About GATE 2019

GATE 2019 result has been announced by the authorities on March 15. GATE 2019 was organized by Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras in online mode on February 2, 3, 9 and 10, 2019. A new paper "Statistics" has been added this year, taking the total number of papers for which GATE 2019 will be conducted to 24; in the last edition of the exam there were 23 papers. The candidate though will be able to appear for one paper only, preferably in a paper related to the candidate's qualifying degree; that being said, the candidate is free to choose any of the 24 papers. IIT Madras has released the admit card of GATE 2019 on January 4. The GATE 2019 application form opened on August 31, 2018, and had to be filled through GOAPS (GATE Online Application Processing System). Last date to submit completed application without late fee was September 23, 2018. With late fee, the application form could be filled till October 1, 2018. Registered candidates could submit the application form till October 3, 2018. Correction facility of application form for all registered candidates was open from September 27, 2018. It must be noted that to be eligible for admission to M.Tech courses offered by various institutes based on GATE scores, candidates needs to qualify in the exam. The qualifying score is different for each paper, and has been released alongside GATE 2019 result. Also, unless the candidate qualifies in the exam, GATE 2019 score card will not be available for download. 

The validity of GATE 2019 score card will be three years from the date on which results have been declared.

Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) is a national-level post-graduate entrance exam that is jointly conducted by the seven IITs (Bombay, Delhi, Kanpur, Guwahati, Kharagpur, Madras and Roorkee) and the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore for admission to M.Tech programmes offered by government as well as many private institutes.

Exam level: National Level Exam
Frequency: Once a year
Languages English
Conducting Body: Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Duration 3 Hours

Download all details about GATE 2019

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Latest Announcements

GATE 2019 Important Dates

19 Mar, 2019 - 31 May, 2019 Score Card | Mode: Online
01 Jun, 2019 - 31 Dec, 2019 Others - Score card with fee | Mode: Online
23 Oct, 2018 - 02 Nov, 2018 Others - Correction of marked defects in application form | Mode: Online
04 Jan, 2019 Admit Card | Mode: Online
24 Sep, 2018 - 01 Oct, 2018 Late Fee Application | Mode: Online
13 Nov, 2018 - 16 Nov, 2018 Choice of Exam City - Date to change exam city | Mode: Online
09 Feb, 2019 Exam | Mode: Online
31 Oct, 2018 - 09 Nov, 2018 Others - Correction date to rectify gender/ category/ PwD status/ dyslexia and other similar learning disabilities | Mode: Online
17 Oct, 2018 - 25 Oct, 2018 Others - Request for change of exam paper | Mode: Online
03 Feb, 2019 Exam | Mode: Online
31 Aug, 2018 - 23 Sep, 2018 Application | Mode: Online
30 Oct, 2018 Others - Mock test released - Start Date | Mode: Online
10 Feb, 2019 Exam | Mode: Online
02 Feb, 2019 Exam | Mode: Online
15 Mar, 2019 Result | Mode: Online

Candidates are urged to ensure they meet the prescribed eligibility criteria of GATE 2019, as otherwise they will not be considered for admission. Some of the important eligibility parameters that candidates are most concerned about are related to academic qualification, age limit, and nationality. Find the answers to these doubts below.

Academic Qualification:

While there is no minimum pass percentage that has been recommended for appearing in GATE 2019 exam, candidates must, however, meet eligibility criteria related to the qualifying exam which has been explained in the table below.

GATE Eligibility Criteria 2019 – Qualifying Exam                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Qualifying      Degree       Qualifying  Degree / ExaminationDescription         Year of

Qualification not later than 

B.E./         B.Tech./ B.Pharm.        

Candidate must be a Bachelor in Engineering/Technology (4 years after 10+2 or 3 years after B.Sc./ Diploma in Engineering / Technology)        Qualified or is in final year        2019        
B.Arch.        Candidate must have completed Bachelor of Architecture (5 years course) Qualified or is in final year        2019        

(Research)/       B.S.

Candidate need to have completed Bachelor of Science degree (Post-Diploma/ 4 years after 10+2)        Qualified or is in final year        2019        
Pharm.D.           (after 10+2)        Candidate must have completed 6 years programme having internship or             residency training during sixth year as part of it        Qualified or is in 4th            /5th or 6th year        2021        
M.Sc./ M.A./ MCA or           


Candidates need to have Masters in Science, Mathematics, Statistics, Computer Applications, or   equivalent        Qualified or is in final year        2019        
Int. M.E./           M.Tech.           


Candidates should have done Post-BSc Integrated Master’s degree in Engineering or Technology (4 years programme)        Qualified or is currently in 2nd/3rd /4th  year        2021        
Int. M.E./           

M.Tech.             or Dual Degree (after Diploma    or 10+2)        

Candidates should have completed Integrated Master’s degree programme or Dual Degree in Engineering or Technology (5 years             programme)        Qualified or is currently in    4th / 5th year        2020        
Int. M.Sc./         Int. B.S.-M.S.        Candidates applying must have completed Integrated M.Sc. or 5 years             integrated B.S.-M.S. program        Qualified or is in final year        2019        
Professional     Society Examinations* (equivalent to B.E/ B.Tech/ B.Arch.)        Candidates need to have completed B.E./ B.Tech./ B.Arch. Equivalent             examinations of Professional Societies, recognized by             MHRD/UPSC/AICTE (e.g., AMIE by Institution of professional courses  Engineers-India, AMICE by the Institute of Civil Engineers-India)        Completed Section A        or equivalent professional course        NA        

*Candidates who possess certification from any of the professional societies must ensure that those examinations conducted by the societies are approved by MHRD/ AICTE as equivalent to B.E./ B.Tech./ B.Arch.


  • Indian nationals are eligible to apply for the exam  
  • Additionally, candidates from Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Ethiopia and United Arab Emirates (U.A.E) can also apply.

Age limit: There is no age limit for appearing in the exam.

Admissions Open Now
Banasthali Vidyapith
SRM Institute of Science and Technology M.Tech Admissions

Mode of Application : Online

Mode of Payment : Net Banking | Credit Card | Debit Card

Application Fees

Category Quota Mode Gender Amount
OBC, ST, General, SC PWD Online Female, Male, Transgender ₹ 750
OBC, General Online Male, Transgender ₹ 1500
ST, SC Online Male, Transgender ₹ 750
OBC, ST, General, SC Online Female ₹ 750

The application form of GATE 2019 was available in online mode from August 31, 2018, and had to be filled through the GATE Online Application Processing System (GOAPS); last date to submit completed applications without late fee was September 23, 2018. However, candidates were able to submit applications even after the last date – till October 1, 2018, but for that, they had to pay a late fee of Rs. 500. Registered candidates were able to submit the filled application form till October 3, 2018. Candidates could also access the facility to correct and edit their submitted application form. 

The application filling process of GATE 2019 includes steps like registration, filling of essential information like contact, academic and personal details, uploading of photograph, and payment of application fee. When filling the GATE 2019 application form, only genuine and verifiable information should be used. 

Steps to fill GATE 2019 application form

  • Registration: To start the application process, the candidate had to first get registered on the GOAPS portal using details like name, valid email id and mobile number. The candidate also had to choose a password for future log-in. Upon successful registration, an enrolment number was generated.
  • Filling the form: The application form had sections like – personal, academic and contact details, each of which had to be filled. The candidate had to enter the GATE paper they were appearing in and select two GATE exam centres from their zone and one from another zone.
  • Uploading of photograph: Scanned images of photograph, signature and category certificate (if admission is sought under a particular category) should have been uploaded in the prescribed format.
  • Application fee payment: The application fee varied depending on the gender and category of the candidate. For example, the application fee for general male candidates was Rs. 1500, while female candidates needed to pay only Rs. 750. The application fee could be paid in online mode only via net banking, credit or debit cards.

GATE Aerospace Engineering

Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra Vector Algebra
Matrix algebra
systems of linear equations
rank of a matrix
Eigen values and eigen vectors
Calculus Functions of single variable
Continuity and Differentiability
mean value theorem
Chain rule
Partial derivatives
Maxima and Minima
Divergence and curl
directional derivatives
Surface and volume integrals
Theorems of Stokes
Gauss and Green
Differential Equations First order linear and nonlinear differential equations
Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients
Partial differential equations and separation of variables methods
Special Topics Fourier series
Laplace transforms
Numerical methods for linear and nonlinear algebraic equations
Numerical integration and differentiation
Flight mechanics
Atmosphere Properties
standard atmosphere
Classification of aircraft
Airplane (fixed wing aircraft) configuration and various parts
Airplane performance Pressure altitude
indicated air speeds
Primary flight instruments
Turn-bank indicator
Drag polar
takeoff and landing
steady climb & descent
absolute and service ceiling
cruise climb
endurance or loiter
load factor
turning flight
V-n diagram
tail & cross winds
Static stability Angle of attack
pitch & yaw controls
longitudinal stick fixed & free stability
horizontal tail position and size
directional stability
vertical tail position and size
dihedral stability
Wing dihedral
sweep & position
hinge moments
stick forces
Dynamic stability Euler angles
Equations of motion
aerodynamic forces and moments
stability & control derivatives
decoupling of longitudinal and lateral-directional dynamics
longitudinal modes
lateral-directional modes
Space Dynamics
Core Topics Core Topics
determination of trajectory and orbital period in simple cases
Special Topics Orbit transfer
in-plane and out-of-plane
Basic Fluid Mechanics Conservation laws
momentum (Integral and differential form)
Potential flow theory sources
line vortex and their superposition
Reynolds number
Airfoils and wings Airfoil nomenclature
Aerodynamic coefficients
drag and moment
Kutta-Joukoswki theorem
Thin airfoil theory
Kutta condition
starting vortex
Finite wing theory
Induced drag
Prandtl lifting line theory
Critical and drag divergence Mach number
Compressible Flows Basic concepts of compressibility
Conservation equations
One dimensional compressible flows
Fanno flow
Rayleigh flow
Isentropic flows
normal and oblique shocks
Prandtl-Meyer flow
Flow through nozzles and diffusers
Special Topics Elementary ideas of viscous flows including boundary layers
Wind Tunnel Testing
Measurement and visualization techniques
Strength of Materials States of stress and strain
Stress and strain transformation
Mohr's Circle
Principal stresses
Three-dimensional Hooke's law
Plane stress and strain
Failure theories
Maximum stress
Tresca and von Mises
Strain energy
Castigliano's principles
Analysis of statically determinate and indeterminate trusses and beams
Elastic flexural buckling of columns
Flight vehicle structures Characteristics of aircraft structures and materials
bending and flexural shear of thin-walled sections
Loads on aircraft
Structural Dynamics Free and forced vibrations of undamped and damped SDOF systems
Free vibrations of undamped 2-DOF systems
Special Topics Vibration of beams
Theory of elasticity
Equilibrium and compatibility equations
Airy’s stress function
Basics Thermodynamics
boundary layers and heat transfer and combustion thermochemistry
Thermodynamics of aircraft engines Thrust
efficiency and engine performance of turbojet
turbo shaft
turbofan and ramjet engines
thrust augmentation of turbojets and turbofan engines
Aerothermodynamics of non-rotating propulsion components such as intakes
combustor and nozzle
Axial compressors Angular Momentum
work and compression
characteristic performance of a single axial compressor stage
efficiency of the compressor and degree of reaction
Axial turbines Axial turbine stage efficiency
Centrifugal compressor Centrifugal compressor stage dynamics
impeller and diffuser
Rocket propulsion Thrust equation and specific impulse
vehicle acceleration
gravity losses
multi-staging of rockets
Classification of chemical rockets
performance of solid and liquid propellant rockets

GATE Agricultural Engineering

Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra Matrices and determinants
systems of linear equations
Eigen values and eigen vectors
Calculus Limit
Continuity and Differentiability
Partial derivatives
Maxima and Minima
Matrices and determinants
Sequences and series
Tests for convergence
Fourier series
Taylor series
Vector Calculus Gradient
Divergence and curl
Surface and volume integrals
Gauss and Green’s theorems
Differential Equations Linear and non-linear first order Ordinary Differential Equations
Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients
Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations
Laplace transforms
Partial Differential Equations - Laplace
heat and wave equations
Probability and Statistics Mean
Mode and standard deviation
Random variables
Normal and binomial distributions
Correlation and regression analysis
Tests of significance
Analysis of variance
Numerical methods Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations
Numerical integration - trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule
Numerical solutions of ODE
Farm Machinery
Machine Design Design and selection of machine elements
chains and sprockets and belts
Overload safety devices used in farm machinery
Measurement of force
Displacement and acceleration on machine elements
Farm Machinery Soil tillage
Forces acting on a tillage tool
Hitch systems and hitching of tillage implements
Functional requirements
Principles of working
Construction and operation of manual
Animal and power operated equipment for tillage
Fertilizer application
Chaff cutting
Threshing and transport
Testing of agricultural machinery and equipment
calculation of performance parameters in field capacity
application rate and losses
cost analysis of implements and tractors
Farm Power
Sources of Power Sources of power on the farm in human
Solar and biomass
Farm Power Thermodynamic principles of I.C. engines
I.C. engine cycles
Engine components
Fuels and combustion
Lubricants and their properties
I.C. engine systems fuel
I.C. engine systems cooling
I.C. engine systems lubrication
I.C. engine systems ignition
Electrical I.C. engine systems
Intake and exhaust I.C. engine systems
Maintenance and repair of I.C. engines
Power efficiencies and measurement
Calculation of power
Fuel consumption
Heat load and power losses
Tractors and power tillers Type
Maintenance and repair of tractors and power tillers
Tractor clutches and brakes
Power transmission systems and gear trains
power transmission systems and differential
Final drives and power take-off transmission system
Mechanics of tractor chassis
Traction theory
Three point hitches- free link and restrained link operations
Mechanical steering and hydraulic control systems used in tractors
Tractor tests and performance
Human engineering and safety in design of tractor and agricultural implements
Soil and Water Conservation Engineering
Fluid Mechanics Ideal and real fluids, properties of fluids
Hydrostatic pressure and its measurement
Hydrostatic forces on plane and curved surface
Continuity equation
Bernoulli’s theorem
laminar and turbulent flow in pipes
Darcy- Weisbach and Hazen-Williams equations
Moody’s diagram
Flow through orifices and notches
Flow in open channels
Soil mechanics Engineering properties of soils
Fundamental definitions and relationships
Index properties of soils
Permeability and seepage analysis
Shear strength
Mohr’s circle of stress
Active and passive earth pressures
stability of slopes
Hydrology Hydrological cycle and components
Meteorological parameters
Their measurement and analysis of precipitation data
Runoff estimation
Hydrograph analysis
Unit hydrograph theory and application
Stream flow measurement
Flood routing
Hydrological reservoir and channel routing
Surveying and levelling Measurement of distance and area
Instruments for surveying and levelling
Chain surveying
Methods of traversing
Measurement of angles and bearings
Plane table surveying
Types of levelling
Theodolite traversing
Computation of areas and volume
Soil and Water Erosion Mechanics of soil erosion
Soil erosion types
Wind and water erosion
Factors affecting erosion
Soil loss estimation
Biological and engineering measures to control erosion
Terraces and bunds
Vegetative waterways
Gully control structures
Drop inlet and chute spillways
Earthen dams
Watershed Management Watershed characterization
Land use capability classification
Rainwater harvesting structures
Check dams and farm ponds
Irrigation and Drainage Engineering
Soil-Water-Plant Relationship Water requirement of crops
Consumptive use and evapotranspiration
Measurement of infiltration
Soil moisture and irrigation water infiltration
Irrigation Water Conveyance and Application Methods Design of irrigation channels and underground pipelines
Irrigation scheduling
Sprinkler and micro irrigation methods
Design and evaluation of irrigation methods
Irrigation efficiencies
Agricultural Drainage Drainage coefficient
Design and layout of surface and sub-surface drainage systems
Leaching requirement and salinity control
Irrigation and drainage water quality and reuse
Groundwater Hydrology Groundwater occurrence
Darcy’s Law
Steady flow in confined and unconfined aquifers
Evaluation of aquifer properties
Groundwater recharge
Wells and Pumps Types of wells
Steady flow through wells
Classification of pumps
Pump characteristics
Pump selection and installation
Agricultural Processing Engineering
Drying Psychrometry – properties of air-vapours mixture
Concentration and drying of liquid foods – evaporators
Concentration and drying of liquid foods – tray
Concentration and drying of liquid foods – drum and spray dryers
Hydrothermal treatment
Drying and milling of cereals
Pulses and oilseeds
Size Reduction and Conveying Mechanics and energy requirement in size reduction of granular solids
Particle size analysis for comminuted solids
Size separation by screening
Fluidization of granular solids and pneumatic
Fluidization of granular solids and bucket
Fluidization of granular solids and screw and belt conveying
Cleaning and grading
Effectiveness of grain cleaners
Centrifugal separation of solids
Liquids and gases
Processing and By-product Utilization Processing of seeds
Fruits and vegetables
By-product utilization from processing industries
Storage Systems Controlled and modified atmosphere storage
Perishable food storage
Bins and grain silos
Dairy and Food Engineering
Heat and Mass Transfer Steady state heat transfer in conduction
Convection and radiation
Transient heat transfer in simple geometry
Working principles of heat exchangers
Diffusive and convective mass transfer
Simultaneous heat and mass transfer in agricultural processing operations
Material and energy balances in food processing systems
Water activity
Sorption and desorption isotherms
Preservation of Food Kinetics of microbial death – pasteurization and sterilization of milk and other liquid foods
Preservation of food by cooling and freezing
Refrigeration and cold storage basics and applications

