependent and time independent Schrödinger equations |
Born interpretation |
Particle in a box |
Harmonic oscillator |
Rigid rotor |
Hydrogen atom |
Atomic orbitals |
Multi-electron atoms |
Orbital approximation |
Variation and first order perturbation techniques |
Chemical bonding |
Valence bond theory and LCAO-MO theory |
Hybrid orbitals |
Applications of LCAO-MO theory to h2+, h2 and other homonuclear diatomic molecules |
Hetero nuclear diatomic molecules like HF, CO, NO, and to simple delocalized π– electron systems |
Huckel approximation and its application to annular π – electron systems |
Symmetry elements and operations |
Point groups and character tables |
Origin of selection rules for rotational, vibrational, electronic and Raman spectroscopy of diatomic and polyatomic molecules |
Einstein coefficients |
Relationship of transition moment integral with molar extinction coefficient and oscillator strength |
Basic principles of nuclear magnetic resonance: nuclear g factor |
Chemical shift |
Nuclear coupling |
Equilibrium |
---|
Laws of thermodynamics |
Standard states |
Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamic functions and their relationships: Gibbs-Helmholtz and Maxwell relations, van't Hoff equation |
Criteria of spontaneity and equilibrium |
Absolute entropy |
Partial molar quantities |
Thermodynamics of mixing |
Chemical potential |
Fugacity |
Activity and activity coefficients |
Chemical equilibria |
Dependence of equilibrium constant on temperature and pressure |
Non-ideal solutions |
Ionic mobility and conductivity |
Debye-Huckel limiting law |
Debye Huckel Onsager equation |
Potentiometric and conductometric titrations |
Phase rule |
Clausius-Clapeyron equation |
Phase diagram of one component systems CO2, H2O, S |
Two component systems: liquid-vapour, liquid-liquid and solid-liquid systems |
Fractional distillation |
Azeotropes and eutectics |
Statistical thermodynamics |
Microcanonical and canonical ensembles |
Boltzmann distribution |
Partition functions and thermodynamic properties |
Kinetics |
---|
Transition state theory of Eyring equation, thermodynamic aspects |
Potential energy surfaces and classical trajectories |
Elementary |
Parallel |
Opposing and consecutive reactions |
Steady state approximation |
Mechanisms of complex reactions |
Unimolecular reactions |
Kinetics of polymerization and enzyme catalysis |
Fast reaction kinetics of relaxation and flow methods |
Kinetics of photochemical and photophysical processes |
Surfaces and interfaces |
---|
Physisorption and Chemisorption |
Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms |
Surface catalysis and Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism |
Surface tension |
Viscosity |
Self-assembly |
Physical chemistry of colloids |
Micelles and macromolecules |
Inorganic chemistry
Main group elements |
---|
Hydrides |
Halides (excluding fluoride) |
Oxides |
Oxoacids |
Nitrides |
Sulfides – shapes and reactivity |
Structure and bonding of boranes |
Carboranes |
Silicones |
Silicates |
Boron nitride |
Borazines and phosphazenes |
Allotropes of carbon |
Chemistry of noble gases |
Pseudohalogens |
Interhalogen compounds |
Acid-base concepts |
Transition elements |
---|
Coordination chemistry – structure and isomerism |
Theories of bonding in VBT, CFT, and MOT |
Energy level diagrams in various crystal fields, CFSE, applications of CFT, Jahn-Teller distortion |
Electronic spectra of transition metal complexes: Spectroscopic term symbols, selection rules, Orgel diagrams, charge-transfer spectra |
Magnetic properties of transition metal complexes |
Reaction mechanisms: Kinetic and thermodynamic stability, substitution and redox reactions |
Lanthanides and actinides |
---|
Recovery |
Periodic properties |
Spectra and magnetic properties |
Organometallics |
---|
18-electron rule |
Metal-alkyl, metal-carbonyl, metal-olefin and metal- carbene complexes and metallocenes |
Fluxionality in organometallic complexes |
Types of organometallic reactions |
Homogeneous catalysis: Hydrogenation, hydroformylation, acetic acid synthesis, metathesis and olefin oxidation |
Heterogeneous catalysis |
Fischer |
Tropsch reaction |
Ziegler |
Natta polymerization |
Radioactivity |
---|
Decay processes |
Half-life of radioactive elements |
Fission and fusion processes |
Bioinorganic chemistry |
---|
Ion Na+ and K+ transport |
Oxygen binding |
Transport and utilization |
Electron transfer reactions |
Nitrogen fixation |
Metallo enzymes containing magnesium |
Molybdenum |
Iron |
Cobalt |
Copper and zinc |
Solids |
---|
Crystal systems and lattices |
Miller planes |
Crystal packing |
Crystal defects |
Bragg's law |
Ionic crystals |
Structures of ax, ax2, abx3 type compounds |
Spinels |
Band theory |
Metals and semiconductors |
Instrumental methods of analysis |
---|
UV-visible spectrophotometry |
NMR and ESR spectroscopy |
Mass spectrometry |
Chromatography including GC and HPLC |
Electroanalytical methods - Polarography, cyclic voltammetry, ion-selective electrodes |
Thermo analytical methods |
Organic chemistry
Stereochemistry |
---|
Chirality of organic molecules with or without chiral centres and determination of their absolute configurations |
Relative stereochemistry in compounds having more than one stereogenic centre |
Homotopic |
Enantiotopic and diastereotopic atoms, groups and faces |
Stereoselective and stereospecific synthesis |
Conformational analysis of acyclic and cyclic compounds |
Geometrical isomerism |
Configurational and conformational effects |
Neighbouring group participation on reactivity and selectivity/specificity |
Reaction mechanisms |
---|
Basic mechanistic concepts – kinetic versus thermodynamic control |
Hammond's postulate and Curtin-Hammett principle |
Methods of determining reaction mechanisms through identification of products |
Intermediates and isotopic labelling |
Nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution reactions (both aromatic and aliphatic) |
Addition reactions to carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom (N,O) multiple bonds |
Elimination reactions |
Reactive intermediates - Carbocations, carbanions, carbenes, nitrenes, arynes and free radicals |
Molecular rearrangements involving electron deficient atoms |
Organic synthesis |
---|
Synthesis, reactions, mechanisms and selectivity involving the following classes of compounds – alkenes, alkynes, arenes, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, nitriles, halides, nitro compounds, amines and amides |
Uses of Mg, Li, Cu, B, Zn and Si based reagents in organic synthesis |
Carbon-carbon bond formation through coupling reactions - Heck, Suzuki, Stille and Sonogashira |
Concepts of multistep synthesis: retrosynthetic analysis, strategic disconnections, synthons and synthetic equivalents |
Umpolung reactivity – formyl and acyl anion equivalents |
Selectivity in organic synthesis, chemo, regio and stereoselectivity |
Protection and deprotection of functional groups |
Concepts of asymmetric synthesis – resolution including enzymatic |
Desymmetrization and use of chiral auxiliaries |
Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions through enolates (including boron enolates) |
Enamines and silyl enol ethers |
Michael addition reaction |
Stereoselective addition to c=o groups in cram and Felkin-Anh models models |
Pericyclic reactions and photochemistry |
---|
Electrocyclic |
Cycloaddition and sigmatropic reactions |
Orbital correlations - FMO and PMO treatments |
Photochemistry of alkenes |
Arenes and carbonyl compounds |
Photo-oxidation and photoreduction |
Di-π-methane rearrangement |
Barton reaction |
Heterocyclic compounds |
---|
Structure |
Preparation |
Properties and reactions of furan |
Pyrrole |
Thiophene |
Pyridine |
Indole |
Quinoline and Isoquinoline |
Biomolecules |
---|
Structure |
Properties and reactions of mono- and di-saccharides |
Physicochemical properties of amino acids |
Chemical synthesis of peptides |
Structural features of proteins |
Nucleic acids |
Steroids |
Terpenoids |
Carotenoids |
Alkaloids |
Spectroscopy |
---|
Applications of UV-visible, IR, NMR and mass spectrometry in the structural determination of organic molecules |
GATE Electronics and Communication Engineering Syllabus
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra |
---|
Vector space |
Basis |
Linear dependence and independence |
Matrix algebra |
Eigen values and Eigen vectors |
Rank, solution of linear equations – existence and uniqueness |
Calculus |
---|
Mean value theorems |
Theorems of integral calculus |
Evaluation of definite and improper integrals |
Partial derivatives |
Maxima and minima |
Multiple integrals |
Line |
Line, surface & volume integrals |
Taylor series |
Differential equations |
---|
First order equations (linear and nonlinear) |
Higher order linear differential equations |
Cauchy's and Euler's equations |
Methods of solution using variation of parameters |
Complementary function and particular integral |
Partial differential equations |
Variable separable method |
Initial and boundary value problems |
Vector analysis |
---|
Vectors in plane and space |
Vector operations |
Gradient |