GATE Architecture and Planning

Architecture and Design
Visual composition in 2D and 3D 0
Principles of Art and Architecture 0
Organization of space 0
Architectural Graphics 0
Concepts of CAD Computer Graphics 0
BIM Computer Graphics 0
3D modeling and Architectural rendition 0
Programming languages and automation 0
Anthropometrics 0
Planning and design considerations for different building types 0
Site planning 0
Horizontal and vertical Circulation 0
Barrier free design 0
Building Codes 0
National Building Code 0
Elements 0
Construction 0
Architectural styles and examples of different periods of Indian and Western History of Architecture 0
Oriental 0
Vernacular and Traditional architecture 0
Architectural developments since Industrial Revolution 0
Influence of modern art on architecture 0
Art nouveau 0
Eclecticism 0
International styles 0
Post Modernism 0
Deconstruction in architecture 0
Works of renowned national and international architects 0
Building Materials, Construction and Management
Behavioural characteristics and applications of different building materials 0
Mud 0
Timber 0
Bamboo 0
Brick 0
Concrete 0
Steel 0
Glass 0
Different polymers 0
Composites 0
Building construction techniques 0
Methods and details 0
Building systems and prefabrication of building elements 0
Principles of Modular Coordination 0
Estimation 0
Specification 0
Valuation 0
Professional practice 0
Construction planning and equipments 0
Project management techniques e.g. PERT 0
CPM etc 0
Building and Structures
Principles of strength of materials 0
Design of structural elements in wood 0
Steel and RCC 0
Elastic and Limit State design 0
Structural systems in RCC and Steel 0
Form and Structure 0
Principles of Pre-stressing 0
High Rise and Long Span structures 0
Gravity and lateral load resisting systems 0
Principles and design of disaster resistant structures 0
Environmental Planning and Design
Ecosystem- natural and man-made ecosystem 0
Ecological principles 0
Concepts of Environmental Impact Analysis 0
Environmental considerations in planning and design 0
Thermal comfort 0
Ventilation and air movement 0
Principles of lighting and illumination 0
Climate responsive design 0
Solar architecture 0
Principles of architectural acoustics 0
Concepts and Rating Green Building 0
Building Performance Simulation and Evaluation 0
Environmental pollution types 0
Environmental pollution causes 0
Controls and abatement strategies 0
Urban Design
Concepts and theories of urban design 0
Public Perception 0
Townscape 0
Public Realm 0
Urban design interventions for sustainable development and transportation 0
Historical and modern examples of urban design 0
Public spaces 0
Character 0
Spatial qualities and Sense of Place 0
Urban form Elements of urban built environment 0
Elements of urban built environment spaces 0
Elements of urban built environment structure 0
Elements of urban built environment pattern 0
Fabric and Elements of urban built environment 0
Elements of urban built environment texture 0
Elements of urban built environment grain 0
Principles 0
Tools and techniques of urban design 0
Urban renewal and conservation 0
Site planning 0
Landscape design 0
Development controls and FAR 0
Development controls densities and building byelaws 0
Urban Planning and Housing
Planning process 0
Master Plan 0
City Development Plan 0
Structure Plan 0
Zonal Plan 0
Action Area Plan 0
Town Planning Scheme 0
Regional Plan 0
Salient concepts 0
Theories and principles of urban planning 0
Sustainable urban development 0
Emerging concepts of cities 0
Eco-City 0
Smart City 0
Transit Oriented Development (TOD) 0
Housing 0
Concepts 0
principles and examples of neighbourhood 0
Housing typologies 0
Slums 0
Affordable Housing 0
Housing for special areas and needs 0
Residential densities 0
Standards for housing and community facilities 0
National Housing Policies 0
Programs and Schemes 0
Planning Techniques and Management
Physical Tools and techniques of Surveys 0
Topographical Tools and techniques of Surveys 0
Land use and socio economic surveys 0
Methods of non-spatial and spatial data analysis 0
Graphic presentation of spatial data 0
Application of G.I.S and Remote Sensing techniques in urban and regional planning 0
Decision support system and Land Information System 0
Urban Economics 0
Law of demand and supply of land and its use in planning 0
Social 0
Economical and environmental cost benefit analysis 0
Techniques of financial appraisal 0
Management of Infrastructure Projects 0
Development guidelines such as URDPFI 0
Planning, Legislation and implementation 0
Land Acquisition Act 0
PPP Planning Legislation and implementation 0
Local self-governance 0
Services, Infrastructure and Transportation
Building Services 0
Water supply 0
Sewerage and drainage systems 0
Sanitary fittings and fixtures 0
Plumbing systems 0
Principles of internal and external drainage system 0
Principles of electrification of buildings 0
Intelligent Buildings 0
Elevators and Escalators and standards and uses 0
Air-Conditioning systems 0
Firefighting Systems 0
Building Safety and Security systems 0
Urban Infrastructure and Transport 0
Urban Infrastructure and Water Supply 0
Urban Infrastructure and Sewerage 0
Urban Infrastructure and Drainage 0
Urban infrastructure and solid waste management 0
Urban Infrastructure and Electricity and Communications 0
Process and Principles of Transportation Planning and Traffic Engineering 0
Road capacity 0
Traffic survey methods 0
Traffic flow characteristics 0
Traffic analyses and design considerations 0
Travel demand forecasting 0
Land-use and transportation and urban form inter-relationships 0
Design of roads 0
Intersections 0
Grade separators and parking areas 0
Hierarchy of roads and level of service 0
Traffic and transport management and control in urban areas 0
Mass transportation planning 0
Para transits and other modes of transportation 0
Para pedestrian and slow moving traffic planning 0
Intelligent Transportation Systems 0
Principles of water supply and sanitation systems 0
Water treatment 0
Water supply and distribution system 0
Water harvesting systems 0
Principles 0
Planning and Design of storm water drainage system 0
Sewage disposal methods 0
Methods of solid waste management and collection 0
Methods of solid waste management and transportation and disposal 0
Recycling and Reuse of solid waste 0
Power Supply and Communication Systems 0
Network 0
Design and guidelines 0

GATE Biotechnology

Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra Matrices and determinants
systems of linear equations
Linear algebra and eigen values and eigen vectors
Calculus Limit calculus
Calculus continuity and differentiability
Partial derivatives and calculus
Maxima and minima calculus
Calculus sequences and series
Calculus test for convergence
Calculus fourier series
Differential Equations Differential equations for linear and nonlinear first order odes
Differential equations higher order odes with constant coefficients
Differential equations cauchy’s and euler’s equations
Differential equations and laplace transforms
Differential equations and PDE Laplace
Differential equations heat and wave equations
Probability and Statistics Mean probability and statistics
Median probability and statistics
Probability and statistics mode and standard deviation
Random variables for probability and statistics
Poisson probability and statistics
Probability and statistics normal and binomial distributions
Probability and statistics correlation and regression analysis
Numerical methods Numerical methods solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations
Numerical methods integration of trapezoidal and simpson’s rule
Numerical methods single and multistep methods for differential equations
General biotechnology
Biochemistry Biomolecules-structure and functions
Biological membranes
Action potential and transport processes
Classification and enzymes
Kinetics and mechanism of action and enzymes
Basic concepts and designs of metabolism in carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleic acids
Respiration and electron transport chain
Microbiology Structure and classification viruses
Microbial classification and diversity in bacterial, algal and fungal
Methods in microbiology
Microbial growth and nutrition
Aerobic and anaerobic respiration
Nitrogen fixation
Microbial diseases and host and pathogen interaction
Cell biology Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure
Cell cycle and cell growth control
Cell communication
Cell signalling and signal transduction
Molecular biology and Genetics Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes
Mutations and mutagenesis
Nucleic acid replication
Translation and their regulatory mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Mendelian Inheritance
Gene interaction
Recombination and chromosome mapping
Extra chromosomal inheritance
Plasmids of microbial genetics
Transformation of microbial genetics
Transduction of microbial genetics
Conjugation of microbial genetics
Horizontal gene transfer and transposable elements
Rna interference
Dna damage and repair
Chromosomal variation
Molecular basis of genetic diseases
Analytical techniques Principles of microscopy-light
Principles of microscopy electron
Principles of microscopy fluorescent and confocal
Centrifugation- high speed and ultra
Uv principles of spectroscopy
Principles of spectroscopy visible
Principles of cd
Principles of ir
Principles of ftir
Principles of raman
Principles of ms
Principles of nmr
Principles of chromatography
Principles of gel filtration
Principles of hydrophobic interaction
Principles of affinity
Principles of gc
Principles of hplc
Principles of fplc
Immunology History of immunology
Innate, humoral and cell mediated immunity
Antibody structure and function
Molecular basis of antibody diversity
Synthesis of antibody and secretion
Antigen, antibody reaction
Primary and secondary lymphoid organ
B and T cells and Macrophages
Major histocompatibility complex
Antigen processing and presentation
Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody
Regulation of immune response
Immune tolerance
Graft versus host reaction
Bioinformatics Major bioinformatic resources and search tools
Sequence and structure databases
Sequence analysis of biomolecular sequence file formats
Sequence analysis of scoring matrices
Sequence analysis of alignment
Sequence analysis of phylogeny
Data mining and analytical tools for genomic and proteomic studies
Molecular dynamics and simulations
Molecular dynamics of basic concepts including force fields
Molecular dynamics and protein
Molecular dynamics and protein-nucleic acid
Molecular dynamics and protein-ligand interaction
Recombinant DNA technology Restriction and modification enzymes
Bacteriophage and other viral vectors
Ti plasmid
Yeast artificial chromosome
Mammalian and plant expression vectors
cDNA and genomic DNA library
Gene isolation
Cloning and expression
Transposons and gene targeting
DNA labelling
DNA Sequencing
Polymerase chain reactions
DNA fingerprinting
Southern and northern blotting
In-situ hybridization
Site-Directed Mutagenesis
Gene transfer technologies
Gene Therapy
Plant and Animal Biotechnology Totipotency
Regeneration of plants
Plant growth regulators and elicitors
Tissue culture and cell suspension culture system
Tissue culture and methodology
Tissue culture and kinetics of growth
Tissue culture and nutrient optimization
Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures
Hairy root culture
Transgenic plants
Plant products of industrial importance
Animal cell culture
Media composition and growth conditions
Animal cell and tissue preservation
Anchorage and non-anchorage dependent cell culture
Kinetics of cell growth
Micro and macro-carrier culture
Hybridoma technology
Stem Cell Technology
Animal cloning
Transgenic Animals
Bioprocess engineering and process biotechnology Chemical engineering principles applied to biological system
Principle of reactor design
Ideal and non-ideal multiphase bioreactors
Mass and heat transfer
Rheology of fermentation fluids
Aeration and agitation
Media formulation and optimization
Kinetics of microbial growth
Substrate utilization and product formation
Sterilization of air and media
Fed-batch and continuous processes
Various types of microbial and enzyme reactors
Instrumentation control and optimization
Unit operations in solid-liquid separation and liquid-liquid extraction
Process scale-up
Economics and feasibility analysis
Engineering principle of bioprocessing- upstream production and downstream
Bioprocess design and development from lab to industrial scale
Microbial, animal and plant cell culture platforms
Production of biomass and primary/secondary metabolites
Industrial enzymes
Large scale production and purification of recombinant proteins
Industrial application of chromatographic and membrane based bioseparation methods
Immobilization of biocatalysts for bioconversion processes
Bioremediation-aerobic and anaerobic processes for stabilization of solid / liquid wastes

GATE Civil Engineering

Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra Matrix algebra
systems of linear equations
Eigen values and eigen vectors
Calculus Functions of single variable
Continuity and Differentiability
Mean value theorems
Local maxima and minima
Taylor and maclaurin series
Evaluation of definite and indefinite integrals
Application of definite integral to obtain area and volume
Partial derivatives
Total derivative
Divergence and curl
Vector identities
directional derivatives
Surface and volume integrals
Gauss and Green’s theorems
Ordinary differential equation (ode) First order linear and non-linear equations
Higher order linear equations with constant coefficients
Euler-cauchy equations
Laplace transform and its application in solving linear odes
Initial and boundary value problems
Partial differential equation (pde) Fourier series
Separation of variables
Solutions of one dimensional diffusion equation
First and second order one-dimensional wave equation and two-dimensional laplace equation
Probability and Statistics Definitions of probability and sampling theorems
Conditional probability
Discrete random variables
Poisson and binomial distributions
Continuous random variables
Normal and exponential distributions
Descriptive statistics of mean
Descriptive statistics of median
Descriptive statistics of mode and standard deviation
Hypothesis testing
Numerical methods Accuracy and Precision
Error analysis
Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations
Least square approximation
Newton’s and lagrange polynomials
Numerical differentiation
Integration by trapezoidal and simpson’s rule
Single and multi-step methods for first order differential equations
Structural engineering
Engineering Mechanics System of forces
Free-body diagrams
Equilibrium equations
Internal forces in structures
Friction and its applications
Kinematics of point mass and rigid body
Centre of mass
Euler’s equations of motion
Energy methods
Principles of virtual work
Solid mechanics Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams
Simple stress and strain relationships
Theories of failures
Simple bending theory
Flexural and shear stresses
Shear centre
Uniform torsion
Buckling of column
Combined and direct bending stresses
Structural analysis Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods
Method of superposition
Analysis of trusses
Cables and frames
Displacement methods
Slope deflection and moment distribution methods
Influence lines
Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis
Construction materials and management Construction materials
Structural steel - composition
Material properties and behaviour
Concrete and constituents
Concrete and mix design
Concrete of short-term and long-term properties
Bricks and mortar
Construction management
Types of construction projects
Tendering and construction contracts
Rate analysis and standard specifications
Cost estimation
Project planning and network analysis - pert and cpm
Concrete structures Working stress
Limit state and ultimate load design concepts
Design of beams
Bond and development length
Prestressed concrete
Analysis of beam sections at transfer and service loads
Steel structures Working stress and limit state design concepts
Design of tension and compression members
Beams and beam of columns
Beams and beam of column bases
Connections of simple and eccentric
Connections of beam and column
Connections of plate girders and trusses
Plastic analysis of beams and frames
Geotechnical engineering
Soil mechanics Origin of soils
Soil structure and fabric
Three-phase system and phase relationships
Three index properties
Unified and indian standard soil classification system
Permeability - one dimensional flow
Permeability of darcy’s law
Seepage through soils - two-dimensional flow
Seepage through soils and flow nets
Seepage through soils and uplift pressure
Seepage through soils and piping
Principle of effective stress
Seepage force and quicksand condition
Compaction in laboratory and field conditions
One dimensional consolidation
One time rate of consolidation
Mohr’s circle
Stress paths
Effective and total shear strength parameters
Characteristics of clays and sand
Foundation engineering Sub-surface investigations - scope
Sub-surface investigations and drilling bore holes
Sub-surface investigations and sampling
Sub-surface investigations and plate load test
Standard penetration and cone penetration tests
Earth pressure theories - rankine and coulomb
Stability of slopes - finite and infinite slopes
Stability of slopes and method of slices and bishop’s method
Stress distribution in soils of boussinesq’s and westergaard’s theories
Stress distribution in soils and pressure bulbs
Shallow foundations of Terzaghi’s and Meyerhoff’s bearing capacity theories
Shallow foundations and effect of water table
Combined footing and raft foundation
Contact pressure
Settlement analysis in sands and clays
Deep foundations and types of piles
Deep foundations of dynamic and static formulae
Deep foundations and load capacity of piles in sands and clays
Deep foundations and pile load test
Deep foundations and negative skin friction
Water resources engineering
Fluid Mechanics Properties of fluids
Fluid statics
Energy and corresponding equations
Potential flow
Applications of momentum and energy equations
Laminar and turbulent flow
Flow in pipes
Pipe networks
Concept of boundary layer and its growth
Hydraulics Forces on immersed bodies
Flow measurement in channels and pipes
Dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude
Kinematics of flow
Velocity triangles
Basics of hydraulic machines
Specific speed of pumps and turbines
Channel hydraulics - energy-depth relationships
Hydraulics and specific energy
Hydraulics of critical flow
Hydraulics and slope profile
Hydraulic jump
Hydraulic uniform flow and gradually varied flow
Hydrology Hydrologic cycle
Unit hydrographs
Hydrograph analysis
Flood estimation and routing
Reservoir capacity
Reservoir and channel routing
Surface run-off models
Ground water hydrology - steady state well hydraulics and aquifers
Application of darcy’s law
Irrigation Duty
Estimation of evapotranspiration
Crop water requirements
Design of lined and unlined canals
Head works
Gravity dams and spillways
Design of weirs on permeable foundation
Types of irrigation systems
Irrigation methods
Water logging and drainage
Canal regulatory works
Cross-drainage structures
Outlets and escapes
Environmental engineering
Water and waste water Quality standards
Basic unit processes and operations for water treatment
Drinking water standards
Water requirements
Basic unit operations and unit processes for surface water treatment
Distribution of water
Sewage and sewerage treatment
Quantity and characteristics of waste water
Primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of waste water
Effluent discharge standards
Domestic waste water treatment
Quantity of characteristics of domestic waste water
Primary and secondary treatment
Unit operations and unit processes of domestic waste water
Sludge disposal
Air pollution Types of pollutants
Their sources and impacts
Air pollution meteorology
Air pollution control
Air quality standards and limits
Municipal solid wastes Characteristics
Collection and transportation of solid wastes
Engineered systems for solid waste management reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal
Noise pollution Impacts of noise
Permissible limits of noise pollution
Measurement of noise and control of noise pollution
Transportation engineering
Transportation infrastructure Highway alignment and engineering surveys
Geometric design of highways - cross-sectional elements
Geometric design of highways and sight distances
Geometric design of highways and horizontal and vertical alignments
Geometric design of railway track
Airport runway length
Taxiway and exit taxiway design
Highway pavements Highway materials - desirable properties and quality control tests
Design of bituminous paving mixes
Design factors for flexible and rigid pavements
Design of flexible pavement using irc: 37-2012
Design of rigid pavements using irc: 58-2011
Distresses in concrete pavements
Traffic engineering Traffic studies on flow
Traffic studies on speed
Traffic studies on travel time - delay and study
Peak hour factor
Parking study
Accident study and analysis
Statistical analysis of traffic data
Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of traffic flow
Fundamental relationships
Control devices
Signal design by webster’s method
Types of intersections and channelization
Highway capacity and level of service of rural highways and urban roads
Geomatics engineering
Principles of surveying Errors and their adjustment
Maps - scale
Coordinate system
Distance and angle measurement - levelling and trigonometric levelling
Traversing and triangulation survey
Total station
Horizontal and vertical curves
Photogrammetry Photogrammetry - scale
Photogrammetry and flying height
Remote sensing - basics
Remote sensing of platform and sensors
Remote sensing and visual image interpretation
Gis aand gps Basics of geographical information system (gis) and geographical positioning system (gps)

GATE Chemical Engineering

Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra Matrix algebra
systems of linear equations
Eigen values and eigen vectors
Calculus Functions of single variable
Continuity and Differentiability
Taylor series
Mean value theorems
Evaluation of definite and improper integrals
Partial derivatives
Total derivative
Maxima and Minima
Divergence and curl
Vector identities
directional derivatives
Surface and volume integrals
Gauss and Green’s theorems
Differential Equations First order equations linear and nonlinear
Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients
Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations
Initial and boundary value problems
Laplace transforms
Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation
Complex variables Complex number
Polar form of complex number
Triangle inequality
Probability and Statistics Definitions of probability and sampling theorems
Conditional probability
Mode and standard deviation
Random variables
Normal and binomial distributions
Linear regression analysis
Numerical methods Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations
Integration by trapezoidal and simpson’s rule
Single and multi-step methods for numerical solution of differential equations
Chemical engineering
Process Calculations and Thermodynamics Steady and unsteady state mass and energy balances including multiphase
Reacting and non-reacting systems
Use of tie components
Bypass and purge calculations
Gibb’s phase rule and degree of freedom analysis
First and Second laws of thermodynamics
Applications of first law to close and open systems
Second law and entropy
Thermodynamic properties of pure substances
Equation of state and residual properties
Properties of mixtures
Partial molar properties
Excess Properties and Activity Coefficients
Phase equilibria
Predicting VLE of systems
Chemical reaction equilibrium
Fluid Mechanics and Mechanical Operations Fluid statics
Newtonian and non-newtonian fluids
Shell-balances including differential form of bernoulli equation and energy balance
Macroscopic friction factors
Dimensional analysis and similitude
Flow through pipeline systems
Flow meters
Pumps and compressors
Elementary boundary layer theory
Flow past immersed bodies including packed and fluidized beds
Turbulent flow
Fluctuating velocity
Universal velocity profile and pressure drop
Particle size and shape
Particle size distribution
Size reduction and classification of solid particles
Free and hindered settling
Centrifuge and cyclones
Thickening and classification
Agitation and mixing
Conveying of solids
Heat transfer Steady and unsteady heat conduction
Convection and radiation
Thermal boundary layer and heat transfer coefficients
Condensation and evaporation
Types of heat exchangers and evaporators and their process calculations
Design of double pipe
Shell and tube heat exchangers
Single and multiple effect evaporators
Mass transfer Fick’s laws
Molecular diffusion in fluids
Mass transfer coefficients
Penetration and surface renewal theories
Heat and mass transfer analogies
Stage-wise and continuous contacting and stage efficiencies
Htu & ntu concepts
Design and operation of equipment for distillation
Liquid-liquid extraction
Dehumidification and Adsorption
Chemical reaction engineering Theories of reaction rates
kinetics of homogeneous reactions
Interpretation of kinetic data
Single and multiple reactions in ideal reactors
Non-ideal reactors
Residence time distribution
Single parameter model
Non-isothermal reactors
kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions
Diffusion effects in catalysis
Instrumentation and process control Measurement of process variables
Transducers and their dynamics
Process modelling and linearization
Transfer functions and dynamic responses of various systems
Systems with inverse response
Process reaction curve
Controller modes (p, pi, and pid)
Control valves
Analysis of closed loop systems including stability
Frequency response
Controller tuning
Cascade and feed forward control
Plant design and economics Principles of process economics and cost estimation including depreciation and total annualized cost
Cost indices
Rate of return
Payback period
Discounted cash flow
Optimization in process design and sizing of chemical engineering equipment such as compressors
Heat exchangers
Multistage contactors
Chemical technology Inorganic chemical industries (sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, chloralkali industry)
Fertilizers (ammonia, urea, ssp and tsp)
Natural products industries (pulp and paper, sugar, oil, and fats)
Petroleum refining and petrochemicals
Polymerization industries (polyethylene, polypropylene, pvc and polyester synthetic fibers)