Gradient, divergence and curl |
Gauss, Green and Stokes theorem |
Complex analysis |
---|
Analytic functions |
Cauchy's integral theorem |
Cauchy's integral formula |
Taylor's & Laurent's series |
Residue theorem. |
Numerical methods |
---|
Solution of nonlinear equations |
Single and multi-step methods for differential equations |
Convergence criteria |
Probability and Statistics |
---|
Mean, median, mode and standard deviation |
Combinatorial probability |
Probability distribution functions - binomial, Poisson, exponential and normal |
Joint and conditional probability |
Correlation and regression analysis |
Networks, signals and systems
Network solution methods |
---|
Nodal and mesh analysis |
Network theorems - Thevenin and Norton's, superposition |
Maximum power transfer of network theorems |
Wye‐delta transformation |
Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors |
Time domain analysis of simple linear circuits |
Solution of network equations using Laplace transform |
Frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits |
Linear 2‐port network parameters of driving point and transfer functions |
State equations for networks |
Continuous-time signals |
---|
Fourier series and Fourier transform representations |
Sampling theorem and applications |
Discrete-time signals and Fourier transform (DTFT), DFT, FFT, Z-transform |
Discrete-time and interpolation of discrete-time signals |
LTI systems: Definition and properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay, digital filter design techniques |
Electronic devices
Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic silicon |
---|
Carrier transport of diffusion current, drift current, mobility and resistivity |
---|
Generation and recombination of carriers |
---|
Poisson and continuity equations |
---|
P-N junction |
---|
Zener diode |
---|
BJT |
---|
MOS capacitor |
---|
MOSFET |
---|
LED |
---|
Photo diode and solar cell |
---|
Integrated circuit fabrication process: Oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography |
---|
Twin-tub CMOS process |
---|
Analog circuits
Small signal equivalent circuits of diodes |
---|
BJTS and MOSFETs |
---|
Simple diode circuits and clipping |
---|
Simple diode circuits of clamping and rectifiers |
---|
Single-stage BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: biasing, bias stability, mid-frequency small signal analysis and frequency response |
---|
BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: multi-stage, differential, feedback, power and operational |
---|
Simple op-amp circuits |
---|
Active filters |
---|
Sinusoidal oscillators and criterion for oscillation |
---|
Single-transistor and op amp configurations of sinusoidal oscillators |
---|
Function generators |
---|
Wave-shaping circuits and 555 timers |
---|
Voltage reference circuits |
---|
Power supplies for ripple removal and regulation |
---|
Digital circuits
Number systems |
---|
Combinatorial circuits of Boolean algebra |
---|
Minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map |
---|
Logic gates and their static CMOS implementations |
---|
Arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders and PLAs |
---|
Sequential circuits: latches and flip‐flops, counters, shift‐registers and finite state machines |
---|
Data converters: sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs |
---|
Semiconductor memories: ROM, SRAM, DRAM |
---|
Bit microprocessor (8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing |
---|
Control systems
Basic control system components |
---|
Feedback principle |
---|
Transfer function |
---|
Block diagram representation |
---|
Signal flow graph |
---|
Transient and steady-state analysis of LTI systems |
---|
Frequency response |
---|
Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria |
---|
Bode and root-locus plots |
---|
Lag, lead and lag-lead compensation |
---|
State variable model and solution of state equation of LTI systems |
---|
Communications
Random processes: autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems |
---|
Analog communications: amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation |
---|
Spectra of AM and FM |
---|
Super heterodyne receivers of angle modulation |
---|
Circuits for analog communications |
---|
Information theory of entropy |
---|
Mutual information and channel capacity theorem |
---|
Digital communications of PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes, amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying (ASK, PSK, FSK), QAM, MAP and ML decoding |
---|
Matched filter receiver, calculation of bandwidth, SNR and BER for digital modulation, fundamentals of error correction |
---|
Hamming codes |
---|
Timing and frequency synchronization |
---|
Inter-symbol interference and its mitigation |
---|
Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA |
---|
Electromagnetics
Electrostatics |
---|
Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms and their interpretation |
---|
Boundary conditions, wave equation and poynting vector |
---|
Plane waves and properties of reflection and refraction |
---|
Polarization, phase and group velocity |
---|
Plane waves and properties of propagation through various media, skin depth |
---|
Transmission lines: equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, S-parameters, Smith chart |
---|
Waveguides: modes, boundary conditions, cut-off frequencies, dispersion relations |
---|
Antennas: antenna types, radiation pattern, gain and directivity, return loss, antenna arrays |
---|
Basics of radar |
---|
Light propagation in optical fibers |
---|
GATE Electrical Engineering Syllabus
Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra |
---|
Matrix algebra |
Systems of linear equations |
Eigen values |
Eigen vectors |
Calculus |
---|
Mean value theorems |
Theorems of integral calculus |
Evaluation of definite and improper integrals |
Partial derivatives |
Maxima and minima |
Multiple integrals |
Fourier series |
Vector identities |
Directional derivatives |
Line integral |
Surface integral |
Volume integral |
Stoke's theorem |
Gauss's theorem |
Green's theorem, Stokes' theorem, and Gauss divergence theorem |
Differential equations |
---|
First order equations of linear and nonlinear |
Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients |
Method of variation of parameters |
Cauchy's equation |
Euler's equation |
Initial and boundary value problems |
Partial differential equations |
Method of separation of variables |
Complex variables |
---|
Analytic functions |
Cauchy's integral theorem |
Cauchy's integral formula |
Taylor series |
Laurent series |
Residue theorem |
Solution integrals |
Probability and Statistics |
---|
Sampling theorems |
Conditional probability |
Mean, mode, median and standard deviation |
Random variables |
Discrete and continuous distributions |
Poisson distribution |
Normal distribution |
Binomial distribution |
Correlation analysis |
Regression analysis |
Numerical methods |
---|
Solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations |
Single and multi‐step methods for differential equations |
Transform theory |
---|
Fourier transform |
Laplace transform |
Z‐transform |
Electrical engineering
Electric circuits |
---|
Network graph |
KCL |
KVL |
Node and mesh analysis |
Transient response of DC and AC networks |
Sinusoidal steady‐state analysis |
Resonance |
Passive filters |
Ideal current and voltage sources |
Thevenin's theorem |
Norton's theorem |
Superposition theorem |
Maximum power transfer theorem |
Two‐port networks |
Three phase circuits |
Power and power factor in AC circuits |
Electromagnetic fields |
---|
Coulomb's law |
Electric field intensity |
Electric flux density |
Gauss's law |
Divergence |
Electric field and potential due to point |
Plane, line and spherical charge distributions |
Effect of dielectric medium |
Capacitance of simple configurations |
Biot‐Savart's law |
Ampere's law |
Curl |
Faraday's law |
Lorentz force |
Inductance |
Magnetomotive force |
Magnetic circuits |
Self and mutual inductance of simple configurations |
Signals and systems |
---|
Representation of continuous and discrete‐time signals |
Shifting and scaling operations |
Linear time invariant and causal systems |
Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signals |
Sampling theorem |
Applications of Fourier transform, Laplace transform and z-transform |
Electrical machines |
---|
Single phase transformer: equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, open circuit and short circuit tests |
Regulation & efficiency |
Three phase transformers: connections, parallel operation |
Auto‐transformer |
Electromechanical energy conversion principles |
DC machines: separately excited, series and shunt |
Motoring and generating mode of operation and their characteristics |
Starting and speed control of DC motors |
Three phase induction motors: principle of operation, types, performance |
Torque-speed characteristics of induction |
No-load and blocked rotor tests |
Equivalent circuit, starting and speed control |
Operating principle of single phase induction motors |
Synchronous machines: cylindrical and salient pole machines |