GATE Computer Science and Information Technology

Engineering mathematics
Discrete mathematics Propositional and first order logic
Partial orders and lattices
Connectivity graphs
Matching graphs
Colouring graphs
Combinatorics counting
Recurrence relations of combinatorics
Generating functions of combinatorics
Linear algebra Matrices
System of linear equations
Eigen values and eigen vectors
Lu decomposition
Calculus limits
Continuity and Differentiability
Maxima and Minima
mean value theorem
Probability Random variables
Poisson and binomial distributions
Mode and standard deviation
Conditional probability and bayes theorem
Computer science and information technology
Digital logic Boolean Algebra
Combinational and sequential circuits
Number representations and computer arithmetic of fixed and floating point
Computer organization and architecture Machine instructions and addressing modes
Data‐path and control unit
Instruction pipelining
Memory hierarchy
Main memory and secondary storage
I/o interface in interrupt and dma mode
Programming and data structures Programming in c, recursion
Linked Lists
Binary search trees
Binary heaps
Algorithms Searching
Asymptotic worst case time and space complexity
Algorithm design techniques and greedy
Dynamic programming and divide and conquer
Graph search
Minimum spanning trees
Shortest paths
Theory of computation Regular expressions and finite automata
Context-free grammar and push-down automata
Regular and context-free languages
Pumping lemma
Turing machines and undecidability
Compiler design Lexical analysis
Syntax-directed translation
Runtime environments
Intermediate code generation
Operating system Processes
Inter‐process communication
Concurrency and synchronization
CPU scheduling
Memory management and virtual memory
File systems
Databases Er‐model
Relational mode of algebra
Relational model and tuple calculus
Relational model and sql
Relational model and integrity constraints
Relational model and normal forms
File organization
Indexing of b and b+ trees
Transactions and concurrency control
Computer networks Concept of layering
Lan technologies in ethernet
Flow and error control techniques
Routers and routing algorithms in distance vector, link state
TCP/UDP and sockets
Congestion control
Application layer protocols in dns, smtp, pop, ftp, http
Basics of wi-fi
Network security and authentication
Network security for basics of public key and private key cryptography
Network security of digital signatures and certificates
Network security and firewalls

GATE Chemistry

Physical chemistry
Structure Postulates of quantum mechanics
Time dependent and time independent schrödinger equations
Born interpretation
Particle in a box
Harmonic oscillator
Rigid rotor
Hydrogen atom
Atomic orbitals
Multi-electron atoms
Orbital approximation
Variation and first order perturbation techniques
Chemical bonding
Valence bond theory and lcao-mo theory
Hybrid orbitals
Applications of LCAO-MO theory to h2+, h2 and other homonuclear diatomic molecules
Heteronuclear diatomic molecules like hf, co, no, and to simple delocalized π– electron systems
Huckel approximation and its application to annular π – electron systems
Symmetry elements and operations
Point groups and character tables
Origin of selection rules for rotational
Electronic and raman spectroscopy of diatomic and polyatomic molecules
Einstein coefficients
Relationship of transition moment integral with molar extinction coefficient and oscillator strength
Basic principles of nuclear magnetic resonance: nuclear g factor
Chemical shift
Nuclear coupling
Equilibrium Laws of thermodynamics
Standard states
Thermodynamic functions and their relationships and gibbs-helmholtz and maxwell
Thermodynamic functions and their relationships and Van’t hoff equation
Criteria of spontaneity and equilibrium
Absolute entropy
Partial molar quantities
Thermodynamics of mixing
Chemical Potential
Activity and activity coefficients
Chemical equilibria
Dependence of equilibrium constant on temperature and pressure
Non-ideal solutions
Ionic mobility and conductivity
Debye-huckel limiting law
Debye Huckel Onsager equation
Potentiometric and conductometric titrations
Phase rule
Clausiusclapeyron equation
Phase diagram of one component systems co2, h2o, s
Two component systems liquid-vapour
Two component systems are liquid-liquid and solid-liquid systems
Fractional distillation
Azeotropes and eutectics
Statistical thermodynamics
Microcanonical and canonical ensembles
Boltzmann distribution
Partition functions and thermodynamic properties
Kinetics Transition state theory of eyring equation
Transition state theory of thermodynamic aspects
Potential energy surfaces and classical trajectories
Opposing and consecutive reactions
Steady state approximation
Mechanisms of complex reactions
Unimolecular reactions
Kinetics of polymerization and enzyme catalysis
Fast reaction kinetics of relaxation and flow methods
Kinetics of photochemical and photophysical processes
Surfaces and interfaces Physisorption and Chemisorption
Freundlich and bet isotherms
Surface catalysis and langmuir-hinshelwood mechanism
Surface Tension
Physical chemistry of colloids
Micelles and macromolecules
Inorganic chemistry
Main group elements Hydrides
Sulfides – shapes and reactivity
Structure and bonding of boranes
Boron nitride
Borazines and phosphazenes
Allotropes of carbon
Chemistry of noble gases
Interhalogen compounds
Acid-base concepts
Transition elements Coordination chemistry – structure and isomerism
Theories of bonding in vbt, cft, and mot
Energy level diagrams in various crystal fields
Applications of cft
Jahn-teller distortion
Electronic spectra of transition metal complexes and spectroscopic term symbols
Electronic spectra of transition metal complexes and selection rules
Electronic spectra of transition metal complexes and orgel diagrams
Electronic spectra of transition metal complexes and charge-transfer spectra
Magnetic properties of transition metal complexes
Reaction mechanisms and kinetic and thermodynamic stability
Reaction mechanisms of substitution and redox reactions
Lanthanides and actinides Recovery
Periodic properties
Spectra and magnetic properties
Organometallics 18-electron rule and metal-alky
18-electron rule and metal-carbonyl
18-electron rule and metal-olefin and metalcarbene complexes and metallocenes
Fluxionality in organometallic complexes
Types of organometallic reactions
Homogeneous catalysis and hydrogenation
Homogeneous catalysis and hydroformylation
Homogeneous catalysis and acetic acid synthesis
Homogeneous catalysis of metathesis and olefin oxidation
Heterogeneous catalysis
Tropsch reaction
Natta polymerization
Radioactivity Decay processes
Half-life of radioactive elements
Fission and fusion processes
Bioinorganic chemistry Ion na+ and k+ transport
Oxygen binding
Transport and utilization
Electron transfer reactions
Nitrogen fixation
Metalloenzymes containing magnesium
Copper and zinc
Solids Crystal systems and lattices
Miller planes
Crystal packing
Crystal defects
Bragg’s law
Ionic crystals
Structures of ax, ax2, abx3 type compounds
Band theory
Metals and semiconductors
Instrumental methods of analysis Uv-visible spectrophotometry
Nmr and esr spectroscopy
Mass spectrometry
Chromatography including gc and hplc
Electroanalytical methods and polarography
Electroanalytical methods and cyclic voltammetry
Electroanalytical methods and ion-selective electrodes
Thermoanalytical methods
Organic chemistry
Stereochemistry Chirality of organic molecules with or without chiral centres and determination of their absolute configurations
Relative stereochemistry in compounds having more than one stereogenic centre
Enantiotopic and diastereotopic atoms, groups and faces
Stereoselective and stereospecific synthesis
Conformational analysis of acyclic and cyclic compounds
Geometrical isomerism
Configurational and conformational effects
Neighbouring group participation on reactivity and selectivity/specificity
Reaction mechanisms Basic mechanistic concepts – kinetic versus thermodynamic control
Hammond’s postulate and curtin-hammett principle
Methods of determining reaction mechanisms through identification of products
Intermediates and isotopic labeling
Nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution reactions (both aromatic and aliphatic)
Addition reactions to carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom (n,o) multiple bonds
Elimination reactions
Reactive intermediates and carbocations
Reactive intermediates and carbanions
Reactive intermediates and carbenes
Reactive intermediates and nitrenes
Reactive intermediates and arynes and free radicals
Molecular rearrangements involving electron deficient atoms
Organic synthesis Synthesis
Mechanisms and selectivity involving the following classes of compounds and alkenes
Mechanisms and selectivity involving and classes of compounds and alkynes
Mechanisms and selectivity involving and classes of compounds and arenes
Mechanisms and selectivity involving and classes of compounds and alcohols
Mechanisms and selectivity involving and classes of compounds and phenols
Mechanisms and selectivity involving and classes of compounds and aldehydes
Mechanisms and selectivity involving and classes of compounds and ketones
Mechanisms and selectivity involving and classes of compounds and carboxylic acids
Mechanisms and selectivity involving and classes of compounds and nitriles
Mechanisms and selectivity involving and classes of compounds and esters
Mechanisms and selectivity involving and classes of compounds and halides
Mechanisms and selectivity involving and classes of compounds and nitro compounds
Mechanisms and selectivity involving and classes of compounds and amines and amides
Uses of mg, li, cu, b, zn and si based reagents in organic synthesis
Carbon-carbon bond formation through coupling reactions - heck, suzuki, stille and sonogoshira
Concepts of multistep synthesis and retrosynthetic analysis
Concepts of multistep synthesis
Concepts of multistep strategic disconnections
Concepts of multistep and synthons and synthetic equivalents
Umpolung reactivity – formyl and acyl anion equivalents
Selectivity in organic synthesis, chemo, regio and stereoselectivity
Protection and deprotection of functional groups
Concepts of asymmetric synthesis – resolution including enzymatic
Desymmetrization and use of chiral auxiliaries
Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions through enolates (including boron enolates)
Enamines and silyl enol ethers
Michael addition reaction
Stereoselective addition to c=o groups in cram and felkin-anh models
Pericyclic reactions and photochemistry Electrocyclic
Cycloaddition and sigmatropic reactions
Orbital correlations - fmo and pmo treatments
Photochemistry of alkenes
Arenes and carbonyl compounds
Photo-oxidation and photoreduction
Di-π-methane rearrangement
Barton reaction
Heterocyclic compounds Structure
Properties and reactions of furan
Quinoline and isoquinoline
Biomolecules Structure
Properties and reactions of mono- and di-saccharides
Physicochemical properties of amino acids
Chemical synthesis of peptides
Structural features of proteins
Nucleic acids
Spectroscopy Applications of uv-visible, ir, nmr and mass spectrometry in the structural determination of organic molecules

GATE Electronics and Communication Engineering

Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra Vector space
Linear dependence and independence
Matrix algebra
Eigen values and eigen vectors
Solution of linear equations – existence and uniqueness
Calculus Mean value theorems
Theorems of integral calculus
Evaluation of definite and improper integrals
Partial derivatives
Maxima and Minima
multiple integrals
Surface and volume integrals
Taylor series
Differential Equations First order equations (linear and nonlinear)
Higher order linear differential equations
Cauchy's and Euler's equations
Methods of solution using variation of parameters
Complementary function and particular integral
Partial differential equations
Variable separable method
Initial and boundary value problems
First order equations of linear and nonlinear
Vector analysis Vectors in plane and space
Vector operations
Divergence and cur
Green's and stoke's theorems
Divergence and curl
Complex analysis Analytic functions
Cauchy's integral theorem
Cauchy's integral formula
Taylor's and Laurent’s series,
Residue theorem.
Numerical methods Solution of nonlinear equations
Single and Multi-step methods for differential equations
Convergence criteria
Probability and Statistics Mean, Median, Mode and standard Deviation
Combinatorial probability
Probability distribution functions of binomial,
Probability distribution functions of poisson
Probability distribution functions of exponential and normal
Joint and conditional probability
Correlation and regression analysis
Networks, signals and systems
Network solution methods Nodal and mesh analysis
Network theorems of superposition
Network theorems of thevenin and norton’s
Maximum power transfer of network theorems
Wye‐delta transformation
Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors
Time domain analysis of simple linear circuits
Solution of network equations using Laplace transform
Frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits
Linear 2‐port network parameters of driving point and transfer functions
State equations for networks
Continuous-time signals Fourier series and fourier transform representations
Sampling theorem and applications
Discrete-time signals and Fourier transform (DTFT), DFT, FFT, Z-transform
Discrete-time and interpolation of discrete-time signals
LTI systems of definition and properties
Lti systems and causality
Lti systems and stability
Lti systems and impulse response
Lti systems and convolution
Lti systems of poles and zeros
Parallel and cascade structure of lti systems
Lti systems of frequency response
Lti systems and group delay
Lti systems and phase delay
Digital filter design techniques of lti systems
Electronic devices
Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic silicon 0
Carrier transport of diffusion current 0
Carrier transport and drift current 0
Carrier transport of mobility and resistivity 0
Generation and recombination of carriers 0
Poisson and continuity equations 0
P-n junction 0
Zener diode 0
Bjt 0
Mos capacitor 0
Mosfet 0
Led 0
Photo diode and solar cell 0
Integrated circuit fabrication process of oxidation 0
Integrated circuit fabrication process of diffusion 0
Integrated circuit fabrication process of ion implantation 0
Integrated circuit fabrication process of photolithography and twin-tub cmos process 0
Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic silicon
Carrier transport of diffusion current
Carrier transport and drift current
Carrier transport of mobility and resistivity
Generation and recombination of carriers
Poisson and continuity equations
P-n junction
Zener Diode
MOS capacitor
Photo diode and solar cell
Integrated circuit fabrication process of oxidation
Integrated circuit fabrication process of diffusion
Integrated circuit fabrication process of ion implantation
Integrated circuit fabrication process of photolithography and twin-tub CMOS process
Analog circuits
Small signal equivalent circuits of diodes 0
Bjts and mosfets 0
Simple diode circuits and clipping 0
Simple diode circuits of clamping and rectifiers 0
Single-stage bjt and mosfet amplifiers of biasing 0
Single-stage BJT and MOSFET amplifiers of bias stability 0
Single-stage bjt and mosfet amplifiers of mid-frequency small signal analysis and frequency response 0
Bjt and mosfet amplifiers of multi-stage 0
Bjt and mosfet amplifiers and differential 0
Bjt and mosfet amplifiers and feedback 0
Bjt and mosfet amplifiers of power and operational 0
Simple op-amp circuits 0
Active filters 0
Sinusoidal oscillators and criterion for oscillation 0
Single-transistor and op amp configurations of sinusoidal oscillators 0
Function generators 0
Wave-shaping circuits and 555 timers 0
Voltage reference circuits 0
Power supplies for ripple removal and regulation 0
Small Signal Equivalent circuits of diodes
Bjts and mosfets
Simple diode circuits and clipping
Simple diode circuits of clamping and rectifiers
Single-stage BJTS and MOSFETS amplifiers of biasing
Single-stage BJTS and MOSFETS amplifiers of bias stability
Single-stage BJTS and MOSFETS amplifiers of mid-frequency small signal analysis and frequency response
BJTS and MOSFETS amplifiers of multi-stage
BJTS and MOSFETS amplifiers and differential
BJTS and MOSFETS amplifiers and feedback
BJTS and MOSFETS amplifiers of power and operational
Simple op-amp circuits
Active filters
Sinusoidal oscillators and criterion for oscillation
Single-transistor and op amp configurations of sinusoidal oscillators
Function generators
Wave-shaping circuits and 555 timers
Voltage reference circuits
Power supplies for ripple removal and regulation
Digital circuits
Number systems 0
Combinatorial circuits of boolean algebra 0
Minimization of functions using boolean identities and karnaugh map 0
Logic gates and their static cmos implementations of combinatorial circuits 0
Combinatorial of arithmetic circuits 0
Combinatorial of code converters 0
Combinatorial of multiplexers 0
Combinatorial decoders and plas 0
Sequential circuits of latches and flip‐flops 0
Sequential circuits and counters 0
Sequential circuits for shift‐registers and finite state machines 0
Data converters to sample and hold circuits 0
Data converters to adcs and dacs 0
Semiconductor memories: rom, sram, dram 0
Bit microprocessor (8085): architecture, programming, memory and i/o interfacing 0
Number systems
Combinatorial circuits of boolean algebra
Minimization of functions using boolean identities and karnaugh map
Logic gates and their static cmos implementations of combinatorial circuits
Combinatorial of arithmetic circuits
Combinatorial of code converters
Combinatorial of multiplexers
Combinatorial decoders and plas
Sequential circuits of latches and flip‐flops
Sequential circuits and counters
Sequential circuits for shift‐registers and finite state machines
Data converters to sample and hold circuits
Data converters to adcs and dacs
Semiconductor memories: rom, sram, dram
Bit microprocessor (8085): architecture, programming, memory and i/o interfacing
Control systems
Basic control system components 0
Feedback principle 0
Transfer function 0
Block diagram representation 0
Signal flow graph 0
Transient and steady-state analysis of lti systems 0
Frequency response 0
Routh-hurwitz and nyquist stability criteria 0
Bode and root-locus plots 0
Lag 0
Lead and lag-lead compensation 0
State variable model and solution of state equation of lti systems 0
Basic control system components
Feedback principle
Transfer function
Block diagram representation
Signal flow graph
Transient and steady-state analysis of lti systems
Frequency response
Routh-hurwitz and nyquist stability criteria
Bode and root-locus plots
Lead and lag-lead compensation
State variable model and solution of state equation of lti systems
Random processes of autocorrelation and power spectral density 0
Random processes and properties of white noise 0
Random processes and filtering of random signals through lti systems 0
Analog communications of amplitude modulation and demodulation of communications 0
Angle modulation and demodulation 0
Spectra of am and fm of angle modulation and demodulation 0
Super heterodyne receivers of angle modulation 0
Circuits for analog communications 0
Information theory of entropy 0
Mutual information and channel capacity theorem 0
Digital communications of PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes, amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying (ASK, PSK, FSK), QAM, MAP and ML decoding, matched filter receiver, calculation of bandwidth, SNR and BER for digital modulation 0
Fundamentals of error correction 0
Hamming codes 0
Timing and frequency synchronization 0
Inter-symbol interference and its mitigation 0
Basics of tdma 0
Fdma and cdma 0
Random processes of autocorrelation and power spectral density
Random processes and properties of white noise
Random processes and filtering of random signals through lti systems
Analog communications of amplitude modulation and demodulation of communications
Angle modulation and demodulation
Spectra of am and fm of angle modulation and demodulation
Superheterodyne receivers of angle modulation
Circuits for analog communications
Information theory of entropy
Mutual information and channel capacity theorem
Digital communications of PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes, amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying (ASK, PSK, FSK), QAM, MAP and ML decoding, matched filter receiver, calculation of bandwidth, SNR and BER for digital modulation
Fundamentals of error correction
Hamming codes
Timing and frequency synchronization
Inter-symbol interference and its mitigation
Basics of tdma
Fdma and cdma
Electrostatics 0
Maxwell’s equations of differential and integral forms and their interpretation 0
Maxwell’s equations of boundary conditions 0
Wave equation of maxwell’s 0
Maxwell’s equations and poynting vector 0
Plane waves and properties of reflection and refraction 0
Plane waves and properties of polarization 0
Plane waves and properties of phase and group velocity 0
Plane waves and properties of propagation through various media, skin depth 0
Transmission lines and equations 0
Transmission lines and characteristic impedance 0
Transmission lines and impedance matching 0
Impedance transformation lines 0
S-parameters lines 0
Transmission lines of smith chart 0
Waveguides: modes, boundary conditions, cut-off frequencies, dispersion relations 0
Antennas: antenna types, radiation pattern, gain and directivity, return loss, antenna arrays 0
Basics of radar 0
Light propagation in optical fibers 0
Maxwell’s equations of differential and integral forms and their interpretation
Maxwell’s equations of boundary conditions
Wave equation of maxwell’s
Maxwell’s equations and poynting vector
Plane waves and properties of reflection and refraction
Plane waves and properties of polarization
Plane waves and properties of phase and group velocity
Plane waves and properties of propagation through various media, skin depth
Transmission lines and equations
Transmission lines and characteristic impedance
Transmission lines and impedance matching
Impedance transformation lines
S-parameters lines
Transmission lines of smith chart
Waveguides: modes, boundary conditions, cut-off frequencies, dispersion relations
Antennas: antenna types, radiation pattern, gain and directivity, return loss, antenna arrays
Basics of radar
Light propagation in optical fibers

GATE Electrical Engineering

Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra Matrix algebra
systems of linear equations
Eigen values
Eigen vectors
Calculus Mean value theorems
Theorems of integral calculus
Evaluation of definite and improper integrals
Partial derivatives
Maxima and Minima
multiple integrals
Fourier series
Vector identities
directional derivatives
Line integral
Surface integral
Volume integral
Stokes’s theorem
Gauss’s theorem
Green’s theorem
Differential Equations First order equations of linear and nonlinear
Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients
Method of variation of parameters
Cauchy’s equation
Euler’s equation
Initial and boundary value problems
Partial differential equations
Method of separation of variables
Complex variables Analytic functions
Cauchy’s integral theorem
Cauchy’s integral formula
Taylor series
Laurent series
Residue theorem
Solution integrals
Probability and Statistics Sampling theorems
Conditional probability
Standard deviation
Random variables
Discrete and continuous distributions
Poisson distribution
Normal distribution
Binomial distribution
Correlation analysis
Regression analysis
Numerical methods Solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations
Single and multi‐step methods for differential equations
Transform theory Fourier transform
Laplace transform
Electrical engineering
Electric circuits Network graph
node and mesh analysis
Transient response of dc and ac networks
Sinusoidal steady‐state analysis
Passive filters
Ideal current and voltage sources
Thevenin’s theorem
Norton’s theorem
Superposition theorem
Maximum power transfer theorem
Two‐port networks
Three phase circuits
Power and power factor in ac circuits
Electromagnetic fields Coulomb's law
Electric field intensity
Electric flux density
Gauss's law
Electric field and potential due to point
Plane and spherical charge distributions
Effect of dielectric medium
Capacitance of simple configurations
Biot‐savart’s law
Ampere’s law
Faraday’s law
Lorentz force
Magnetomotive force
Magnetic circuits
Self and mutual inductance of simple configurations
Signals and systems Representation of continuous and discrete‐time signals
shifting and scaling operations
Linear time invariant and causal systems
Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signals
sampling theorem
Applications of fourier transform
Laplace transform and z-transform
Electrical machines Single phase transformer of equivalent circuit
Single phase transformer and diagram
Open circuit and short circuit tests
Single phase transformer of regulation and efficiency
Three phase transformers and connections, parallel operation
Electromechanical energy conversion principles
Dc machines and separately excited
Dc machines of series and shunt
Motoring and generating mode of operation and their characteristics
Starting and speed control of dc motors
Three phase induction motors principle of operation
Three phase induction types
Three phase induction and performance
Torque-speed characteristics of induction
Three phase induction and no-load and blocked rotor tests
Three phase induction of equivalent circuit
Starting and speed control of phase induction
Operating principle of single phase induction motors
Synchronous machines of cylindrical and salient pole machines
Performance of synchronous machines
Synchronous machines of regulation and parallel operation of generators
Starting of synchronous motor and machines
Characteristics of synchronous machines
Types of losses and efficiency calculations of electric machines
Power systems Power generation concepts
Ac and dc transmission concepts
Models and performance of transmission lines and cables
Series and shunt compensation
Electric field distribution and insulators
Distribution systems
Per‐unit quantities
Bus admittance matrix
Gauss-seidel and newton-raphson load flow methods
Voltage and frequency control
Power factor correction
Symmetrical components
Symmetrical and unsymmetrical fault analysis
Principles of over‐current
Differential and distance protection
Circuit breakers
System stability concepts
Equal area criterion
Control systems Mathematical modelling and representation of systems
Feedback principle
Transfer function
Block diagrams and signal flow graphs
Transient and steady‐state analysis of linear time invariant systems
Routh-hurwitz and nyquist criteria
Bode plots
root loci
Stability analysis
Lead and lead‐lag compensators
P, pi and pid controllers
state space model
state transition matrix
Electrical and electronic measurements Bridges and potentiometers
Measurement of voltage
Energy and power factor
Instrument transformers
Digital voltmeters and multimeters
Time and frequency measurement
Error analysis
Analog and digital electronics Characteristics of diodes
Simple diode circuits and clipping
Simple diode circuits and clamping
Simple diode circuits and rectifiers
Amplifiers and biasing
Equivalent circuit and frequency response of amplifiers
Oscillators and feedback amplifiers
Operational amplifiers and characteristics and applications
Simple active filters
VCOs and timers
Combinational and sequential logic circuits
Schmitt trigger
sample and hold circuits
A/D and D/A converters
8085microprocessor and architecture
8085microprocessor of programming and interfacing
Power electronics Characteristics of semiconductor power devices: diode, thyristor, triac, gto, mosfet, igbt
Dc to dc conversion: buck, boost and buck-boost converters
Single and three phase configuration of uncontrolled rectifiers
Line commutated thyristor based converters
Bidirectional ac to dc voltage source converters
Issues of line current harmonics
power factor
Distortion factor of AC to DC converters
Single phase and three phase inverters
Sinusoidal pulse width modulation

GATE Geology and Geophysics

Common section
Earth and planetary system - size, shape, internal structure and composition of the earth 0
Concept of isostasy 0
Elements of seismology and body and surface waves 0
Elements of seismology and propagation of body waves in the earth’s interior 0
Gravitational field of the earth 0
Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism 0
Continental drift 0
Plate tectonics and relationship with earthquakes 0
Plate tectonics of volcanism and mountain building 0
Continental and oceanic crust of composition 0
Continental and oceanic crust of structure and thickness 0
Weathering and soil formation 0
Landforms created by river 0
Landforms created by wind 0
Landforms created by glacier 0
Landforms created by ocean and volcanoes 0
Basic structural geology - stress, strain and material response 0
Brittle and ductile deformation 0
Nomenclature and classification of folds and faults 0
Crystallography – basic crystal symmetry and concept of point groups 0
Mineralogy – silicate crystal structure and determinative mineralogy of common rock forming minerals 0
Petrology – mineralogy 0
Classification of common igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks 0
Geological time scale and geochronology and absolute time 0
Stratigraphic principles 0
Major stratigraphic divisions of india 0
Geological and geographical distribution of mineral 0
Coal and petroleum resources of india 0
Introduction to remote sensing 0
Engineering properties of rocks and soils 0
Ground water geology 0
Principles and applications of gravity 0
Magnetic 0
Electrical 0
Electromagnetic 0
Seismic and radiometric methods of prospecting for oil 0
Mineral and ground water 0
Introductory well logging 0
Geomorphic processes and agents 0
Development and evolution of landforms 0
Slope and drainage 0
Processes in deep oceanic and near-shore regions 0
Quantitative and applied geomorphology 0
Mechanism of rock deformation 0
Primary and secondary structures 0
Geometry and genesis of folds 0
Geometry and genesis of faults 0
Geometry and genesis of joints and unconformities 0
Cleavage 0
Schistosity and lineation 0
Methods of projection 0
Tectonites and their significance 0
Shear zones 0
Superposed folding 0
Basement-cover relationship 0
Crystallography - symmetry 0
Forms and twinning 0
Crystal chemistry 0
Optical mineralogy 0
Classification of minerals 0
Diagnostic physical and optical properties of rock - forming minerals 0
Cosmic abundance of elements 0
Meteorites 0
Geochemical evolution of the earth 0
Geochemical cycles 0
Distribution of major, minor and trace elements in crust and mantle 0
Elements of geochemical thermodynamics 0
Isotope geochemistry 0
Geochemistry of waters including solution equilibria and water-rock interaction 0
Igneous rocks and classification 0
Igneous rocks of forms and textures 0
Magmatic differentiation 0
Binary and ternary phase diagrams 0
Major and trace elements as monitors of partial melting and magma evolutionary processes 0
Sedimentary rocks – texture and structure 0
Sedimentary processes and environments 0
Sedimentary facies 0
Provenance and basin analysis 0
Metamorphic rocks – structures and textures 0
Physico-chemical conditions of metamorphism and concept of metamorphic facies 0
Grade and baric types 0
Metamorphism of pelitic 0
Metamorphism of mafic and impure carbonate rocks 0
Role of fluids in metamorphism 0
Metamorphic p-t-t paths and their tectonic significance 0
Association of igneous 0
Sedimentary and metamorphic rocks with tectonic setting 0
Igneous and metamorphic provinces and important sedimentary basins of india 0
Morphology 0
Classification and geological significance of important invertebrates 0
Vertebrates 0
Plant fossils and microfossils 0
Principles of stratigraphy and concepts of correlation and lithostratigraphy 0
Principles of stratigraphy and concepts of correlation biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy 0
Indian stratigraphy – precambrian and phanerozoic 0
Overview of himalayan geology 0
Ore-mineralogy and optical properties of ore minerals 0
Ore forming processes vis-àvis ore-rock association like magmatic, hydrothermal, sedimentary, supergene and metamorphogenic ores 0
Fluid inclusions as an ore genetic tool 0
Coal and petroleum geology 0
Marine mineral resources 0
Prospecting and exploration of economic mineral deposits and sampling 0
Prospecting and exploration of economic mineral deposits and ore reserve estimation 0
Prospecting and exploration of economic mineral deposits and geostatistics 0
Prospecting and exploration of economic mineral deposits and mining methods 0
Ore dressing and mineral economics 0
Origin and distribution of mineral 0
Origin and distribution of fossil and nuclear fuel deposits in india 0
Engineering properties of rocks and soils 0
Rocks as construction materials 0
Role of geology in the construction of engineering structures including dams 0
Role of geology in the construction of engineering structures like tunnels and excavation sites 0
Natural hazards 0
Ground water geology – exploration 0
Well hydraulics and water quality 0
Basic principles of remote sensing – energy sources and radiation principles 0
Atmospheric absorption 0
Interaction of energy with earth’s surface 0
Aerial-photo interpretation 0
Multispectral remote sensing in visible 0
Infrared 0
Thermal ir and microwave regions 0
Digital processing of satellite images 0
Gis – basic concepts 0
Raster and vector mode operations 0
The earth as a planet 0
Different motions of the earth 0
Gravity field of the earth 0
Clairaut’s theorem 0
Size and shape of earth 0
Geomagnetic field 0
Paleomagnetism 0
Geothermics and heat flow 0
Seismology and interior of the earth 0
Variation of density, velocity, pressure, temperature, electrical and magnetic properties of the earth 0
Earthquakes-causes and measurements 0
Magnitude and intensity 0
Focal mechanisms 0
Earthquake quantification 0
Source characteristics 0
Seismotectonics and seismic hazards 0
Digital seismographs 0
Scalar and vector potential fields 0
Laplace 0
Maxwell and helmholtz equations for solution of different types of boundary value problems in cartesian 0
Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates 0
Green’s theorem 0
Image theory 0
Integral equations in potential theory 0
Eikonal equation and ray theory 0
Absolute and relative gravity measurements 0
Gravimeters 0
Land 0
Airborne 0
Shipborne and bore-hole gravity surveys 0
Various corrections for gravity data reduction – free air 0
Bouguer and isostatic anomalies 0
Density estimates of rocks 0
Regional and residual gravity separation 0
Principle of equivalent stratum 0
Data enhancement techniques 0
Upward and downward continuation 0
Derivative maps 0
Wavelength filtering 0
Preparation and analysis of gravity maps 0
Gravity anomalies and their interpretation 0
Anomalies due to geometrical and irregular shaped bodies, depth rules 0
Calculation of mass 0
Elements of earth’s magnetic field 0
Units of measurement 0
Magnetic susceptibility of rocks and measurements 0
Magnetometers 0
Airborne and marine magnetic surveys 0
Various corrections applied to magnetic data 0
Igrf 0
Reduction to pole transformation 0
Poisson’s relation of gravity and magnetic potential field 0
Preparation of magnetic maps 0
Magnetic anomalies-geometrical shaped bodies 0
Depth estimates 0
Image processing concepts in processing of magnetic anomaly maps 0
Interpretation of processed magnetic anomaly data 0
Applications of gravity and magnetic methods for mineral and oil exploration 0
Conduction of electricity through rocks 0
Electrical conductivities of metals 0
Non-metals 0
Rock forming minerals and different rocks 0
Concepts of d.c. resistivity measurement 0
Various electrode configurations for resistivity sounding and profiling 0
Application of filter theory 0
Type-curves over multi-layered structures 0
Dar-zarrouck parameters 0
Reduction of layers 0
Coefficient of anisotropy 0
Interpretation of resistivity field data 0
Equivalence and suppression 0
Self-potential and its origin 0
Field measurement 0
Induced polarization 0
Time and frequency domain ip measurements 0
Interpretation and applications of ip 0
Ground-water exploration 0
Mineral exploration 0
Environmental and engineering applications 0
Basic concept of em induction in the earth 0
Skin-depth 0
Elliptic polarization 0
In phase and quadrature components 0
Various em methods 0
Measurements in different source-receiver configurations 0
Earth’s natural electromagnetic field 0
Tellurics 0
Magneto-tellurics 0
Geomagnetic depth sounding principles 0
Electromagnetic profiling 0
Time domain em method 0
EM scale modelling, processing of EM data and interpretation 0
Geological applications including groundwater 0
Mineral and hydrocarbon exploration 0
Seismic methods of prospecting 0
Elastic properties of earth materials 0
Reflection 0
Refraction and cdp surveys 0
Land and marine seismic sources 0
Generation and propagation of elastic waves 0
Velocity – depth models 0
Velocity and geophones 0
Velocity and hydrophones 0
Recording instruments (dfs) 0
Digital formats of velocity 0
Field layouts of velocity 0
Seismic noises and noise profile analysis 0
Optimum geophone grouping of velocity 0
Noise cancellation by shot and geophone arrays 0
2d and 3d seismic data acquisition 0
Processing and interpretation velocity 0
Cdp stacking charts 0
Binning 0
Filtering 0
Dip-move out 0
Static and dynamic corrections 0
Digital seismic data processing 0
Seismic deconvolution and migration methods 0
Attribute analysis 0
Bright and dim spots 0
Seismic stratigraphy 0
High resolution seismics 0
Vsp, avo 0
Reservoir geophysics 0
Geophysical signal processing 0
Sampling theorem 0
Aliasing 0
Nyquist frequency 0
Fourier series 0
Periodic waveform 0
Fourier and hilbert transform 0
Z-transform and wavelet transform 0
Power spectrum 0
Delta function 0
Auto correlation 0
Cross correlation 0
Convolution 0
Deconvolution 0
Principles of digital filters 0
Windows 0
Poles and zeros 0
Principles and techniques of geophysical well-logging 0
Sp, resistivity, induction, gamma ray, neutron, density, sonic, temperature, dip meter, caliper, nuclear magnetic, cement bond logging 0
Micro-logs 0
Quantitative evaluation of formations from well logs 0
Well hydraulics and application of geophysical methods for groundwater study 0
Application of bore hole geophysics in ground water 0
Mineral and oil exploration 0
Radioactive methods of prospecting and assaying of mineral (radioactive and non-radioactive) deposits 0
Half-life 0
Decay constant 0
Radioactive equilibrium, g m counter 0
Scintillation detector 0
Semiconductor devices 0
Application of radiometric for exploration, 0
Assaying and radioactive waste disposal 0
Basic concepts of forward and inverse problems 0
Ill-posedness of inverse problems 0
Condition number 0
Non-uniqueness and stability of solutions 0
L1, l2 and lp norms 0
Overdetermined 0
Underdetermined and mixed determined inverse problems 0
Quasilinear and non-linear methods including tikhonov’s regularization method 0
Singular value decomposition 0
Backus-gilbert method 0
Simulated annealing 0
Genetic algorithms and artificial neural network 0

GATE Instrumentation Engineering

Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra Matrix algebra
systems of linear equations
Eigen values and eigen vectors
Calculus Mean value theorems
Theorems of integral calculus
Partial derivatives
Maxima and Minima
multiple integrals
Fourier series
Vector identities
Surface and volume integrals
Gauss and Green’s theorems
Differential Equations First order equation of linear and nonlinear
Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients
Method of variation of parameters
Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations
Initial and boundary value problems
Solution of partial differential equations and variable separable method
Analysis of complex variables Analytic functions
Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula
Taylor’s and laurent’s series
Residue theorem
Solution of integrals
Probability and Statistics Sampling theorems
Conditional probability
Mode and standard deviation
Random variables
Discrete and continuous distributions of normal
Discrete and continuous of poisson and binomial distributions
Numerical methods Matrix inversion
Solutions of non-linear algebraic equations
Iterative methods for solving differential equations
Numerical integration
Regression and correlation analysis
Instrumentation engineering
Electrical circuits Voltage and current sources: independent, dependent, ideal and practical
V-i relationships of resistor
Mutual inductor and capacitor
Transient analysis of rlc circuits with dc excitation
Kirchoff’s laws
Mesh and nodal Analysis
Maximum power transfer and reciprocity theorems
Peak, average and RMS values of AC quantities
Apparent- active- and reactive powers
Phasor analysis
Impedance and admittance
Series and parallel resonance
Locus diagrams
Realization of basic filters with r, l and c elements
One-port and two-port networks
Driving point impedance and admittance
Open-, and short circuit parameters
Signals and systems Periodic, aperiodic and impulse signals
Laplace, fourier and z-transforms
Transfer function
Frequency response of first and second order linear time invariant systems
Impulse response of systems
Discrete time system of impulse response and frequency response
Discrete time system of pulse transfer function
Basics of iir and fir filters
Control systems Feedback principles
Signal flow graphs
Transient Response
Bode plot
Phase and gain margins
Routh and Nyquist criteria
root loci
Design of lead
Lag and lead-lag compensators
State-space representation of systems
Time-delay systems
Hydraulic and pneumatic system components
Synchro pair
servo and stepper motors
Servo valves
On-off, P, PI, PID, cascade, feedforward, and ratio controllers
Analog Electronics Characteristics and applications of diode
Zener Diode
Bjt and mosfet
Small signal analysis of transistor circuits
Feedback amplifiers
Characteristics of operational amplifiers
Applications of op amps and difference amplifier
Applications of op amps adder and subtractor
Applications of op amps and integrator, differentiator
Applications of op amps and instrumentation amplifier
Precision rectifier of op amps
Active filters and other circuits of op amps
Signal generators
Voltage controlled oscillators and phase locked loop
Digital Electronics Combinational logic circuits
Minimization of Boolean functions
Ic families of ttl and cmos
Arithmetic circuits
Schmitt trigger
Sequential circuits
Flip flops
Shift registers
Timers and counters
Sample-and-hold circuit
Analog-to-digital in successive approximation
Analog-to-digital in integrating
Analog-to-digital in flash
Analog-to-digital in sigma-delta
Digital-to-analog converters
Digital-to-analog converters in weighted r
Digital-to-analog converters in r-2r ladder
Digital-to-analog converters in current steering logic
Characteristics of adc and dac in resolution, quantization, significant bits, conversion/settling time
Basics of number systems
8-bit microprocessor and microcontroller of applications
8-bit microprocessor and microcontroller of memory and input-output interfacing
Basics of data acquisition systems
Measurements SI units
Systematic and random errors in measurement
Expression of uncertainty - accuracy and precision index
Propagation of errors
MI and dynamometer type instruments
Dc potentiometer
Bridges for measurement of r, l and c, q-meter
Measurement of voltage
Current and power in single and three phase circuits
Ac and dc current probes
True rms meters
Voltage and current scaling
Instrument transformers
Time, phase and frequency measurements
Digital voltmeter and digital multimeter
Shielding and grounding
Sensors and industrial instrumentation Resistive-capacitive- inductive- piezoelectric
Hall effect sensors and associated signal conditioning circuits
Transducers for industrial instrumentation
Displacement like linear and angular
Velocity, acceleration, force, torque, vibration, shock, pressure of industrial instrumentation
Differential pressure, variable area, electromagnetic, ultrasonic, turbine and open channel flow meters
Thermocouple, bolometer, rtd (3/4 wire), thermistor, pyrometer and semiconductor
Liquid level, ph, conductivity and viscosity measurement
Communication and optical instrumentation Amplitude- and frequency modulation and demodulation
Shannon's sampling theorem
Pulse code modulation
Frequency and time division multiplexing
Amplitude- phase-frequency-pulse shift keying for digital modulation
Optical sources and detectors of led, laser and photo-diode
Optical sources and detectors of light dependent resistor and their characteristics
Interferometer and applications in metrology
Basics of fiber optic sensing