Performance, regulation and parallel operation of generators |
Starting of synchronous motor, characteristics |
Types of losses and efficiency calculations of electric machines |
Power systems |
---|
Power generation concepts |
Ac and DC transmission concepts |
Models and performance of transmission lines and cables |
Series and shunt compensation |
Electric field distribution and insulators |
Distribution systems |
Per‐unit quantities |
Bus admittance matrix |
Gauss-Seidel and Newton-Raphson load flow methods |
Voltage and frequency control |
Power factor correction |
Symmetrical components |
Symmetrical and unsymmetrical fault analysis |
Principles of over‐current |
Differential and distance protection |
Circuit breakers |
System stability concepts |
Equal area criterion |
Control systems |
---|
Mathematical modelling and representation of systems |
Feedback principle |
Transfer function |
Block diagrams and signal flow graphs |
Transient and steady‐state analysis of linear time invariant systems |
Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist criteria |
Bode plots |
Root loci |
Stability analysis |
Lag, lead and lead‐lag compensators |
P, PI and PID controllers |
State space model |
State transition matrix |
Electrical and electronic measurements |
---|
Bridges and potentiometers |
Measurement of voltage |
Current |
Power |
Energy and power factor |
Instrument transformers |
Digital voltmeters and multimeters |
Time, phase and frequency measurement |
Oscilloscopes |
Error analysis |
Analog and digital electronics |
---|
Characteristics of diodes, BJT, MOSFET |
Simple diode circuits: clipping, clamping, rectifiers |
Amplifiers and biasing |
Equivalent circuit and frequency response of amplifiers |
Oscillators and feedback amplifiers |
Operational amplifiers and characteristics and applications |
Simple active filters |
VCOs and timers |
Combinational and sequential logic circuits |
Multiplexer |
Demultiplexer |
Schmitt trigger |
Sample and hold circuits |
A/D and D/A converters |
8085 microprocessor and architecture |
Power electronics |
---|
Characteristics of semiconductor power devices: diode, thyristor, TRIAC, GTO, MOSFET, IGBT |
DC to DC conversion: buck, boost and buck-boost converters |
Single and three phase configuration of uncontrolled rectifiers |
Line commutated thyristor based converters |
Bidirectional AC to DC voltage source converters |
Issues of line current harmonics |
Power factor |
Distortion factor of AC to DC converters |
Single phase and three phase inverters |
Sinusoidal pulse width modulation |
GATE Geology and Geophysics Syllabus
Common section
Earth and planetary system - size, shape, internal structure and composition of the earth |
---|
Concept of isostasy |
---|
Elements of seismology - body and surface waves, propagation of body waves in the earth’s interior |
---|
Gravitational field of the earth |
---|
Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism |
---|
Continental drift |
---|
Plate tectonics - relationship with earthquakes, volcanism and mountain building |
---|
Continental and oceanic crust - composition, structure and thickness |
---|
Weathering and soil formation |
---|
Landforms created by river, wind, glacier, ocean and volcanoes |
---|
Basic structural geology - stress, strain and material response |
---|
Brittle and ductile deformation |
---|
Nomenclature and classification of folds and faults |
---|
Crystallography – basic crystal symmetry and concept of point groups |
---|
Mineralogy – silicate crystal structure and determinative mineralogy of common rock forming minerals |
---|
Petrology – mineralogy |
---|
Classification of common igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks |
---|
Geological time scale and geochronology and absolute time |
---|
Stratigraphic principles |
---|
Major stratigraphic divisions of India |
---|
Geological and geographical distribution of mineral, coal and petroleum resources of India |
---|
Introduction to remote sensing |
---|
Engineering properties of rocks and soils |
---|
Ground water geology |
---|
Principles and applications of gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic |
---|
Seismic and radiometric methods of prospecting for oil |
---|
Mineral and ground water |
---|
Introductory well logging |
---|
Geology
Geomorphic processes and agents |
---|
Development and evolution of landforms |
---|
Slope and drainage |
---|
Processes in deep oceanic and near-shore regions |
---|
Quantitative and applied geomorphology |
---|
Mechanism of rock deformation |