GATE Mathematics

Calculus Finite, countable and uncountable sets
Real number system as a complete ordered field
Archimedean property
Sequences and series
Uniform continuity
Mean value theorems
Riemann integration
Improper integrals
Functions of two or three variables
directional derivatives
Partial derivatives
Total derivative of maxima and minima
Saddle point
Method of Lagrange’s multipliers
Double and triple integrals and their applications
Line integrals and surface integrals
Green's theorem
Stokes and gauss divergence theorem
Linear algebra Finite dimensional vector spaces over real or complex fields
Linear transformations and their matrix representations
Rank and nullity
systems of linear equations
Eigen values and eigen vectors
Minimal polynomial
Cayley-hamilton theorem
Jordan canonical form
Orthogonal and unitary matrices
Finite dimensional inner product spaces
Gram-schmidt orthonormalization process
Definite forms
Real analysis Metric spaces
Sequences and series of functions
Uniform convergence
Weierstrass approximation theorem
Power series
Functions of several variables and differentiation
Functions of several variables and contraction mapping principle
Inverse and implicit function theorems
Lebesgue measure
Measurable functions
Lebesgue integral
Fatou's lemma
Monotone convergence theorem
Dominated convergence theorem
Complex analysis Analytic functions
Harmonic functions
Complex integration and Cauchy’s integral theorem and formula
Liouville's theorem
Maximum modulus principle
Morera's theorem
Zeros and singularities
Power series
Radius of convergence
Taylor's theorem and Laurent’s theorem;
Residue theorem and applications for evaluating real integrals
Rouche's theorem
Argument principle
Schwarz lemma
Conformal mappings
Bilinear transformations
Ordinary differential equations First order ordinary differential equations
Existence and uniqueness theorems for initial value problems
Linear ordinary differential equations of higher order with constant coefficients
Second order linear ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients
Cauchy-euler equation
Method of laplace transforms for solving ordinary differential equations
Series solutions in power series and frobenius method
Legendre and bessel functions and their orthogonal properties
Systems of linear first order ordinary differential equations
Normal subgroups
Quotient groups
Cyclic groups
Permutation groups
Sylow's theorems and their applications
Rings, ideals, prime and maximal ideals
Quotient rings, unique factorization domains
Principle ideal domains and euclidean domains
Polynomial rings and irreducibility criteria
Finite fields and extensions fields
Functional analysis Normed linear spaces
Banach spaces
Hahn-banach theorem
Open mapping and closed graph theorems
Principle of uniform boundedness
Inner-product spaces
Hilbert spaces
Orthonormal bases
Riesz representation theorem
Numerical analysis Numerical solutions of algebraic and transcendental equations of bisection, secant method
Numerical solutions of algebraic and transcendental equations of newton-raphson method
Numerical solutions of algebraic and transcendental equations of fixed point iteration
Error of polynomial interpolation
Lagrange and newton interpolations
Numerical differentiation
Numerical integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rules
Numerical solution of a system of linear equations and direct methods in gauss elimination and lu decomposition
Iterative methods in jacobi and gauss-seidel
Numerical solution of initial value problems of odes in Euler’s method
Numerical solution of initial value problems of odes in runge-kutta methods of order 2
Partial differential equations Linear and quasi-linear first order partial differential equations
Method of characteristics
Second order linear equations in two variables and their classification
Cauchy problems
Dirichlet and neumann problems
Solutions of laplace and wave equations in two dimensional cartesian coordinates
Interior and exterior dirichlet problems in polar coordinates
Separation of variables method for solving wave and diffusion equations in one space variable
Fourier series and fourier transform and laplace transform methods of solutions for the equations mentioned above
Topology Basic concepts of topology
Subspace topology
Order topology
Product topology
Metric topology
Countability and separation axioms
Urysohn's lemma
Linear programming Linear programming problem and its formulation
Convex sets and their properties
Graphical method
Basic feasible solution
Simplex method
Two phase methods
Infeasible and unbounded lpp's
Alternate optima
Dual problem and duality theorems
Balanced and unbalanced transportation problems
Vogel's approximation method for solving transportation problems
Hungarian method for solving assignment problems

GATE Mechanical Engineering

Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra Matrix algebra
systems of linear equations
Eigen values and eigen vectors
Calculus Functions of single variable
Continuity and Differentiability
Mean value theorems
Indeterminate forms
Evaluation of definite and improper integrals
Double and triple integrals
Partial derivatives
Total derivative
Taylor series in one and two variables
Maxima and Minima
Fourier series
Divergence and curl, vector identities
directional derivatives
Surface and volume integrals
Applications of gauss, stokes and green’s theorems
Differential Equations First order equations of linear and nonlinear
Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients
Euler-cauchy equation
Initial and boundary value problems
Laplace transforms
Solutions of heat
Wave and Laplace’s equations
Complex variables Analytic functions
Cauchy-riemann equations
Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula
Taylor and Laurent series
Probability and Statistics Definitions of probability
Sampling theorems
Conditional probability
Mode and standard deviation
Random variables
Poisson and normal distributions
Numerical methods Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations
Integration by trapezoidal and simpson’s rules
Single and Multi-step methods for differential equations
Applied mechanics and design
Engineering Mechanics Free-body diagrams and equilibrium
Trusses and frames
Virtual work
Kinematics and dynamics of particles and of rigid bodies in plane motion
Impulse and momentum in linear and angular and energy formulations
Mechanics of materials Stress and strain
Elastic constants
Poisson's ratio
Mohr’s circle for plane stress and plane strain
Thin cylinders
Shear force and bending moment diagrams
Bending and shear stresses
Deflection of beams
Torsion of circular shafts
Euler’s theory of columns
Energy methods
Thermal stresses
Strain gauges and rosettes
Testing of materials with universal testing machine
Testing of hardness and impact strength
Theory of Machines Displacement
Velocity and acceleration analysis of plane mechanisms
Dynamic analysis of linkages
Gears and gear trains
Flywheels and governors
Balancing of reciprocating and rotating masses
Vibrations Free and forced vibration of single degree of freedom systems
Effect of damping
Vibration isolation
Critical speeds of shafts
Machine Design Design for static and dynamic loading
Failure theories
Fatigue strength and the S-N diagram
Principles of the design of machine elements such as bolted, riveted and welded joints
Rolling and sliding contact bearings
Brakes and clutches
Fluid mechanics and thermal sciences
Fluid Mechanics Fluid properties
Fluid statics
Forces on submerged bodies
Stability of floating bodies
Control-volume analysis of mass
Momentum and energy
Fluid acceleration
Differential equations of continuity and momentum
Bernoulli’s equation
Dimensional Analysis
Viscous flow of incompressible fluids
Boundary layer
Elementary turbulent flow
Flow through pipes
Head losses in pipes
Bends and fittings
Heat-transfer Modes of heat transfer
One dimensional heat conduction
Resistance concept and electrical analogy
Heat transfer through fins
Unsteady heat conduction
Lumped parameter system
Heisler's charts
Thermal boundary layer
Dimensionless parameters in free and forced convective heat transfer
Heat transfer correlations for flow over flat plates and through pipes
Effect of turbulence
Heat exchanger performance
LMTD and NTU methods
Radiative heat transfer
Stefan-boltzmann law
Wien's displacement law
Black and grey surfaces
View factors
Radiation network analysis
Thermodynamics Thermodynamic systems and processes
Properties of pure substances
Behaviour of ideal and real gases
Zeroth and first laws of thermodynamics
Calculation of work and heat in various processes
Second law of thermodynamics
Thermodynamic property charts and tables
Availability and irreversibility
Thermodynamic relations
Applications Air and gas compressors of power engineering
Vapour and gas power cycles
Concepts of regeneration and reheat
I.c. engines and air-standard otto
I.C. Engines of diesel and dual cycles
Refrigeration and air-conditioning of vapour and gas refrigeration and heat pump cycles
Properties of moist air
Psychometric chart
Basic psychometric processes
Turbomachinery of impulse and reaction principles
Turbomachinery and velocity diagrams
Turbomachinery of Pelton wheel
Turbomachinery of francis and kaplan turbines
Materials, manufacturing and industrial engineering
Engineering Materials Structure and properties of engineering materials
Phase diagrams
Heat treatment
Stress-strain diagrams for engineering materials
Casting, forming and joining processes Different types of castings
Design of patterns
Moulds and cores
Solidification and cooling
Riser and gating design
Plastic deformation and yield criteria
Fundamentals of hot and cold working processes
Load estimation for bulk in forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing and sheet in shearing, deep drawing, bending) metal forming processes
Principles of powder metallurgy
Principles of welding
Soldering and adhesive bonding
Machining and Machine Tool Operations Mechanics of machining
Basic machine tools
Single and multi-point cutting tools
Tool geometry and materials
Tool life and wear
Economics of machining
Principles of non-traditional machining processes
Principles of work holding
Design of jigs and fixtures
Metrology and Inspection Limits, fits and tolerances
Linear and angular measurements
Gauge design
Form and finish measurement
Alignment and testing methods
Tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly
Computer Integrated Manufacturing Basic concepts of CAD/CAM and their integration tools
Production Planning and Control Forecasting models
Aggregate production planning
Materials requirement planning
Inventory Control Deterministic models
Safety stock inventory control systems
Operations Research Linear Programming
Simplex method
Network flow models
Simple queuing models

GATE Metallurgical Engineering

Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra Matrices and determinants
systems of linear equations
Eigen values and eigen vectors
Calculus Limit of continuity and differentiability
Partial derivatives
Maxima and Minima
Sequences and series
Test for convergence
Fourier series
Vector Calculus Gradient
Divergence and curl
Line of surface and volume integrals
Gauss and Green’s theorems
Differential Equations Linear and non-linear first order ODEs
Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients
Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations
Laplace transforms
Pdes –laplace
One dimensional heat and wave equations
Probability and Statistics Definitions of probability and sampling theorems
Conditional probability
Mean, Median, Mode and standard Deviation
Random variables
Poisson, normal and binomial distributions
Correlation and regression analysis
Numerical methods Solutions of linear and non-linear (bisection, secant, Newton Raphson methods) algebraic equations
Integration by trapezoidal and simpson’s rule
Single and Multi-step methods for differential equations
Thermodynamics and rate processes
Laws of thermodynamics 0
Activity and equilibrium constant 0
Applications to metallurgical systems 0
Solutions and phase equilibria 0
Ellingham and phase stability diagrams 0
Thermodynamics of surfaces 0
Interfaces and defects 0
Adsorption and segregation 0
Basic kinetic laws and order of reactions 0
Rate constants and rate limiting steps 0
Principles of electro chemistry- single electrode potential 0
Electrochemical cells and polarizations 0
Aqueous corrosion and protection of metals 0
Galvanic corrosion 0
Crevice and pitting corrosion 0
Intergranular corrosion 0
Selective leaching 0
Oxidation and high temperature corrosion – characterization and control 0
Heat transfer and conduction 0
Convection and heat transfer coefficient relations 0
Heat transfer of radiation 0
Mass transfer of diffusion and fick’s laws 0
Mass transfer coefficients 0
Momentum transfer and concepts of viscosity 0
Shell balances of momentum transfer 0
Bernoulli’s equation of momentum transfer 0
Momentum transfer and friction factors 0
Extractive metallurgy
Minerals of economic importance 0
Comminution techniques 0
Size classification 0
Flotation 0
Gravity and other methods of mineral processing 0
Agglomeration 0
Pyro, hydro and electro-metallurgical processes 0
Material and energy balances 0
Principles and processes for the extraction of non-ferrous metals – aluminium 0
Copper, zinc, lead, magnesium, nickel, titanium and other rare metals 0
Iron and steel making – principles, 0
Role structure and properties of slags 0
Metallurgical coke 0
Blast furnace and direct reduction processes 0
Primary and secondary steel making 0
Ladle metallurgy operations including deoxidation 0
Desulphurization 0
Sulphide shape control 0
Inert gas rinsing and vacuum reactors 0
Secondary refining processes including aod, vad, vod, var and esr 0
Ingot and continuous casting 0
Stainless steel making, furnaces and refractories 0
Physical metallurgy
Crystal structure and bonding characteristics of metals 0
Alloys, ceramics and polymers 0
Structure of surfaces and interfaces 0
Nano-crystalline and amorphous structures 0
Solid solutions 0
Solidification 0
Phase transformation and binary phase diagrams 0
Principles of heat treatment of steels 0
Cast iron and aluminium alloys 0
Surface treatments 0
Recovery, recrystallization and grain growth 0
Structure and properties of industrially important ferrous and non-ferrous alloys 0
Elements of x-ray and electron diffraction 0
Principles of optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy 0
Industrial ceramics, polymers and composites 0
Introduction to electronic basis of thermal, optical, electrical and magnetic properties of materials 0
Introduction to electronic and opto-electronic materials 0
Mechanical metallurgy
Elasticity, yield criteria and plasticity 0
Defects in crystals 0
Elements of dislocation theory – types of dislocations 0
Slip and twinning 0
Source and multiplication of dislocations 0
Stress fields around dislocations 0
Partial dislocations 0
Dislocation interactions and reactions 0
Strengthening mechanisms 0
Tensile, fatigue and creep behaviour 0
Super plasticity 0
Fracture – griffith theory 0
Basic concepts of linear elastic and elastoplastic fracture mechanics 0
Ductile to brittle transition 0
Fracture toughness 0
Failure analysis 0
Mechanical testing and tension, compression, torsion, hardness, impact, creep, fatigue, fracture toughness and formability 0
Manufacturing processes
Metal casting of patterns and moulds including mould design involving feeding 0
Gating and risering 0
Melting and casting practices in sand casting 0
Permanent mould casting 0
Investment casting and shell moulding 0
Casting defects and repair 0
Hot, warm and cold working of metals 0
Metal forming and fundamentals of metal forming processes of rolling 0
Metal forming of forging and extrusion 0
Wire drawing and sheet metal forming 0
Defects in forming 0
Metal joining and soldering, brazing and welding 0
Common welding processes of shielded metal arc welding 0
Gas metal arc welding 0
Gas tungsten arc and submerged arc welding 0
Welding metallurgy 0
Problems associated with welding of steels and aluminium alloys 0
Defects in welded joints 0
Metallurgy and production of powders 0
Compaction and sintering powder 0
NDT using dye penetrant 0
Ultrasonic, radiography, eddy current, acoustic emission and magnetic particle methods 0

GATE Mining Engineering

Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra Matrices and determinants
systems of linear equations
Eigen values and eigen vectors
Calculus Limit
Continuity and Differentiability
Partial derivatives
Maxima and Minima
Sequences and series
Test for convergence
Fourier series
Vector Calculus Gradient
Divergence and curl
Surface and volume integrals
Gauss and Green’s theorems
Differential Equations Linear and non-linear first order ODEs
Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients
Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations
Probability and Statistics Measures of central tendency
Random variables
Normal and binomial distributions
Correlation and regression analysis
Numerical methods Solutions of linear algebraic equations
Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule
Single and Multi-step methods for differential equations
Mine development and surveying
Mine development Methods of access to deposits
Underground drivages
Drilling methods and machines
Blasting devices and practices
Mine surveying Levels and levelling
Errors and adjustments
Underground surveying
Field astronomy
Edm and total station
Introductory gps
Geomechanics and ground control
Engineering Mechanics Equivalent force systems
Equations of equilibrium
Two dimensional frames and trusses
Free body diagrams
Friction forces
Particle kinematics and dynamics
Beam analysis
Geomechanics Geo-technical properties of rocks
Rock mass classification
Instrumentation and stress measurement techniques
Theories of rock failure
Ground vibrations
Stress distribution around mine openings
Rock bursts and coal bumps
Slope stability
Ground control Design of pillars
Roof supporting systems
Mine filling
Mining methods and machinery
Mining methods Surface mining and layout
Surface mining of development
Loading, transportation and mechanization of surface mining
Continuous surface mining systems
Underground coal mining of bord and pillar systems
Underground coal mining of room and pillar mining
Underground coal and longwall mining
Underground coal mining and thick seam mining methods
Highwall mining
Underground metal mining and open, supported and caved stoping methods
Underground metal mining of stope mechanization
Underground metal mining and ore handling systems
Mining machinery Generation and transmission of mechanical
Hydraulic and pneumatic power
Materials handling of haulages, conveyors, face and development machinery, hoisting systems, pumps, crushers
Surface environment, mine ventilation, and underground hazards
Surface environment Air, water and soil pollution and standards of quality, causes and dispersion of contamination, and control
Land reclamation
Mine ventilation Underground atmosphere
Heat load sources and thermal environment
Air cooling
Mechanics of air flow
Natural and mechanical ventilation
Mine fans and their usage
Auxiliary ventilation
Ventilation planning
Subsurface hazards Mine gases
Underground hazards from fires
Dust and inundation
Ventilation planning
Rescue apparatus and practices
Safety in mines
Accident data analysis
Mine lighting
Mine legislation
Occupational safety
Economics, mine planning, systems engineering
Mine economics Mineral resource classification
Discounted cash flow analysis
Mine valuation
Mine investment analysis
Mineral taxation
Mine planning Sampling methods
Practices and interpretation
Reserve estimation techniques and basics of geostatistics and quality control
Optimization of facility location
Systems engineering Concepts of reliability
Reliability of simple systems
Maintainability and availability
Linear Programming
Transportation and assignment problems
Network analysis
Inventory models
Queueing theory
Basics of simulation

GATE Petroleum Engineering

Petroleum engineering
Linear algebra Matrix algebra
systems of linear equations
Eigen values and eigen vectors
Calculus Functions of single variable
Limit, Continuity and differentiability
Taylor series
Mean value theorems
Evaluation of definite and improper integrals
Partial derivatives
Total derivative
Maxima and Minima
Divergence and curl
Vector identities
directional derivatives
Line, surface and volume integrals
Gauss and Green’s theorems
Differential Equations First order equations of linear and nonlinear
Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients
Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations
Initial and boundary value problems
Laplace transforms
Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation
Complex variables Complex number
Polar form of complex number
Triangle inequality
Probability and Statistics Definitions of probability and sampling theorems
Conditional probability
Mean, Median, Mode and standard Deviation
Random variables
Normal and binomial distributions
Linear regression analysis
Numerical methods Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations
Integration by trapezoidal and simpson’s rule
Single and multi-step methods for numerical solution of differential equations
Petroleum exploration Classification and description of some common rocks with special reference to clastic and nonclastic reservoir rocks
Origin, migration and accumulation of petroleum
Petroleum exploration methods
Oil and gas well drilling technology Well planning
Drilling method
Drilling rigs rig operating systems
Drilling fluids function and properties
Drilling fluid maintenance equipment
Oil and gas well cementing operations
Drill bit types and their applications
Drill string and casing string function
Selection and design
Drilling problems, their control and remedies
Directional drilling tools
Directional survey
Application of horizontal,
Extended reach and slim wells,
Reservoir engineering Petrophysical properties of reservoir rocks
Coring and core analysis
Reservoir fluid properties
Phase behaviour of hydrocarbon system
Flow of fluids through porous media
Water and gas coning
Reservoir pressure measurements
Reservoir drives
Drive mechanics and recovery factors
Reserve estimation & techniques
Petroleum production operations Well equipment
Well completion techniques
Well production problems and mitigation
Well servicing & workover operations
Workover & completion fluids
Formation damage
Well stimulation techniques
Artificial lift techniques
Field processing of oil & gas
Storage and transportation of petroleum and petroleum products
Metering and measurements oil & gas
Production system analysis & optimization
Production testing
Multiphase flow in tubing and flow-lines
Nodal system analysis
Pressure vessels
Storage tanks
Shell and tube heat exchangers
Pumps and compressors
Lng value chain
Offshore drilling and production practices Offshore oil and gas operations and ocean environment
Offshore fixed platforms
Offshore mobile units
Station keeping methods like mooring and dynamic positioning system
Offshore drilling from fixed platform
Ships and semi submersibles
Use of conductors and risers
Offshore well completion
Deep water applications of subsea technology
Offshore production and oil processing platforms
Water injection platforms
Storage of offshore production
Spm and sbm transportation and utilities
Deep water drilling rig
Deep water production system
Emerging deep water technologies
Petroleum formation evaluation Evaluation of petrophysical of sub-surface formations and principles applications
Evaluation of petrophysical of sub-surface formations of advantages and disadvantages of sp
Resistivity, radioactive, acoustic logs and types of tools used
Evaluation of cbl/vdl, usit, sft, rft
Production logging tools
Limitations and applications
Special type of logging tools
Casing inspection tools (principles, applications and limitations)
Formations micro scanner
Nmr logging principles
Standard log interpretation methods
Cross-plotting methods
Oil and gas well testing Diffusivity equation
Derivation & solutions
Radius of investigation
Principle of superposition
Horner’s approximation
Drill stem testing
Pressure transient tests of drawdown and build up-test analysis
Wellbore effects
Multilayer reservoirs
Injection well testing
Multiple well testing
Interference testing
Pulse testing
Well-test analysis by use of type curves
Gas well testing
Health safety and environment in petroleum industry Health hazards in petroleum industry
Toxicity, physiological, asphyxiation, respiratory and skin effect of petroleum hydrocarbons
Sour gases
Manual & automatic shutdown system
Blow down systems
Gas detection system
Fire detection and suppression systems
Personal protection system and measures
Hse policies
Disaster and crisis management in petroleum industry
Environment concepts
Impact on eco-system, air, water and soil
The impact of drilling & production operations on environment
Environmental transport of petroleum wastes
Offshore environmental studies
Offshore oil spill and oil spill control
Waste treatment methods
Enhanced oil recovery techniques Basic principles and mechanism of eor
Screening of eor process
Concept of pattern flooding
Recovery efficiency
Permeability heterogeneity
Macroscopic and microscopic displacement efficiency
Eor methods of chemical flooding, miscible flooding
Thermal recoveries in steam stimulation, hot water & steam flooding, in-situ combustion
Microbial eor
Latest trends in petroleum engineering Coal bed methane
Shale gas
Oil shale
Gas hydrate and heavy oil

GATE Physics

Mathematical physics
Linear vector space of basis, orthogonality and completeness 0
Matrices 0
Vector Calculus 0
Linear differential equations 0
Elements of complex analysis 0
Cauchy-Riemann conditions 0
Cauchy’s theorems 0
Singularities 0
Residue theorem and applications 0
Laplace transforms 0
Fourier analysis 0
Elementary ideas about tensors of covariant and contravariant tensor 0
Levi-civita and christoffel symbols of tensors 0
Classical mechanics
D’alembert’s principle 0
Cyclic coordinates 0
Variational principle 0
Lagrange’s equation of motion 0
Central force and scattering problems 0
Rigid body motion 0
Small oscillations 0
Hamilton’s formalisms 0
Poisson bracket 0
Special theory of relativity and lorentz transformations 0
Relativistic kinematics 0
Mass‐energy equivalence 0
Electromagnetic theory
Solutions of electrostatic and magnetostatic problems including boundary value problems 0
Dielectrics and conductors 0
Maxwell’s equations 0
Scalar and vector potentials 0
Coulomb and lorentz gauges 0
Electromagnetic waves and their reflection 0
Refraction 0
Interference 0
Diffraction and polarization 0
Poynting vector 0
Poynting theorem 0
Energy and momentum of electromagnetic waves 0
Radiation from a moving charge 0
Quantum mechanics
Postulates of quantum mechanics 0
Uncertainty principle 0
Schrodinger equation 0
One- two- and three-dimensional potential problems 0
Particle in a box 0
Transmission through one dimensional potential barriers 0
Harmonic oscillator 0
Hydrogen atom 0
Linear vectors and operators in hilbert space 0
Angular momentum and spin 0
Addition of angular momenta 0
Time independent perturbation theory 0
Elementary scattering theory 0
Thermodynamics and statistical physics
Laws of thermodynamics 0
Macrostates and microstates 0
Phase space 0
Ensembles 0
Partition function 0
Free energy 0
Calculation of thermodynamic quantities 0
Classical and quantum statistics 0
Degenerate fermi gas 0
Black body radiation and planck’s distribution law 0
Bose‐einstein condensation 0
First and second order phase transitions 0
Phase equilibria 0
Critical point 0
Atomic and molecular physics
Spectra of one‐ and many‐electron atoms 0
Ls and jj coupling 0
Hyperfine structure 0
Zeeman and stark effects 0
Electric dipole transitions and selection rules 0
Rotational and vibrational spectra of diatomic molecules 0
Electronic transition in diatomic molecules 0
Franck‐condon principle 0
Raman effect 0
Nmr, esr, x-ray spectra 0
Lasers of einstein coefficients 0
Population inversion of lasers 0
Two and three level systems of lasers 0
Solid state physics & electronics
Elements of crystallography 0
Diffraction methods for structure determination 0
Bonding in solids 0
Lattice vibrations and thermal properties of solids 0
Free electron theory 0
Band theory of solids 0
Nearly free electron and tight binding models 0
Metals and semiconductors and insulators 0
Conductivity 0
Mobility and effective mass 0
Optical, dielectric and magnetic properties of solids 0
Elements of superconductivity 0
Type-i and type ii superconductors 0
Meissner effect and elements of superconductivity 0
London equation and elements of superconductivity 0
Semiconductor devices and diodes 0
Bipolar junction transistor of semiconductor devices 0
Field effect transistors of semiconductor devices 0
Operational amplifiers and negative feedback circuits 0
Active filters and oscillators 0
Regulated power supplies 0
Basic digital logic circuits 0
Sequential circuits 0
Flip-flops 0
Counters and registers 0
A/d and d/a conversion 0
Nuclear and particle physics
Nuclear radii and charge distributions 0
Nuclear binding energy 0
Electric and magnetic moments 0
Nuclear models 0
Liquid drop model and semi‐empirical mass formula 0
Fermi gas model of nucleus 0
Nuclear shell mode of liquid drop 0
Nuclear force and two nucleon problem 0
Alpha decay and beta‐decay 0
Electromagnetic transitions in nuclei 0
Rutherford scattering 0
Nuclear reactions 0
Conservation laws 0
Fission and fusion 0
Particle accelerators and detectors 0
Elementary particles 0
Photons and baryons 0
Mesons and leptons 0
Quark model. 0

GATE Production and Industrial Engineering

Engineering mathematics
Linear algebra Matrix algebra
systems of linear equations
Eigen values and eigen vectors
Calculus Functions of single variable
Limit of continuity and differentiability
Mean value theorems
Evaluation of definite and improper integrals
Partial derivatives
Total derivative
Maxima and Minima
Divergence and curl
Vector identities
directional derivatives
Line of surface and volume integrals
Stokes, gauss and green’s theorems
Differential Equations First order equations (linear and nonlinear)
Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients
Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations
Initial and boundary value problems
Laplace transforms
Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation
Complex variables Analytic functions
Cauchy’s integral theorem
Taylor series
Probability and Statistics Definitions of probability and sampling theorems
Conditional probability
Mean, Median, Mode and standard Deviation
Random variables
Normal and binomial distributions
Numerical methods Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations
Integration by trapezoidal and simpson’s rule
Single and Multi-step methods for differential equations
General engineering
Engineering Materials Structure and properties correlation
Engineering materials like metals, ceramics, polymers and composites
Properties and applications of engineering materials
Stress-strain behaviour of metals and alloys
Iron-carbon phase diagram
Heat treatment of metals and alloys
Its influence on mechanical properties
Applied mechanics Engineering mechanics of equivalent force systems
Free body concepts
Equations of equilibrium
Strength of materials
Strain and their relationship of materials
Strength of materials and stress
Failure theories
Mohr’s circle in stress
Deflection of beams
Bending and shear stress
Euler’s theory of columns
Theory of machines and design
Theory of machines and design Analysis of planar mechanisms
Cams and followers
Governors and fly wheels
Design of bolted
Riveted and welded joints
Interference/shrink fit joints
Design of shafts
Keys, spur gears, belt drives, brakes and clutches
Pressure vessels
Thermal and fluids engineering Fluid mechanics and statics
Bernoulli’s equation
Flow through pipes
Equations of continuity and momentum
Capillary action of fluid
Contact angle and wetting
Thermodynamics and zeroth
First and second law of thermodynamics
Thermodynamic system and processes
Calculation of work and heat for systems and control volumes
Air standard cycles
Heat transfer and basicapplications of conduction
Convection and radiation
Manufacturing processes i
Casting Types of casting processes and applications
Patterns of types and materials
Moulds and cores of materials, making, and testing
Casting techniques of cast iron
Steels and nonferrous metals and alloys
Analysis of solidification and microstructure development
Design of gating and riser
Origin of defects
Metal forming Stress-strain relations in elastic and plastic deformation
Concept of flow stress
Hot and cold working and forging, rolling, extrusion and wire drawing
Sheet metal working processes for blanking
Bending and deep drawing of sheet metal working
Ideal work and slab analysis
Origin of metal working defects
Joining of materials Principles of fusion welding processes manual metal arc, mig, tig, plasma arc, submerged arc welding processes
Different heat sources flame, arc, resistive, laser, electron beam
Heat transfer and associated losses
Flux application and feeding of filler rod
Principles of solid state welding processes in friction, explosive welding, ultrasonic welding processes
Principles of adhesive
Brazing and soldering processes
Origins of welding defects
Powder processing Production of metal/ceramic powders
Compaction and sintering of metals and ceramic powders
Polymers and composites Plastic processing and injection
Compression and blow molding
Extrusion, calendaring and thermoforming
Molding of composites
Manufacturing processes ii
Machine tools and machining Basic machine tools like centre lathe
Milling and drilling machine of construction and kinematics
Machining processes and turning
Taper turning
Thread cutting, drilling, boring, milling, gear cutting, thread production, grinding
Geometry of single point cutting tools
Chip formation
Cutting forces
Specific cutting energy and power requirements
Merchant’s analysis
Basis of selection of machining parameters
Tool materials
Tool wear and tool life
Economics of machining
Thermal aspects of machining
Cutting fluids
Jigs and fixtures of principles, applications, and design
Non-traditional manufacturing Principles
Effect of process parameters on mrr and product quality of non-traditional machining processes
Usm, ajm, wjm, awjm, edm and wire cut edm, lbm, ebm, pam, chm, ecm non-traditional machining processes
Computer Integrated Manufacturing Basic concepts of cad – geometric modelling
Cam – cnc and robotics – configurations
Drives and controls
Group technology and its applications and capp
Cellular manufacturing and fms
Quality and reliability
Metrology and Inspection Limits, fits, and tolerances, gauge design, interchangeability, selective assembly
Linear, angular, and form measurements
Straightness, squareness, flatness, roundness, and cylindricity by mechanical and optical methods
Inspection of screw threads and gears
Surface finish measurement by contact and non-contact methods
Tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly
Quality management Quality of concept and costs
Quality assurance
Statistical quality control
Acceptance sampling
Zero defects
Six sigma
Total quality management
Iso 9000
Reliability and maintenance Reliability
Availability and maintainability
Distribution of failure and repair times
Determination of mtbf and mttr
Reliability models
Determination of system reliability
Preventive maintenance and replacement
Industrial engineering
Product design and development Principles of good product design
Tolerance design
Quality and cost considerations
Product life cycle
Value engineering and analysis
Concurrent engineering
Comparison of production alternatives
Work system design Taylor’s Scientific management
Gilbreth’s contributions
Productivity –of concepts and measurements
Method study
Micro-motion study
Principles of motion economy
Work measurement and time study
Work sampling
Standard data
Job evaluation
Merit rating
Incentive schemes
Wage administration
Facility design Facility location factors and evaluation of alternate locations
Types of plant layout and their evaluation
Computer aided layout design techniques
Assembly line balancing
Materials handling systems
Operations research and operations management
Operation research Linear programming and problem formulation
Simplex method of linear programming
Duality and sensitivity analysis of simplex method
Transportation and assignment models
Network flow models
Constrained optimization and lagrange multipliers
Markovian queuing models
Dynamic programming
Simulation and manufacturing applications
Engineering economy and costing Elementary cost accounting and methods of depreciation
Break-even analysis
Techniques for evaluation of capital investments
Financial statements
Time-cost trade-off
Resource levelling
Production control Forecasting techniques of causal and time series models
Moving average and forecasting techniques
Exponential smoothing and forecasting techniques
Trend and seasonality of forecasting techniques
Aggregate production planning
Master production scheduling
Mrp and mrp-ii
Routing, scheduling and priority dispatching
Push and pull production systems
Concept of jit manufacturing system
Logistics, distribution, and supply chain management
Inventory of functions
Costs, classifications, deterministic inventory models of inventory
Quantity discount of inventory
Perpetual and periodic inventory control systems
Project management PERT and CPM

GATE Statistics

Calculus Finite
Countable and uncountable sets
Real number system as a complete ordered field
Archimedean property
Sequences and series
Uniform continuity
Mean value theorems
Riemann integration
Improper integrals
Functions of two or three variables
directional derivatives
Partial derivatives
Total derivative
Maxima and Minima
Saddle point
Method of Lagrange’s multipliers
Double and triple integrals and their applications
Line integrals and surface integrals
Green's theorem
Stokes' theorem
Gauss divergence theorem
Linear algebra Finite dimensional vector spaces over real or complex fields
Linear transformations and their matrix representations
systems of linear equations
Eigen values and eigen vectors
Minimal polynomial
Cayley-hamilton theorem
Jordan canonical form
Orthogonal and unitary matrices
Finite dimensional inner product spaces
Gramschmidt orthonormalization process
Definite forms
Probability Classical
Relative frequency and axiomatic definitions of probability
Bayes' theorem
Independent events
Random variables and probability distributions
Moments and moment generating functions
Standard discrete and continuous univariate distributions
Probability inequalities by chebyshev, markov, jensen
Function of a random variable
Jointly distributed random variables
Marginal and conditional distributions
Product moments
Joint moment generating functions
Independence of random variables
Transformations of random variables
Sampling distributions
Distribution of order statistics and range
Characteristic functions
Modes of convergence
Weak and strong laws of large numbers
Central limit theorem for i.i.d
Random variables with existence of higher order moments
Stochastic processes Markov chains with finite and countable state space
Classification of states
Limiting behaviour of n-step transition probabilities
Stationary distribution
Poisson and birth-and-death processes
Inference Unbiasedness
Uniformly minimum variance unbiased estimation
Method of moments and maximum likelihood estimations
Confidence intervals
Tests of hypotheses
Most powerful and uniformly most powerful tests
Likelihood ratio tests
Large sample test
Sign test
Wilcoxon signed rank test
Mann-whitney u test
Test for independence and chi-square test for goodness of fit
Regression analysis Simple and multiple linear regression
Polynomial regression
Confidence intervals and testing for regression coefficients
Partial and multiple correlation coefficients
Multivariate analysis Basic properties of multivariate normal distribution
Multinomial distribution
Wishart distribution
Hotellings t2 and related tests
Principal component analysis
Discriminant analysis
Design of experiments One and two-way Anova, CRD, RBD, LSD, 2 square and 2 cube factorial experiments

GATE Textile Engineering and Fibre Science

Textile fibers
Classification of textile fibers 0
Essential requirements of fiber forming polymers 0
Gross and fine structure of natural fibers like cotton, wool, silk 0
Introduction to important bast fibres 0
Properties and uses of natural and man- made fibres including carbon 0
Aramid and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers 0
Physical and chemical methods of fiber and blend identification and blend analysis 0
Molecular architecture 0
Amorphous and crystalline phases 0
Glass transition 0
Plasticization 0
Crystallization 0
Melting 0
Factors affecting tg and tm 0
Production process of viscose and other regenerated cellulosic fibres such as polynosic 0
Production process of lyocell 0
Polymerization of nylon-6 0
Nylon-66, poly (ethylene terephthalate) 0
Polyacrylonitrile and polypropylene 0
Melt spinning processes for pet 0
Polyamide and polypropylene 0
Wet and dry spinning processes for viscose and acrylic fibres 0
Post spinning operations such as drawing 0
Heat setting 0
Tow- to-top conversion and different texturing methods 0
Methods of investigating fibre structure e.g., density 0
X-ray diffraction 0
Birefringence 0
Optical and electron microscopy 0
I.r. spectroscopy 0
Thermal methods (dsc, dma/tma, tga) 0
Structure and morphology of man-made fibres 0
Mechanical properties of fibres 0
Moisture sorption in fibres 0
Fibre structure and property correlation 0
Yarn manufacture, yarn structure and properties
Principles of opening, cleaning and mixing/blending of fibrous materials 0
Working principle of modern opening and cleaning equipment 0
The technology of carding 0
Carding of cotton and synthetic fibres 0
Drafting operation 0
Roller and apron drafting principle 0
Causes of mass irregularity introduced by drafting 0
Roller arrangements in drafting systems 0
Principles of cotton combing 0
Combing cycle 0
Mechanism and function 0
Combing efficiency 0
Lap preparation 0
Recent developments in comber 0
Roving production 0
Mechanism of bobbin building 0
Roving twist 0
Principle of ring spinning 0
Forces acting on yarn and traveller 0
Ring and traveller designs 0
Mechanism of cop formation 0
Causes of end breakages 0
Working principle of ring doubler and two for one twister 0
Single and folded yarn twist 0
Properties of double yarns 0
Production of core spun yarn 0
Principles of compact, rotor, air jet, air vortex, core, wrap, twist less and friction spinning 0
Yarn contraction 0
Yarn diameter 0
Specific volume & packing coefficient 0
Twist factor 0
Twist strength relationship in spun yarns 0
Fibre configuration and orientation in yarn 0
Cause of fibre migration and its estimation 0
Irregularity index 0
Structure property relationship of compact ring, rotor, air-jet and friction spun yarns 0
Fabric manufacture, structure and properties
Principles of winding processes and machines 0
Random 0
Precision and step precision winding 0
Package faults and their remedies 0
Yarn clearers and tensioners 0
Different systems of yarn splicing 0
Features of modern cone winding machines 0
Different types of warping creels 0
Features of modern beam and sectional warping machines 0
Different sizing systems 0
Sizing of spun and filament yarns 0
Sizing machines 0
Principles of pirn winding processes and machines 0
Primary and secondary motions of loom 0
Cam design & kinematics of sley 0
Effect of their settings and timings on fabric formation 0
Fabric appearance and weaving performance 0
Dobby and jacquard shedding 0
Mechanics of weft insertion with shuttle 0
Warp and weft stop motions 0
Warp protection 0
Weft replenishment 0
Principles of weft insertion systems of shuttle-less weaving machines 0
Principles of multiphase and circular looms 0
Principles of weft and warp knitting 0
Basic weft and warp knitted structures 0
Classification 0
Production 0
Properties and application of nonwoven fabrics 0
Principle of web formation & bonding 0
Basic woven fabric constructions and their derivatives 0
Crepe, cord, terry, gauze, leno and double cloth constructions 0
Peirce’s equations for fabric geometry 0
Elastica model of plain woven fabrics 0
Thickness, cover and maximum set of woven fabrics 0
Textile testing
Sampling techniques 0
Sample size and sampling errors 0
Measurement of fibre length, fineness, crimp 0
Measurement of cotton fiber maturity and trash content 0
High volume fibre testing 0
Measurement of yarn count 0
Twist and hairiness 0
Tensile testing of fibers 0
Yarns and fabrics 0
Evenness testing of slivers 0
Rovings and yarns 0
Classimat fault analysis 0
Testing equipment for measurement of fabric properties like thickness 0
Compressibility 0
Air permeability 0
Wetting & wicking 0
Drape 0
Crease recovery 0
Tear strength 0
Bursting strength and abrasion resistance 0
Instruments and systems for objective evaluation of fabric hand 0
Statistical analysis of experimental results 0
Frequency distributions 0
Correlation 0
Significance tests 0
Analysis of variance and control charts 0
Chemical processing
Impurities in natural fibre 0
Chemistry and practice of preparatory processes for cotton 0
Chemistry and practice of preparatory processes for wool and silk 0
Mercerization of cotton 0
Preparatory processes for manmade fibres and their blends 0
Classification of dyes 0
Dyeing of cotton, wool, silk, polyester, nylon and acrylic with appropriate dye classes 0
Dyeing of polyester/cotton and polyester/wool blends 0
Dyeing machines 0
Dyeing of cotton knitted fabrics and machines used 0
Dye fibre interaction 0
Introduction to thermodynamics and kinetics of dyeing 0
Methods for determination of wash 0
Light and rubbing fastness 0
Styles of printing 0
Printing thickeners including synthetic thickeners 0
Printing auxiliaries 0
Printing of cotton with reactive dyes 0
Wool, silk, nylon with acid and metal complex dyes 0
Printing of polyester with disperse dyes 0
Pigment printing 0
Resist and discharge printing of cotton, silk and polyester 0
Transfer printing of polyester 0
Inkjet printing 0
Mechanical finishing of cotton 0
Stiff, soft, wrinkle resistant, water repellent, flame retardant and enzyme (bio-polishing) finishing of cotton 0
Milling 0
Decatizing and shrink resistant finishing of wool 0
Antistatic and soil release finishing 0
Heat setting of synthetic fabrics 0
Minimum application techniques 0
Pollution control and treatment of effluents 0