---|
Primary and secondary structures |
---|
Geometry and genesis of folds, faults, joints and unconformities |
---|
Cleavage, schistosity and lineation |
---|
Methods of projection |
---|
Tectonites and their significance |
---|
Shear zones |
---|
Superposed folding |
---|
Basement-cover relationship |
---|
Crystallography - symmetry, forms and twinning |
---|
Crystal chemistry |
---|
Optical mineralogy |
---|
Classification of minerals |
---|
Diagnostic physical and optical properties of rock - forming minerals |
---|
Cosmic abundance of elements |
---|
Meteorites |
---|
Geochemical evolution of the earth |
---|
Geochemical cycles |
---|
Distribution of major, minor and trace elements in crust and mantle |
---|
Elements of geochemical thermodynamics |
---|
Isotope geochemistry |
---|
Geochemistry of waters including solution equilibria and water-rock interaction |
---|
Igneous rocks - classification, forms and textures |
---|
Magmatic differentiation |
---|
Binary and ternary phase diagrams |
---|
Major and trace elements as monitors of partial melting and magma evolutionary processes |
---|
Sedimentary rocks – texture and structure |
---|
Sedimentary processes and environments |
---|
Sedimentary facies |
---|
Provenance and basin analysis |
---|
Metamorphic rocks – structures and textures |
---|
Physico-chemical conditions of metamorphism and concept of metamorphic facies, grade and baric types |
---|
Metamorphism of pelitic, mafic and impure carbonate rocks |
---|
Role of fluids in metamorphism |
---|
Metamorphic P-T-t paths and their tectonic significance |
---|
Association of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks with tectonic setting |
---|
Igneous and metamorphic provinces and important sedimentary basins of India |
---|
Morphology |
---|
Classification and geological significance of important invertebrates, vertebrates, plant fossils and microfossils |
---|
Principles of stratigraphy and concepts of correlation - lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy |
---|
Indian stratigraphy – Precambrian and Phanerozoic |
---|
Overview of Himalayan geology |
---|
Ore-mineralogy and optical properties of ore minerals |
---|
Ore forming processes vis-à-vis ore-rock association (magmatic, hydrothermal, sedimentary, supergene and metamorphogenic ores) |
---|
Fluid inclusions as an ore genetic tool |
---|
Coal and petroleum geology |
---|
Marine mineral resources |
---|
Prospecting and exploration of economic mineral deposits - sampling, ore reserve estimation, geostatistics, mining methods |
---|
Ore dressing and mineral economics |
---|
Origin and distribution of mineral, fossil and nuclear fuel deposits in India |
---|
Engineering properties of rocks and soils |
---|
Rocks as construction materials |
---|
Role of geology in the construction of engineering structures including dams, tunnels and excavation sites |
---|
Natural hazards |
---|
Ground water geology – exploration |
---|
Well hydraulics and water quality |
---|
Basic principles of remote sensing – energy sources and radiation principles |
---|
Atmospheric absorption |
---|
Interaction of energy with earth’s surface |
---|
Aerial-photo interpretation |
---|
Multispectral remote sensing in visible |
---|
Infrared |
---|
Thermal IR and microwave regions |
---|
Digital processing of satellite images |
---|
GIS – basic concepts, raster and vector mode operations |
---|
Geophysics
The earth as a planet |
---|
Different motions of the earth |
---|
Gravity field of the earth |
---|
Clairaut’s theorem |
---|
Size and shape of earth |
---|
Geomagnetic field |
---|
Paleomagnetism |
---|
Geothermics and heat flow |
---|
Seismology and interior of the earth |
---|
Variation of density, velocity, pressure, temperature, electrical and magnetic properties of the earth |
---|
Earthquakes-causes and measurements |
---|
Magnitude and intensity |
---|
Focal mechanisms |
---|
Earthquake quantification |
---|
Source characteristics |
---|
Seismotectonics and seismic hazards |
---|
Digital seismographs |
---|
Scalar and vector potential fields |
---|
Laplace, Maxwell and Helmholtz equations for solution of different types of boundary value problems in Cartesian |
---|
Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates |
---|
Green’s theorem |
---|
Image theory |
---|
Integral equations in potential theory |
---|
Eikonal equation and ray theory |
---|
Absolute and relative gravity measurements |
---|
Gravimeters, Land, airborne, shipborne and bore-hole gravity surveys |
---|
Various corrections for gravity data reduction – free air |
---|