GATE Ecology and Evolution

Population ecology 0
Metapopulation dynamics 0
Growth rates 0
Density independent growth 0
Density dependent growth 0
Niche concept 0
Species interactions and plant-animal interactions 0
Mutualism 0
Commensalism 0
Competition and predation 0
Trophic interactions 0
Functional ecology 0
Ecophysiology 0
Behavioural ecology 0
Community ecology and assembly 0
Community ecology of organization and evolution 0
Biodiversity and species richness 0
Biodiversity of evenness and diversity indices 0
Endemism 0
Species-area relationships 0
Ecosystem structure 0
Function and services 0
Nutrient cycles 0
Biomes 0
Habitat ecology 0
Primary and secondary productivity 0
Invasive species 0
Global and climate change 0
Applied ecology 0
Origin 0
Evolution and diversification of life 0
Natural selection 0
Levels of selection 0
Types of selection, stabilizing, directional etc. 0
Sexual selection 0
Genetic drift 0
Gene flow 0
Adaptation 0
Convergence 0
Species concepts 0
Life history strategies 0
Adaptive radiation 0
Biogeography and evolutionary ecology 0
Origin of genetic variation 0
Mendelian genetics 0
Polygenic traits 0
Linkage and recombination 0
Epistasis 0
Gene-environment interaction 0
Heritability 0
Population genetics 0
Molecular evolution 0
Molecular clocks 0
Systems of classification 0
Cladistics and phenetics 0
Molecular systematics 0
Gene expression and evolution 0
Mathematics and quantitative ecology
Mathematics and statistics in ecology 0
Simple functions in linear, quadratic, exponential, logarithmic, etc. 0
Concept of derivatives and slope of a function 0
Permutations and Combinations 0
Basic probability in probability of random events; sequences of events, etc. 0
Frequency distributions and their descriptive statistics in mean, variance, coefficient of variation, correlation, etc. 0
Statistical hypothesis testing and concept of p-value 0
Type i and type ii error 0
Test statistics like t-test and chi-square test 0
Basics of linear regression and anova 0
Behavioural ecology
Classical ethology 0
Neuroethology 0
Evolutionary ethology 0
Chemical 0
Acoustic and visual signalling 0
Mating systems 0
Sexual dimorphism 0
Mate choice 0
Parenting behaviour competition 0
Aggression 0
Foraging behaviour 0
Predator–prey interactions 0
Sociobiology and kin selection 0
Sociobiology and altruism 0
Sociobiology of costs and benefits of group-living 0

GATE XE Engineering Mathematics

Linear algebra
Matrices and Determinants 0
Systems of linear equations 0
Eigen values and eigen vectors 0
Limit, Continuity and Differentiability 0
Partial derivatives 0
Maxima and minima 0
Sequences and Series 0
Test for convergence 0
Fourier series 0
Vector calculus
Gradient 0
Divergence and curl 0
Line 0
Surface and volume integrals 0
Stokes 0
Gauss and green’s theorems 0
Differential equations
Linear and non-linear first order odes 0
Higher order linear odes with constant coefficients 0
Cauchy’s and euler’s equations 0
Laplace transforms 0
Pdes –laplace 0
Heat and wave equations 0
Probability and statistics
Mean, median, mode and standard deviation 0
Random variables 0
Poisson 0
Normal and binomial distributions 0
Correlation and regression analysis 0
Numerical methods
Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations 0
Integration of trapezoidal and simpson’s rule 0
Single and multi-step methods for differential equations 0

GATE XE Fluid Mechanics

Flow and fluid properties
Viscosity 0
Relationship between stress and strain-rate for newtonian fluids 0
Incompressible and compressible flows 0
Differences between laminar and turbulent flows 0
Hydrostatics of buoyancy, manometry and forces on submerged bodies 0
Eulerian and lagrangian description of fluids motion 0
Concept of local and convective accelerations 0
Steady and unsteady flows 0
Integral analysis
Control volume analysis for mass 0
Momentum and energy 0
Differential analysis
Differential equations of mass and momentum for incompressible flows of inviscid 0
Euler equation and viscous flows 0
Navier-stokes equations 0
Concept of fluid rotation 0
Vorticity 0
Stream function 0
Exact solutions of navier-stokes equation for couette flow and poiseuille flow 0
Inviscid flows
Bernoulli’s equation of assumptions and applications 0
Bernoulli’s equation and potential function 0
Elementary plane and uniform flow 0
Elementary of source, sink and doublet and their superposition for potential flow past simple geometries 0
Dimensional analysis
Concept of geometric 0
Kinematic and dynamic similarity 0
Some common non-dimensional parameters and their physical significance of reynolds number 0
Froude number and mach number of physical significance 0
Internal flows
Fully developed pipe flow 0
Empirical relations for laminar and turbulent flows of friction factor and Darcy-Weisbach relation 0
Prandtl boundary layer equations
Concept and assumptions 0
Qualitative idea of boundary layer and separation 0
Streamlined and bluff bodies 0
Drag and lift forces 0
Flow measurements and basic ideas of flow measurement using venturimeter 0
Pitot-static tube and orifice plate of flow measurements 0

GATE XE Materials Science

Processing of materials
Powder synthesis 0
Sintering 0
Chemical methods 0
Crystal growth techniques 0
Zone refining 0
Preparation of nanoparticles and thin films 0
Characterisation techniques
X-ray diffraction 0
Spectroscopic techniques like uv-vis, ir, raman 0
Optical and electron microscopy 0
Structure and imperfections
Crystal symmetry 0
Point groups 0
Space groups 0
Indices of planes 0
Close packing in solids 0
Bonding in materials 0
Coordination and radius ratio concepts 0
Point defects 0
Dislocations 0
Grain boundaries 0
Surface energy and equilibrium shapes of crystals 0
Thermodynamics and kinetics
Phase rule 0
Phase diagrams 0
Solid solutions 0
Invariant reactions 0
Lever rule 0
Basic heat treatment of metals 0
Solidification and phase transformations 0
Fick’s laws of diffusion 0
Mechanisms of diffusion 0
Temperature dependence of diffusivity 0
Properties of materials
Mechanical properties Stress-strain response of metallic
Stress-strain response of ceramic and polymer materials
Yield strength
Tensile strength and modulus of elasticity
Plastic deformation
Creep and fracture
Electronic properties Free electron theory
Fermi energy
Density of states
Elements of band theory
Hall effect
Dielectric behaviour
Pyroelectric materials
Magnetic properties Origin of magnetism in metallic and ceramic materials
Ferro and ferrimagnetism
Thermal properties Specific Heat
Thermal conductivity and thermal expansion
Optical properties Refractive index
Absorption and transmission of electromagnetic radiation in solids
Electro optic and magneto optic materials
Spontaneous and stimulated emission
Gas and solid state lasers
Material types
Concept of amorphous 0
Single crystals and polycrystalline materials 0
Crystallinity and its effect on physical properties 0
Metal, ceramic, polymers, classification of polymers and polymerization 0
Structure and properties 0
Additives for polymer products 0
Processing and applications 0
Effect of environment on materials 0
Composites 0
Environmental degradation
Corrosion 0
Oxidation and prevention 0
Elements of quantum mechanics and mathematics
Basics of quantum mechanics 0
Quantum mechanical treatment of electrical 0
Optical and thermal properties of materials 0
Analytical solid geometry 0
Differentiation and integration 0
Differential Equations 0
Vectors and tensors 0
Matrices 0
Fourier series 0
Complex analysis 0
Probability and Statistics 0

GATE XE Solid Mechanics

Solid mechanics
Equivalent force systems 0
Free-body diagrams 0
Equilibrium equations 0
Analysis of determinate trusses and frames 0
Friction 0
Particle kinematics and dynamics 0
Dynamics of rigid bodies under planar motion 0
Law of conservation of energy 0
Law of conservation of momentum 0
Stresses and strains 0
Principal stresses and strains 0
Mohr’s circle for plane stress and plane strain 0
Generalized hooke’s law 0
Elastic constants 0
Thermal stresses 0
Theories of failure 0
Axial 0
Shear and bending moment diagrams 0
Axial, shear and bending stresses 0
Combined stresses 0
Deflection for symmetric bending 0
Torsion in circular shafts 0
Thin walled pressure vessels 0
Energy methods of castigliano’s theorems 0
Euler buckling 0
Free vibration of single degree of freedom systems 0

GATE XE Thermodynamics

Basic concepts
Continuum and macroscopic approach 0
Thermodynamic systems are closed and open 0
Thermodynamic properties and equilibrium 0
State of a system 0
State postulate for simple compressible substances 0
State diagrams 0
Paths and processes on state diagrams 0
Concepts of heat and work 0
Different modes of work 0
Zeroth law of thermodynamics 0
Concept of temperature 0
First law of thermodynamics
Concept of energy and various forms of energy 0
Internal energy 0
Enthalpy 0
Specific heats 0
First law applied to elementary processes 0
Closed systems and control volumes 0
Steady and unsteady flow analysis 0
Second law of thermodynamics
Second law of thermodynamics 0
Concepts of heat engines and heat pumps/refrigerators 0
Kelvin-planck and clausius statements and their equivalence 0
Reversible and irreversible processes 0
Carnot cycle and carnot principles/theorems 0
Thermodynamic temperature scale 0
Clausius inequality and concept of entropy 0
Microscopic interpretation of entropy 0
The principle of increase of entropy 0
T-s diagrams 0
Second law analysis of control volume 0
Availability and irreversibility 0
Third law of thermodynamics 0
Properties of pure substances
Thermodynamic properties of pure substances in solid 0
Liquid and vapour phases 0
P-vt behaviour of simple compressible substances 0
Phase rule 0
Thermodynamic property tables and charts 0
Ideal and real gases 0
Ideal gas equation of state and Vander Waals equation of state 0
Law of corresponding states 0
Compressibility factor and generalized compressibility chart 0
Thermodynamic relations
T-ds relations 0
Helmholtz and gibbs functions 0
Gibbs relations 0
Maxwell relations 0
Joule-thomson coefficient 0
Coefficient of volume expansion 0
Adiabatic and isothermal compressibilities 0
Clapeyron and clapeyron-clausius equations 0
Thermodynamic cycles
Carnot vapour cycle 0
Ideal rankine cycle 0
Rankine reheat cycle 0
Air-standard otto cycle 0
Air-standard diesel cycle 0
Air-standard brayton cycle 0
Vapour-compression refrigeration cycle 0
Ideal gas mixtures
Dalton’s and amagat’s laws 0
Properties of ideal gas mixtures 0
Air-water vapour mixtures and simple thermodynamic processes involving them 0
Specific and relative humidities 0
Dew point and wet bulb temperature 0
Adiabatic saturation temperature 0
Psychrometric chart 0

GATE XE Polymer Science and Engineering

Polymer science and engineering
Chemistry of high polymers Monomers
Degree of polymerizations
Classification of polymers
Glass transition
Melting transition
Criteria for rubberiness
Polymerization methods addition and condensation
Their kinetics
Metallocene polymers and other newer techniques of polymerization
Monomer reactivity ratios and its significance
Different copolymers
Azeotropic copolymerization
Block and graft copolymers
Techniques for copolymerization bulk, solution, suspension, emulsion
Polymer characterization Solubility and swelling
Concept of average molecular weight
Determination of number average
Weight average
Viscosity average and z-average molecular weights
Polymer crystallinity
Analysis of polymers using ir, xrd, thermal (dsc, dmta, tga)
Microscopic optical and electronic techniques
Synthesis and properties Commodity and general purpose thermoplastics
Pe, pp, ps, pvc, polyesters
Pu polymers
Engineering plastics: nylon, pc, pbt, psu, ppo, abs
Fluoropolymers thermosetting polymers: pf, mf, uf, epoxy, unsaturated polyester, alkyds
Natural and synthetic rubbers and recovery of nr hydrocarbon from latex
Natural and synthetic rubbers SBR, nitrile, CR, CSM, EPDM, IIR, BR, silicone, TPE
Polymer blends and composites Difference between blends and composites
Their significance
Choice of polymers for blending
Blend miscibility-miscible and immiscible blends
Phase morphology
Polymer alloys
Polymer eutectics
Rubber-plastic and rubber-rubber blends
Frp, particulate, long and short fibre reinforced composites
Polymer technology Polymer compounding-need and significance
Different compounding ingredients for rubber and plastics
Cross-linking and vulcanization
Vulcanization kinetics
Polymer rheology Flow of newtonian and non-newtonian fluids
Different flow equations
Dependence of shear modulus on temperature
Molecular/segmental deformations at different zones and transitions
Measurements of rheological parameters by capillary rotating
Parallel plate
Cone-plate rheometer
Viscoelasticity-creep and stress relaxations
Mechanical models
Control of rheological characteristics through compounding
Rubber curing in parallel plate viscometer
Odr and mdr
Polymer processing Compression molding
Transfer molding
Injection molding
Blow molding
Reaction injection molding
Rotational molding
Rubber processing in two-roll mill
Internal mixer
Polymer testing Mechanical-static and dynamic tensile
Conductivity-thermal and electrical
Dielectric constant
Dissipation factor
power factor
Electric resistance
Surface resistivity
Volume resistivity
Ageing resistance
Environmental stress cracking resistance

GATE XE Food Technology

Food chemistry and nutrition
Carbohydrates Structure and functional properties of mono, oligo, and polysaccharides including starch
Pectic substances and dietary fibre
Gelatinization and retrogradation of starch
Proteins Classification and structure of proteins in food
Biochemical changes in post mortem and tenderization of muscles
Lipids Classification and structure of lipids
Polymerization and polymorphism
Pigments Carotenoids
Tannins and myoglobin
Food flavours Terpenes
Ketones and quinines
Enzymes Specificity
Simple and inhibition kinetics
Enzymatic and non enzymatic browning
Nutrition Balanced diet
Essential amino acids and essential fatty acids
Protein efficiency ratio
Water soluble and fat soluble vitamins
Role of minerals in nutrition
Nutrient deficiency diseases
Chemical and biochemical changes Changes occur in foods during different processing
Food microbiology
Characteristics of microorganisms Morphology of bacteria
Mold and actinomycetes
Spores and vegetative cells
Microbial growth Growth and death kinetics
Serial dilution technique
Food spoilage Spoilage microorganisms in different food products including milk,fish, meat, egg, cereals and their products
Toxins from microbes Pathogens and non-pathogens including staphylococcus
Aspergillus genera
Fermented foods and beverages Curd, yoghurt, cheese, pickles, soya-sauce, sauerkraut, idli, dosa, vinegar, alcoholic beverages and sausage
Food products technology
Processing principles Thermal processing
Addition of preservatives and food additives
Hurdle technology
Intermediate moisture foods
Food packaging and storage Packaging materials
Aseptic packaging
Controlled and modified atmosphere storage
Cereal processing and products Milling of rice, wheat, and maize
Parboiling of paddy
Bread, biscuits, extruded products and ready to eat breakfast cereals
Oil processing Expelling
Solvent extraction
Refining and hydrogenation
Fruits and vegetables processing Extraction
Concentration and packaging of fruit juice, jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, tomato sauce, ketchup, and puree, potato chips, pickles
Plantation crops processing and products Tea, coffee, cocoa, spice, extraction of essential oils and oleoresins from spices
Milk and milk products processing Pasteurization and sterilization
Cream, butter, ghee, ice-cream, cheese and milk powder
Processing of animal products Drying, canning, and freezing of fish and meat
Waste utilization Pectin from fruit wastes
Uses of by-products from rice milling
Food standards and quality maintenance Fpo, pfa, agmark, isi, haccp, food plant sanitation and cleaning in place (cip)
Food engineering
Mass and energy balance; momentum transfer Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for newtonian fluids flowing through pipe
Reynolds number
Heat transfer Heat transfer by conduction
Heat exchangers
Mass transfer Molecular diffusion and fick’s law
Conduction and convective mass transfer, permeability through single and multilayer films
Mechanical operations Size reduction of solids
High pressure homogenization
Settling, sieving, mixing and agitation of liquid
Thermal operations Thermal sterilization
Evaporation of liquid foods
Hot air drying of solids
Spray and freeze-drying
Freezing and crystallization
Mass transfer operations Psychometric
Humidification and dehumidification operations

GATE XL Chemistry

Atomic structure and periodicity
Planck’s quantum theory 0
Wave particle duality 0
Uncertainty principle 0
Quantum mechanical model of hydrogen atom 0
Electronic configuration of atoms and ions 0
Periodic table and periodic properties of ionization energy 0
Periodic table and periodic properties of electron affinity 0
Electronegativity and atomic size of periodic properties 0
Structure and bonding
Ionic and covalent bonding 0
Mo and vb approaches for diatomic molecules 0
Vsepr theory and shape of molecules 0
Hybridization 0
Resonance 0
Dipole moment 0
Structure parameters such as bond length 0
Bond angle and bond energy 0
Hydrogen bonding and vander waals interactions 0
Ionic solids 0
Ionic radii and lattice energy born‐haber cycle 0
Hsab principle 0
S, p and d block elements
Oxides 0
Halides and hydrides of alkali 0
Alkaline earth metals 0
B, al, si, n, p, and s 0
General characteristics of 3d elements 0
Coordination complexes of valence bond and crystal field theory 0
Coordination complexes of colour, geometry, magnetic properties and isomerism 0
Chemical equilibria
Colligative properties of solutions 0
Ionic equilibria in solution 0
Solubility product 0
Common ion effect 0
Hydrolysis of salts, ph, buffer and their applications 0
Equilibrium constants (kc, kp and kx) for homogeneous reactions 0
Conductance 0
Kohlrausch law 0
Cell potentials 0
Emf 0
Nernst equation 0
Galvanic cells 0
Thermodynamic aspects and their applications 0
Reaction kinetics
Rate constant 0
Order of reaction 0
Molecularity 0
Activation energy 0
Zero, first and second order kinetics 0
Catalysis and elementary enzyme reactions 0
First law 0
Reversible and irreversible processes 0
Internal energy 0
Enthalpy 0
Kirchoff equation 0
Heat of reaction 0
Hess’s law 0
Heat of formation 0
Second law 0
Entropy 0
Free energy and work function 0
Gibbs‐helmholtz equation 0
Clausius‐clapeyron equation 0
Free energy change 0
Equilibrium constant and trouton’s rule 0
Third law of thermodynamics 0
Structure-reactivity correlations and organic reaction mechanisms
Acids and bases 0
Electronic and steric effects 0
Optical and geometrical isomerism 0
Tautomerism 0
Conformers and concept of aromaticity 0
Elementary treatment of sn1, sn2, e1 and e2 reactions 0
Hoffmann and saytzeff rules 0
Addition reactions 0
Markownikoff rule and kharash effect 0
Aromatic electrophilic substitutions 0
Orientation effect as exemplified by various functional groups 0
Diels-alder 0
Wittig and hydroboration reactions 0
Identification of functional groups by chemical tests 0

GATE XL Biochemistry

Section 1 Organization of life
Importance of water
Structure and function of biomolecules and amino acids
Structure and function of biomolecules and carbohydrates
Structure and function of biomolecules are lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
Protein structure
Folding and function
Ribonuclease a
Carboxypeptidase and chymotrypsin
Section 2 Enzyme kinetics including its regulation and inhibition
Vitamins and coenzymes
Metabolism and bioenergetics
Generation and utilization of atp
Metabolic pathways and their regulation and glycolysis
Metabolic pathways and their regulation and tca cycle
Pentose phosphate pathway their regulation
Oxidative phosphorylation
Glycogen and fatty acid metabolism
Metabolism of nitrogen containing compounds and nitrogen fixation
Amino acids and nucleotides of containing compound
Photosynthesis and calvin cycle
Section 3 Biochemical separation techniques and ion exchange
Biochemical separation techniques and size exclusion and affinity chromatography
Characterization of biomolecules by electrophoresis
Uv-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy and mass spectrometry
Section 4 Cell structure and organelles
Biological membranes
Transport across membranes
Signal transduction
Hormones and neurotransmitters
Section 5 DNA replication
Transcription and translation
Biochemical regulation of gene expression
Recombinant dna technology and applications pcr
Site directed mutagenesis and dna-microarray
Section 6 Immune system of active and passive immunity
Complement system
Antibody structure
Function and diversity
Cells of the immune system of t, b and macrophages
T and b cell activation
Major histocompatibility complex
T cell receptor
Immunological techniques and immunodiffusion
Ria and elisa

GATE XL Botany

Plant systematics Major systems of classification
Plant groups
Phylogenetic relationships and molecular systematics
Plant anatomy Plant cell structure and its components
Cell wall and membranes
Anatomy of root
Stem and leaves
Floral parts
Embryo and young seedlings
Vascular system
Their ontogeny
Structure and functions
Secondary growth in plants and stellar organization
Morphogenesis & development Cell cycle
Cell division
Life cycle of an angiosperm
Seed formation
Seed storage proteins
Seed dormancy and germination
Concept of cellular totipotency
Clonal propagation
Organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis
Artificial seed
Somaclonal variation
Secondary metabolism in plant cell culture
Embryo culture
In vitro fertilization
Physiology and biochemistry Plant water relations
Transport of minerals and solutes
Stress physiology
Stomatal physiology
Signal transduction
N2 metabolism
Flowering of photoperiodism and vernalization
Biochemical mechanisms involved in flowering
Molecular mechanism of senescence and aging
Mechanism of action and physiological effects of plant growth regulators
Structure and function of biomolecules proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid, enzyme kinetics
Genetics Principles of mendelian inheritance
Genetic mapping
Extrachromosomal inheritance
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome organization
Regulation of gene expression
Gene mutation and repair
Chromosomal aberrations in numerical and structural
Plant breeding and genetic modification Principles
Methods of selection
Male sterility
Genetic maps and molecular markers
Sporophytic and gametophytic self incompability
Somatic cell hybridization
Marker-assisted selection
Gene transfer methods viz
Direct and vector-mediated
Plastid transformation
Transgenic plants and their application in agriculture
Molecular pharming
Economic botany A general account of economically and medicinally important plants and cereals
Pulses, plants yielding fibers, timber, sugar, beverages, oils, rubber, pigments, dyes, gums, drugs and narcotics
Economic importance of algae
Economic importance of fungi, lichen and bacteria
Plant pathology Nature and classification of plant diseases
Diseases of important crops caused by fungi
Diseases of important crops caused by bacteria
Diseases of important crops caused by nematodes and viruses and their control measures
Mechanisms of pathogenesis and resistance
Molecular detection of pathogens
Plant-microbe beneficial interactions
Ecology and environment Ecosystems – types
Ecological succession
Food chains and energy flow
Vegetation types of the world
Pollution and global warming,
Speciation and extinction
Conservation strategies

GATE XL Microbiology

Historical perspective Discovery of microbial world
Landmark discoveries relevant to the field of microbiology
Controversy over spontaneous generation
Role of microorganisms in transformation of organic matter and in the causation of diseases
Methods in microbiology Pure culture techniques
Theory and practice of sterilization
Principles of microbial nutrition
Enrichment culture techniques for isolation of microorganisms
Light phase contrast and electron-microscopy
Microbial taxonomy and diversity Bacteria
Archea and their broad classification
Eukaryotic microbes of yeasts, molds and protozoa
Viruses and their classification
Molecular approaches to microbial taxonomy
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells of structure and fun prokaryotic cell suction Prokaryotic cells
Cell walls
Cell membranes
Mechanisms of solute transport across membranes
Flagella and pili
Cell inclusions like endospores and gas vesicles
Eukaryotic cell organelles of endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus of cell organelles
Mitochondria and chloroplasts
Microbial growth Definition of growth
Growth curve
Mathematical expression of exponential growth phase
Measurement of growth and growth yields
Synchronous growth
Continuous culture
Effect of environmental factors on growth
Control of micro-organisms Effect of physical and chemical agents
Evaluation of effectiveness of antimicrobial agents
Microbial metabolism Energetics of redox reactions and electron carriers
An overview of metabolism
Pentose-phosphate pathway
Entner-doudoroff pathway
Glyoxalate pathway
The citric acid cycle
Aerobic and anaerobic respiration
Calvin cycle
Biosynthetic pathway for fatty acids synthesis
Common regulatory mechanisms in synthesis of amino acids
Regulation of major metabolic pathways
Microbial diseases and host pathogen interaction Normal microbiota
Classification of infectious diseases
Reservoirs of infection
Nosocomial infection
Emerging infectious diseases
Mechanism of microbial pathogenicity
Nonspecific defense of host
Antigens and antibodies
Humoral and cell mediated immunity
Immune deficiency
Human diseases caused by viruses
Bacteria and pathogenic fungi
Chemotherapy/antibiotics General characteristics of antimicrobial drugs
Antibiotics and classification
Mode of action and resistance
Antifungal and antiviral drugs
Microbial genetics Types of mutation
Uv and chemical mutagens
Selection of mutants
Ames test for mutagenesis
Bacterial genetic system and transformation
Conjugation of bacterial genetic system
Dna repair
Regulation of gene expression of repression and induction
Operon model
Bacterial genome with special reference to e.coli
Phage λ and its life cycle
Rna phages
Rna viruses
Basic concept of microbial genomics
Microbial ecology Microbial interactions
Sulphur and nitrogen cycles
Soil microorganisms associated with vascular plants

GATE XL Zoology

Animal world Animal diversity
Systematics and classification of animals
Phylogenetic relationships
Evolution Origin and history of life on earth
Theories of evolution
Natural selection
Genetics Basic principles of inheritance
Molecular basis of heredity
Sex determination and sex-linked characteristics
Cytoplasmic inheritance
Recombination and mapping of genes in eukaryotes
Population genetics
Biochemistry and molecular biology Nucleic acids
Lipids and carbohydrates
Transcription and translation
Regulation of gene expression
Organization of genome
Kreb’s cycle
Enzyme Catalysis
Hormones and their actions
Cell biology Structure of cell
Cellular organelles and their structure and function
Cell cycle
Cell division
Chromosomes and chromatin structure
Gene expression in eukaryotes Eukaryotic gene organization and expression and basic principles of signal transduction
Animal anatomy and physiology Comparative physiology
The respiratory system
Circulatory system
Digestive system
The nervous system
The excretory system
The endocrine system
The reproductive system
The skeletal system
Parasitology and immunology Nature of parasite
Host-parasite relation
Protozoan and helminthic parasites
The immune response
Cellular and humoral immune response
Evolution of the immune system
Development biology Embryonic development
Cellular differentiation
Genetic basis of development
Stem cells
Ecology The ecosystem
The food chain
Population dynamics
Species diversity
Biogeochemical cycles
Conservation biology
Animal behaviour Types of behaviours
Mating and territoriality
Learning and memory
Social behaviour across the animal taxa
Evolution of animal behaviour

GATE 2019 Preparation Tips


Being a national-level exam that is attempted by more than 9 lakh candidates, the level of competition associated with GATE is very high. Also, the exam in itself possesses many tricky questions meaning success hinges on not only how hard the candidate prepares, but also the how of preparation. Here are some preparation tips the candidate can refer to to give edge to their success efforts.

  • Make sure you are familiar with the exam pattern and syllabus. Or else you will get too many surprises on exam day which may be not to your liking  
  • Get surrounded by reliable study material
  • Don’t put yourself under the pump by thinking too far ahead. Stay in the present and focus only on your preparation
  • Make a preparation plan and stick to it
  • Take notes during study. It will not only keep you focused, but with a little effort you will be able to build a solid and customized reference material. It will also come in very handy in the final days leading to the exam, as you won’t have to go through huge blocks of text.

GATE exam pattern 2019 will tell the candidate whether the test will be conducted in online or offline mode, type of questions asked, distribution of questions, number of questions asked, etc. which are essential details for thorough preparation for the test. As per the GATE 2019 exam pattern, all 24 papers for the exam will include a compulsory General Aptitude section carrying 15 marks. The full details of the exam pattern are described in the tables below. 

GATE Exam Pattern

Particulars        Details        
Mode of Exam        Online (Computer Based Test)        
Duration of Exam        3 hours (180 minutes)
GATE Papers        24 Papers        
  • General Aptitude (GA)
  • Subject selected by the candidate
Question Types        
  • Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) 
  • Numerical Answer Type (NAT) Questions
Total Number of Questions        65 Questions (including 10 questions from General Aptitude)        
Question Design        Questions will test the following abilities:          
  • Recall
  • Comprehension
  • Application
  • Analysis  
  • Synthesis   
Distribution of Questions - AE, AG, BT, CE, CH, CS, EC, EE, IN, ME, MN, MT, PE, PI, TF and XE        
  • Engineering Mathematics – 15 Marks
  • Subject of the paper – 70 Marks
  • General Aptitude – 15 Marks        
Distribution of Questions in AR, CY, EY, GG, MA, PH and XL        
  • Subject  of the paper – 85 Marks           
  • General Aptitude – 15 Marks
Total Marks        100 Marks        
Marking Scheme           


  • Questions may carry 1 or 2 marks 
  • For incorrect attempt, 1/ 3 mark will be deducted for 1 mark questions
  • For each incorrect attempt, 2/ 3 mark will be deducted for 2 marks questions
  • Zero marks will be awarded for unattempted questions
  • Negative marking: Only MCQ questions will have negative marking. There will be no negative marking for Numerical Answer Type (NAT) questions            

GATE 2019 Paper Codes

Papers        CodesPapers        Codes       
Architecture and Planning        AR        Mathematics        MA        
Biotechnology        BT        Physics        PE        
Aerospace Engineering        AE        Metallurgical Engineering        MT        
Agricultural Engineering        AG        Engineering Sciences        XE        
Chemical  Engineering        CH        Life Sciences        XL        
Civil Engineering        CE        Instrumentation Engineering        IN        
Computer Science and Information Technology        CS        Mining Engineering        MN        
Electronics and Communication Engineering        EC        Mechanical Engineering        ME        
Electrical Engineering        EE        Textile Engineering and Fibre Science        TF        
Chemistry        CY        Production and Industrial Engineering        PI        
Ecology and Evolution        EY        Petroleum Engineering        PE        
Geology and Geophysics        GG        Statistics        ST       

The exam conducting authorities has released GATE 2019 mock test on October 30 to help candidates get familiar with the functionalities of the online exam. A simulation of the real exam, some of the key features of the GATE mock test include:

  • The mock test will be paper-specific. So candidates appearing in, say, Aerospace paper, need to take the mock test specific to it only. 
  • The test will include similar types of questions to the ones asked in the actual exam. So taking the mock test will help better understand the exam and get rid of exam fear.
  • The status of questions, for example – answered, unanswered, and marked for review, will be displayed in the different colour palette. 
  • The mock test of GATE will have two sections – subject specific section and General Aptitude section
  • The candidate will be able to navigate between sections and from one question to another using specific symbols

IIT Madras has issued the admit card of GATE 2019 in online mode on January 4. To download admit cards, candidates need to log-in to the GOAPS portal using their enrolment or email id and password. Discrepancies have to be checked by the candidates and if present they will have to get in touch with exam authorities to get it rectified.

On exam day, candidates need to bring an original and valid photo Identity proof along with the admit card; or else they will not be allowed to take the exam.

How to download GATE 2019 Admit Card

  • Go to GOAPS portal 
  • Log-in using enrollment id/ email address and password
  • Upon successful log-in, the admit card will on the screen.
  • Download and take 2 printouts of the same. 
State City
Andhra Pradesh Anantapur
Kerala Angamaly
Karnataka Bagalkot
Telangana Hyderabad
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Port Blair
Gujarat Ahmedabad
Maharashtra Ahmednagar
Navi Mumbai
Goa Goa
Rajasthan Ajmer
Haryana Bahadurgarh
Yamuna Nagar
Uttar Pradesh Greater Noida
Madhya Pradesh Indore
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu
Delhi New Delhi
Tripura Agartala
West Bengal Asansol
Jharkhand Dhanbad
Bokaro Steel City
Assam Dibrugarh
Sikkim Gangtok
Manipur Imphal
Bihar Muzaffarpur
Meghalaya Shillong
Odisha Balasore
Chhattisgarh Bhilai
Tamil Nadu Tiruchirappalli
Punjab Amritsar
Himachal Pradesh Baddi
Uttarakhand Bhimtal
Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar

Documents Required at Exam

  • Printout of GATE 2019 admit card
  • Original and valid ID proof: passport, PAN Card, voter ID, Aadhaar-UID, college ID, employee ID or driving license

Soon after conclusion of the exam, the answer key of GATE 2019 will be released by various coaching institutes like Made Easy, GATEForum, and Engineers Academy. The GATE 2019 answer keys will be released for all 24 GATE papers and include answers to questions asked for the specific paper. Candidates can compare their answers with those given in GATE 2019 answer keys to calculate the number of correct responses and thereby probable scores; the marking scheme of the exam has to be used for calculating probable scores. IIT Madras will release official GATE answer key 2019 tentatively in the 3rd week of February.

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The top coaching institutes will come up with paper-specific GATE paper analysis after conclusion of the the exam. The GATE 2019 paper analysis will include expert analysis of different parameters – like the overall and section-wise difficulty level of the paper, the expected qualifying cutoff for the paper, and whether there were any incorrect questions asked. The GATE paper analysis will therefore help the candidate make a fair assessment of his/her chances of admission.

The candidate may also go through exam analysis of previous years to get insights into the exam, which will be useful for exam preparation.

The exam conducting authority has declared the result of GATE 2019 for all the 24 papers on March 15. The result is now available through GOAPS. Candidates can download GATE 2019 result by submitting their enrollment id/ email id, registration number and date of birth. The result includes details like scores and All India Rank of the candidate. It may be noted that the scorecard will be available for download only if the candidate secures scores equal to or more than the qualifying cutoff. 

How to download GATE 2019 Result

  • Enter Enrollment id, registration number and date of birth 
  • Upon successful log-in, the result will be displayed on the screen.
  • Qualified candidates will be able to download the scorecard.

GATE Score Card 2019

Exam authorities have released the scorecard of GATE 2019 on March 19; the last date to download the scorecard is May 31. GATE 2019 scorecard will be issued for only those candidates who score equal to or more than the qualifying cutoff. Since the GATE score card will be available for only a limited period of time, candidates must ensure they download it before the last date; otherwise, they won’t be able to download it later on.

What details will be mentioned in GATE Score Card 2019?

  • Candidate’s name and his/ her photograph
  • Gender
  • GATE 2019 Registration Number
  • GATE paper
  • Score (calculated out of 1000)
  • Total Marks obtained out of 100 (Raw score)
  • Validity of GATE 2019 Score Card
  • All India Rank
  • Qualifying Marks (Category-wise)
  • Total number of candidates who took the paper

The qualifying GATE 2019 cutoff is the minimum marks that a candidate has to score to qualify in the examination. The qualifying cutoff will be subject-specific and will be released alongside the result on March 16. Please note the qualifying cutoff for GATE 2019 is not the same as the admission cutoff which will be determined by institutes for admission to various M.Tech courses offered by them. 

Previous year’s GATE Qualifying Cutoff

Branches GeneralOBC        SC/ ST/ PH 
Computer Science (CS)        25.00        22.50        16.60   
Civil Engineering (CE)        26.90        24.20        17.9        
Electrical Engineering (EE)        29.1        26.1        19.4        
Mechanical Engineering (ME)        34.7        31.2        23.1        
Electronics and Communication (EC)        25.0        22.5        16.6        
Production and Industrial Engineering (PI)        32.0        28.8        21.3        
Instrumentation Engineering (IN)37.1


Aerospace Engineering (AE)        34.430.9        22.9        
Chemical Engineering (CH)        37.8        34        25.1        
Chemistry (CY)        25.4        22.8        16.9        
Physics (PH)        29.0        26.1        19.3        
Geology and Geophysics (GG)        32.4        29.1        21.5        
Biotechnology (BT)        27.9        25.1        18.5        
Life Sciences (XL)29.9        26.9     19.9       
Architecture and Planning (AR)        43.9        39.5        29.2        
Agricultural Engineering (AG)        25.0        22.5        16.6        
Maths (MA)        29.4        26.4        19.5        
Petroleum  Engineering (PE)        39.8        35.8        26.5        
Textile Engineering and Fibre Science (TF)32.228.921.4
Engineering Sciences (XE)31.528.321

Ecology and Evolution (EY)


Metallurgical Engineering (MT)


Mining Engineering (MN)


Mode of Counselling: Online

Interestingly, while IIT Madras is the exam conducting body, it will not conduct any common counselling for GATE 2019. The candidate instead will have to apply separately for admission to M.Tech courses offered by various institutes based on GATE scores and ranks. In case the candidate wants to take admission in an IIT, he/ she will have to register on COAP, and also apply separately to the specific IIT. All offers made by participating institutes will be uploaded in the COAP portal; registered candidates in turn can accept or reject offers on the portal.

For admission to NITs, counselling is commonly done through CCMT.

What is GATE COAP 2019?

The GATE Common Offer Acceptance (COAP) was started in 2017 by the IITs as a common admission platform for making admission offers to candidates. So, while the candidate still needs to apply to an IIT individually for admission, he will only know about any offers by registering on the COAP portal. Also, the acceptance or rejection of offers can be made only through COAP.

Admission to IITs is a two-step process:

  1.    Apply to an IIT (or IITs): The candidate has to apply to the IIT based on their GATE scores.  
  2.    Register on COAP to view, accept or reject admission offers. Based on the applications received by the IITs, they will make all the offers on COAP portal.

Note: COAP is not an application portal, but instead an admission portal.


Admissions to the postgraduate programmes will be through CCMT which is the Centralized Counselling for M.Tech/ M.Arch/ M.Plan admissions at the NITs, and other GFTIs.

Documents Required at Counselling

  • Printout of CCMT registration form and the locked choices
  • Provisional seat allotment letter as downloaded from CCMT website
  • Self attested copy of GATE score card (2017 or 2018 or 2019)
  • Photo ID proof as per government of India norms
  • Original birth certificate issued by competent authority
  • Class X (high school) board certificate as date of birth proof
  • Class XII original mark sheet
  • Original grade or mark sheets of qualifying examination for all semesters
  • If degree is completed, original degree or provisional certificate
  • Original category certificate for candidates belonging to SC/ ST/ OB categories, if applicable
  • Candidate's undertaking regarding OB status in the required format
  • Original certificate for PwD, if applicable
  • Payment proof of seat acceptance fee of Rs 20,000 for first three rounds
  • Original migration certificate of last institute/ university attended
  • Three color passport size photographs
  • Original conduct certificate from the head of the institute last attended
  • Original transfer certificate from the head of the institute last attended
  • Original course completion certificate from the head of the university or institute, in case result is awaited
  • One set of self-attested photocopies of all original documents

General Information

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